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Artificial intelligence

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ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
WE ARE INTHE RACE
!!! SUBMITTED BY :
SALONI
GCS/122207
1.Introduction
2.Artificial Intelligence
3.History
4.Goals of Artificial Intelligence
5.Programming languages
6.Test of AI
7.Advantages and disadvantages of AI
8.Conclusion
2
3
WHAT IS
ARTIFICIAL
INTELLIGENCE
??????
ARTIFICIAL:- The simple definition of artificial is that
objects that are made or produced by human beings
rather than occurring naturally.
INTELLIGENCE:-
 The simple words intelligence is a process that consist
of a set of skills of problem solving, enabling to
resolve genuine problems or difficulties that are
encountered in daily life .
Possible definition:
 intelligence is the ability to form plans to achieve
goals by interacting with an information-rich
environment
4
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
 AI is the science of making machines do things that would
require intelligence if done by human.
 A.I is mainly concerned with the popular mind with the
robotics development, but also the main field of practical
application has been as an embedded component in the areas
of software development which require computational
understandings and modeling such as
 Speech recognition
 Face recognition.
 data mining .etc……..
5
 STRONGE AI :
 Strong AI is about building a machine that is capable of emulating the
human mind to such an extent that it matches or exceeds it.
 Strong AI is machine intelligence with full range of human intelligence.
 WEAK AI :
 Weak AI is a system that uses a set of pre- programmed rules to apply
them to any tasks, to reach a successful fulfillment.
 Simply say that its collection of “ If this ,then that “ rules of rationality.
 Example : siri app reminder….etc.
6

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Artificial intelligence

  • 1. 1 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE WE ARE INTHE RACE !!! SUBMITTED BY : SALONI GCS/122207
  • 2. 1.Introduction 2.Artificial Intelligence 3.History 4.Goals of Artificial Intelligence 5.Programming languages 6.Test of AI 7.Advantages and disadvantages of AI 8.Conclusion 2
  • 4. ARTIFICIAL:- The simple definition of artificial is that objects that are made or produced by human beings rather than occurring naturally. INTELLIGENCE:-  The simple words intelligence is a process that consist of a set of skills of problem solving, enabling to resolve genuine problems or difficulties that are encountered in daily life . Possible definition:  intelligence is the ability to form plans to achieve goals by interacting with an information-rich environment 4
  • 5. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE  AI is the science of making machines do things that would require intelligence if done by human.  A.I is mainly concerned with the popular mind with the robotics development, but also the main field of practical application has been as an embedded component in the areas of software development which require computational understandings and modeling such as  Speech recognition  Face recognition.  data mining .etc…….. 5
  • 6.  STRONGE AI :  Strong AI is about building a machine that is capable of emulating the human mind to such an extent that it matches or exceeds it.  Strong AI is machine intelligence with full range of human intelligence.  WEAK AI :  Weak AI is a system that uses a set of pre- programmed rules to apply them to any tasks, to reach a successful fulfillment.  Simply say that its collection of “ If this ,then that “ rules of rationality.  Example : siri app reminder….etc. 6
  • 7.  The Brain serving as a powerhouse of thoughts, innovation & creativity is believed to be ‘unreplicable’ .  To put it in simple terms: we cannot make a computer feel for an event emotionally or think like we do.  The element of ‘intuitional choice’ and absolute randomness is what that draws a fine line between us and the machines.  Even though a computer can calculate a million chess positions against its human counterpart in a Chess game, it ‘does’ fail in a match with a human . 7 FACTS
  • 8. • Even, Google admits that the human brain still beats Algorithms. •Computers can never become intelligent until they find a way to impart intuition and the ability to combine logic with imagination in the tasks they do. • Einstein & Newton didn’t become the masterminds just because they were applying the right logic &formulas every time. •Einstein got his insights through pure imagination and inspiration. Newton was inspired by an Apple. 8
  • 9.  Recently, the CAPTCHA system was successfully cracked by an algorithm developed by anA.I firm,Vicarious. It recognized the text CAPTCHA with 91 % accuracy. (Human Accuracy stands at 70 %!) When scientists at Google’s secret Lab built a brain simulation with 16000 computers with 1 billion connections, the computers particularly identified pictures of Cats, recognized humans, their body parts and objects too! 9
  • 10. Mind Uploading • Mind Uploading involves transferring our brain to a digital storage medium and moving conscious memory from one to another. •Although it sounds too fictional, Google futurist claims that humans will be able to upload their entire brain to computers and become digitally immortal! Mind uploading and emulation could make us super intelligent, super fast and immortal in real world. 10
  • 11. •The Future will be like ‘The Matrix’ movie where everyone will be plugged in to computers with Brain Computer Interface BCIs. • Assuming that A.I would not have us as slaves or do anything evil, mind uploading sounds really cool. • Although some argue over the impracticality of this approach, mind uploading remains the ultimate embodiment of machine and mind. 11
  • 12. With help of AI we Can Developed system that :-  Can learn from examples and past  Can solve complex Mathematical problems  Can find out complex strategies for Business and military  Can Diagnosed Medical Decease.  Can recognize an Object from Photograph and camera sensor .  Can understand human language , etc… 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 1991 14 1950s:The Beginnings of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Research •1941 – Development of electronic computer. • 1949 – Storage devices came into existence. •1951 -The first working AI programs were written in the Ferranti Mark I machine of the University of Manchester (UK):  a draughts-playing program written by Christopher Strachey and  a chess-playing program written by Dietrich Prinz. •1956 – Dartmouth conference. The person who finally coined the term artificial intelligence and is regarded as the father of the of AI is John McCarthy. John McCarthy, who defines the term as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines".
  • 15. 1960s:- •Stated as golden era due to invention of lisp language. •SHRDLU created byTerryWinograd ,Robot arm responded to commands . 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 1991 15
  • 16. •General logic programming language •Developed in France •Remains one of most Popular programming languages today PROLOG Language Revealed 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 1991 16
  • 17.  1980:- AIWINTER(faced many critics)  1980s - AI research was revived by the commercial success of expert systems, a form of AI program that simulated(copied) the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts. (billion dollars).  Artificial intelligence came into use for logistics, data mining, medical diagnosis and many other areas throughout the technology industry. 17 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 1991
  • 18. 1990 :-  From 1990s until the turn of the century, AI has reached some incredible landmarks with the creation of intelligent agents. Intelligent agents basically use their surrounding environment to solve problems in the most efficient and effective manner.  In 1997,IBM Deep Blue was the first computer to defeat a chess Grandmaster, Garry Kasparov .  In 1995, theVaMP car drove an entire 158 km racing track without any help from human intelligence.  In 1999, humanoid robots began to gain popularity as well as the ability to walk around freely 18 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 1991
  • 19.  1987-1993 : Second winter .  1995 - Invention of Mercury.  Used in missile systems, in drones, etc. 19 AI Military Systems 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 1991
  • 21. GOALS OF A.I The general problem of creating intelligence has been broken down into a number of specific sub-problems. These consist of particular traits or capabilities that researchers would like an intelligent system to display. The traits described below have received the most attention.  Deduction, reasoning, problem solving:- i. Human solve by intelligence not step to step. ii. algorithms can require enormous computational resources and problem goes beyond a certain size. iii. To search for more efficient problem-solving algorithms is a high priority forAI research. 21
  • 22.  AI has overcome the problem by :- i. Imitating this kind of "sub-symbolic" problem solving ii. Neural net research attempts to simulate the structures inside the brain that give rise to this skill; statistical approaches to AI mimic the probabilistic nature of the human ability to guess.  Planning:- i. Intelligent agents must be able to set goals and achieve them.They need a way to visualize the future and be able to make choices that maximize the utility (or "value") of the available choices. 22
  • 23.  Natural language processing:- i. Some straightforward applications of natural language processing include information retrieval(or text mining) and machine translation.  Motion and manipulation:- The field of robotics is closely related to AI: i. object manipulation and navigation ii. localization mapping, and iii. motion planning . 23
  • 24.  Perception:- Machine perception is the ability to use input from sensors (such as cameras, microphones, sonar and others). Computer vision is the ability to analyze visual input A few selected subproblems are speech recognition facial recognition and object recognition.  Social intelligence:- Emotion and social skills play two roles for an intelligent agent. 24
  • 25. HOWTO MAKETHIS HAPPEN  Methods include:  Neural networks: systems with very strong pattern recognition capabilities.  Fuzzy systems: techniques for reasoning under uncertainty, has been widely used in modern industrial and consumer product control systems. 25
  • 26.  Security:  Face recognition  Speaker verification  Fingerprint analysis  Medicine:  General diagnosis  Detection of heart defects  Recognizing genes  Botanical classification  Bacteria identification  Engineering :  Robotics  Speech recognition  Gaming  Machinery defect diagnosis  Signal processing  Character recognition  Process supervision  Process fault analysis  Machine vision  Radar signal classification 26
  • 28. 28 •TelephoneTranslation • Autonomous Cars (Uses Fuzzy Logic Not Boolean logic) •Chess ,8 Block puzzles , O-X Blocks, etc •Chatter Bots
  • 29. TELEPHONETRANSLATORS  A computer intercepts the voice, translates what was said, and synthetically generate the appropriate words to the person on the other line.  The translator needs an advanced voice recognition, natural language processing and inference to extract what was spoken by the people on phone. 29
  • 30.  Watson is aWorkload Optimized system based on IBM DeepQAarchitecture , running on cluster of IBM POWER 7 processor based server.  More than 100Tech uses to identify the : o Natural Languages o Identify Sources o Find & Generate Hypothesis o Find & Score Evidences o Merge & Rank Hypothesis 30 Watson
  • 31. Watson Have….  90 Clustered IBM powered 750 server  Each server featured 32 POWER 7 processors  Running 3.55GHz cores  16TB Memory that can operate over 80 teraflops(Trillian of operation per Second)  Ability to learn Natural languages processing  Watson Competed against 2 of the most well known & successful Jeopardy champion Ken Jennings and Brad Rutter on 14 feb,2011. 31
  • 32. 32 The Machine which can reduce the human effort , time and cost and also stickily follow all the commands of its owner . Now a day robots are wildly used in the Scientific research, Industries ,medical area , home workout ,etc….
  • 33.  I Robot of Sony (AI + Emotions)  HAL 9000  StarTrek (AI Fiction)  KIIT Cars 33
  • 34.  Computer AI The "brain" of KITT is the Knight 2000 microprocessor which is the centre of a "self-aware" cybernetic logic module that allowed KITT to think, learn, communicate and interact with humans.  Alpha Circuit It’ s Main control system which allows the CPU to drive the car.  Pyroclastic Lamination Sustained temperatures of up to 800 degrees Fahrenheit (426 °C).  Voice Synthesizer Allowed his logic module to speak and communicate. 34
  • 35.  Listed below are some of the languages specifically designed to developAI applications o LISP o Prolog o Mercury o APPLOG  Java,C,C++,Python,Perl also can be used. 35 PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES USEDTO DEVELOP AI
  • 36.  Second oldest higher level programming languge.  Invented by John McCaethy in 1958 and first implemented by Steve Russel on an IBM 704 computer.  Number of dialect have existed over LISP history: Eg: - Common LISP - Scheme 36
  • 37.  Created as a practical mathematical notation for computer science based on lambda calculus.  Gave birth to many ideas in computer science including: o Tree data structure o Automatic storage management o Dynamic typing 37
  • 38.  Prolog is a logic programming language which was invented in 1972 by Alain .  Prolog was one of the first logic programming language, and remains among the most popular such language today.  The language has since then stretched far into others areas like: o Theorem proving o Expert System o Games o Automatic answering systems o Creating graphic user interface. 38
  • 39.  Mercury is a functional logic programming language geared towards real-world applications.  The first version was released on April 8 ,1995.  Mercury is based on the prolog logic language.It has the same syntax ,and the same basic concept ,it can truly be viewed as a pure subset of prolog with strong types and modes.  The language is designed with good software engineering principles in mind. 39
  • 40.  Unlike Prolog , it has a separate compilation phase, rather than being directly interpreted ,which allows a much wider range of errors to be caught before running a program.  The authors claim that Mercury is the fastest logic language in the world ,by a wide margin.  Mercury is available for most Unix platforms,including Mac OS X, and Microsoft Windows. 40
  • 41. “ A turning test the test of a machine’s ability to exhibit intelligent behavior equivalent to, or indistinguishable from, that of a human” WHAT ACTUALLY OCCURS IN THE TEST????  we setup a conversation between two AI chatbots to see what the result would be.  We observe the two chatbots , deeply ,they discussed poetry, insulted each other and shared words. 41
  • 42. Advantages of AI  Makes life easier  Higher and better productivity  Robots keep learning  Provides safety 42
  • 43. Disadvantages of AI  Not always the right judgment.  Many people end up without a job.  The Singularity (Robots may go out of control): Here is where Artificial intelligence gets evil. Technological Singularity or simply ‘Singularity’ means ‘The End’ to the humans. Artificial Intelligence will one day (for sure) overtake us. Singularity is the theoretical moment in time where the machines will be smarter than us. 43 PRIMARY TARGET “HUMANS” !!!
  • 44.  According to Irving John Good, the last invention of the human race will be the ultra intelligent machines.  Since an ultra intelligent machine would have surpassed all human capabilities, it will build machines that are far beyond the human intellect. That definitely sounds spooky, isn’t it?  Unfriendly A.I is much more likely to happen than friendly A.I.  But there is a slim chance that we beat them if they turn against us. Either we become the machines that we fight / get some help from friendly A.Is. 44