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Mis 008


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Mis 008

  1. 1. ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>Human like intelligence </li></ul>
  2. 2. Definitions: <ul><li>1. Focus on intelligent Behaviour </li></ul><ul><li>“ Behaviour by a machine that, if performed by a human being, would be called intelligent.” </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is an intelligent behaviour <ul><li>Learn or understand from experience </li></ul><ul><li>Make sense out of ambiguous contradictory messages </li></ul><ul><li>Respond quickly and successfully to a new situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Use reason in solving problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Deal with perplexing situations </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and infer in ordinary, rational ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Apply knowledge to manipulate the environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Acquire and apply knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Think and reason. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Definitions: <ul><li>2. Focus on computer usage </li></ul><ul><li>“ Artificial intelligence is the study of how to make computers do things at which, at present, people are better.” </li></ul><ul><li>3. Focus on methods </li></ul><ul><li>“ Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer science that deals with ways of representing knowledge using symbols rather than numbers and with the rules-of-thumb, or heuristics, methods for processing information.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Numeric (Computers) vs. symbolic (human) </li></ul><ul><li>Algorithmic (computers) vs. Nonalgorithmic (human) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Definitions: <ul><li>4. Focus on Pattern-matching </li></ul><ul><li>“ Al works with pattern matching methods which attempt to describe objects, events, or processes in terms of their qualitative features and logical and computational relationships.” </li></ul>
  6. 6. MAJOR AREAS OF AI APPLICATIONS <ul><li>Expert Systems </li></ul><ul><li>A computer program that attempts to behave like a human expert in some useful ways. </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Language Processors </li></ul><ul><li>Natural language technology gives the computer users the ability to communicate with the computer in their native language – both understanding as well as generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Speech understanding or recognition is the recognition and understanding by a computer of spoken language. </li></ul>
  7. 7. MAJOR AREAS OF AI APPLICATIONS <ul><li>Robotics and computer Vision </li></ul><ul><li>A robot is an electromechanical device that can be programmed to perform manual tasks. An intelligent robot is a system that flexibly connects perception to action. These are : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More Reliable that humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work at lower/costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmentally insensitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More consistent, accurate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work for the organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer vision is used for designing sensory components for Robots. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. MAJOR AREAS OF AI APPLICATIONS <ul><li>Visual Recognition </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition, pattern formation as well as re-creation of the handwritten or typed text, graphics as well as images. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Aided Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Computer-aided instructions are the machines that can tutor humans. These are self-adjusting and highly individualized systems. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Al History <ul><li>The Dawn Age: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1955 Shannon’s Chess Playing Program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1960 General Problem Solver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Dark Age: </li></ul><ul><li>Science Research Council’s Report in 1971, dampened the efforts. </li></ul><ul><li>The Rebirth: </li></ul><ul><li>1970 onwards – Systems like MYCIN caught the attention of people and al researchers were ready to share knowledge with others. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Artificial vs. Natural Intelligence <ul><li># Al is permanent </li></ul><ul><li># Al offers ease of duplication </li></ul><ul><li># Al can be less expensive </li></ul><ul><li># Al is more consistent and thorough </li></ul><ul><li># Al can be documented </li></ul><ul><li>@ Natural Intelligence is more creative </li></ul><ul><li>@ Natural Intelligence uses sensory inputs also </li></ul><ul><li>@ Natural Intelligence can make use of context of experience. </li></ul>
  11. 11. THE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FIELD <ul><li>- - </li></ul>Development of Al needs contributions from different sciences such as – LINGUISTICS Computational Linguistics, Psycholinguistics and Socio-linguistics PSYCHOLOGY Cognition, Psycholinguistics PHILOSOPHY Logic, Philosophy of language and philosophy of mind HARDWARE Hardware Support SOFTWARE Software Support MECHANICS Robotics, Control theories HYDRAULICS Control Theories OPTICS Image Processing, Pattern Recognition