The Middle East


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The Middle East

  1. 1. The Middle East
  2. 2. Mesopotamia Knowledge Assessment <ul><li>What is Mesopotamia and who lived there? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is Mesopotamia located? </li></ul><ul><li>What about the ancient cultures interested you? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of activities did we do that helped you learn about Mesopotamia? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Knowledge Assessment (2L) <ul><li>1) Where is the Middle East? What are some of the countries it includes? </li></ul><ul><li>2) What are the major religions of the region? </li></ul><ul><li>3) What resources does the region have? What resources are in short supply? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Middle East Map (3R) <ul><li>Label the following countries on your map and identify the capital with a star </li></ul><ul><li>1) Bahrain 2) Egypt 3) Iran 4) Iraq 5) Israel 6) Jordan 7) Kuwait 8) Lebanon 9) Oman 10) Qatar 11) Saudi Arabia 12) Sudan 13) Syria 14) United Arab Emirates 15) Yemen </li></ul><ul><li>Shade each country a different color </li></ul>
  5. 7. The Early Israelites (5R) <ul><li>Israelites build a kingdom in Canaan (1000 B.C.) along the Mediterranean Sea </li></ul><ul><li>Small population </li></ul><ul><li>Monotheism – Belief in one god </li></ul><ul><li>Practiced Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Spoke Hebrew </li></ul><ul><li>Recorded history and beliefs in Hebrew Bible </li></ul>
  6. 8. <ul><li>Were herders and traders from Mesopotamia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructed to go to Canaan by Abraham </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham – The patriarch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jacob – Abraham’s grandson </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 tribes of Israel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lived in Canaan for 100 years until drought forced them to Egypt </li></ul>
  7. 9. Israelites In Egypt <ul><li>Egyptian pharaoh enslaved </li></ul><ul><li>Israelites </li></ul><ul><li>-Moses leads the Israelites out </li></ul><ul><li>of Egypt in the Exodus </li></ul><ul><li>-Moses receives the Ten Commandments from God which helped shape moral law </li></ul>
  8. 10. Bob Marley - Exodus <ul><li>So we gonna walk - all right! - through the roads of creation: We the generation (tell me why!) (trod through great tribulation) trod through great tribulation. Exodus, all right! movement of jah people! Oh, yeah! o-oo, yeah! all right! Exodus: movement of jah people! oh, yeah! Yeah-yeah-yeah, well! Uh! open your eyes and look within: Are you satisfied (with the life you're living)? uh! We know where were going, uh! We know where were from. Were leaving Babylon, Were going to our father land. </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>2, 3, 4: exodus: movement of jah people! oh, yeah! (movement of jah people!) send us another brother Moses! (movement of jah people!) from across the red sea! (movement of jah people!) send us another brother Moses! (movement of jah people!) from across the red sea! Movement of jah people! </li></ul>
  10. 12. The Promised Land <ul><li>Why? Because of the covenant with God </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If they followed laws, Israelites will be returned to Canaan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>40 years - return to Canaan led by Joshua </li></ul><ul><li>But…land occupied by the Canaanites </li></ul><ul><li>Israelites fight, seize land, and divide between 12 tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Canaanites pushed to coast / Israelites build walled towns </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Write your Initials </li></ul><ul><li>Write a word in the chapter (no more than 6 letters) </li></ul><ul><li>Translate this phrase: </li></ul>=A =E =I =O =U The Phoenician Alphabet *Note: The Phoenicians read and write from right to left!!
  12. 14. Vocabulary Chapter 3.1 (7R) <ul><li>Monotheism </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham </li></ul><ul><li>Jacob </li></ul><ul><li>Torah </li></ul><ul><li>Moses </li></ul><ul><li>Exodus </li></ul><ul><li>Canaanites </li></ul><ul><li>Phoenicians </li></ul>
  13. 15. R.A.P. (6L) <ul><li>Answer these three questions. As we cover the material try and make a connection with what you learn and your own ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>1) How would I feel if I were forced to leave my home, friends, and family? </li></ul><ul><li>2) What difference can a good leader make to a team or group? </li></ul><ul><li>3) What rules or guidelines of society are important to you? </li></ul>
  14. 16. The Kingdom of Israel (9R) <ul><li>Philistines were the powerful force in Canaan, many Israelites assimilated with their culture </li></ul><ul><li>To save religion King Saul united the 12 tribes </li></ul><ul><li>Soon after King David drives out the Philistines and creates an empire with capital of Jerusalem </li></ul>
  15. 17. <ul><li>King Solomon takes over and completes Temple </li></ul><ul><li>With the death of Solomon the tribes split up and create the kingdom of Israel and Judah </li></ul><ul><li>Many Israelites forget religion, prophets tried to restore God’s laws </li></ul><ul><li>Assyrians conquer Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Egyptians, then Chaldeans conquer Judah </li></ul><ul><li>Many Jews forced to leave and go to Babylon, but return under Persian rule </li></ul>
  16. 18. <ul><li>Romans take over Judah (63 B.C) </li></ul><ul><li>Zealots start rebellions…but lose </li></ul><ul><li>The result? Jews scatter and find homes elsewhere but keep hope alive </li></ul>
  17. 19. Kingdom of Israel Kingdom of Judah Assyrians Egyptians Chaldeans Romans Persians Israelite Organizer
  18. 20. Amazing Acrostic (8L) <ul><li>With your assigned word, 1) use each letters to form a related word and 2) describe the relation in a sentence….ex- </li></ul><ul><li>S ociety </li></ul><ul><li>C uneiform </li></ul><ul><li>R ecord keeper </li></ul><ul><li>I mportant </li></ul><ul><li>B oys </li></ul><ul><li>E dubba </li></ul><ul><li>1) Scribes held honored positions in society </li></ul><ul><li>2) They copied the signs of cuneiform script </li></ul><ul><li>3) A scribe is also known as a record keeper….etc… </li></ul>Your Word = Israelites
  19. 21. The First Christians (11R) <ul><li>Jews wait for messiah to bring them back home </li></ul><ul><li>Jesus begins preaching-what about? (344) Jesus' Message </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreement between Jesus as the messiah, or Jesus as a deceiver </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to the Crucifixion and claim of resurrection Jesus Crucifixion </li></ul><ul><li>Those who accepted Jesus became Christians </li></ul>
  20. 22. <ul><li>Apostles Peter and Paul spread the word of Christianity…how? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace and order allowed safe travel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well paved roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common language of Latin or Greek </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reached out to poor and powerless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appealed to emotions and promised happiness after death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed chance to be part of caring group </li></ul></ul>
  21. 23. Roman Persecution A.D. 64 <ul><li>Government expected emperor to be honored as a god…Christians refused </li></ul><ul><li>Also refused to serve in the army or hold public office and they criticized Roman festivals and games Entertainment Rome Style </li></ul><ul><li>Martyrs-people willing to die instead of giving up beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Accused of starting great fire…religion outlawed Rome Burns </li></ul>
  22. 24. <ul><li>A.D. Constantine orders the Edict of Milan…gives religious freedom and makes Christianity legal </li></ul><ul><li>A.D. 392 Theodosius makes Christianity Rome’s official religion and others are outlawed </li></ul><ul><li>New Testament (4 accounts of Jesus’ life, teachings, and resurrection) </li></ul>
  23. 25. W.I.O. (10 L) <ul><li>By reviewing your notes, information about Peter and Paul (pg 348), and the two textbook maps (pg 352 &361)….. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How did Christianity spread? What factors contributed to the rapid expansion of the new religion? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Opening discussion <ul><li>What do we know about religion of Islam? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we know about the Muslim people? </li></ul><ul><li>What did the religion and people originate from? </li></ul>
  25. 27. Islam Outlines (12 & 13) <ul><li>As a group create an outline for your assigned section </li></ul><ul><li>When complete, you will be reassigned to a new group and share your outlines with the others </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone must have a completed outline by the end of class </li></ul>
  26. 28. Group 1 <ul><li>Arabian Peninsula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly desert, some mountains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tribes with sheikh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bedouins-desert herders </li></ul><ul><li>Villages near oases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trading caravans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Makkah (Mecca)- largest, richest and holiest city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kaaba- low square building holding the great stone from heaven </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 29. Group 2 <ul><li>Muhammad (A.D. 570) born in Makkah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visited by angels and told to preach Islam(A.D. 610) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Islam= surrender to will of Allah </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allah= Arabic word for God </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Returns to Makkah and urges the destruction of statues of false gods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preached that all people were equal and that the rich should share goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Claimed God would reward the good and punish the bad </li></ul></ul>
  28. 30. Group 3 <ul><li>Muhammad Biography </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Experienced great poverty and hardships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Father died before his birth, raised by grandfather </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muhammad given to tribe of nomads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mother and grandfather die when he was young </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taken care of by his uncle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goes on trading journeys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Married and had children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Becomes a wealthy merchant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-Would go to the mountains to reflect about the problems of Makkah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>-In hills when angel said “you are the messenger of God” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Group 4 <ul><li>Poor were attracted to message </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy did not like message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harassed him; beat and tortured his followers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muhammad and his followers leave Makkah (A.D. 622) to go to Yathrib </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as Hijrah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Became first year in Muslim calendar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renamed city Madinah </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He becomes prophet and ruler </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applies God’s laws to ruling people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Builds army, conquers Makkah and makes it holy city </li></ul></ul>
  30. 32. Group 5 <ul><li>One God holds all, created all, and determines right and wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad is prophet, but not divine </li></ul><ul><li>Quran – holy book of messages received from Allah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instructs Muslims how to live </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expected to fulfill the Five Pillars of Islam (chart on pg 378) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunna – name given to customs based on Muhammad’s words and deeds </li></ul></ul>
  31. 33. Article Questions <ul><li>According to Haddad, how many people worldwide are Muslim? </li></ul><ul><li>What religion do Muslims practice? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some countries in which Islam has a presence? </li></ul><ul><li>What is &quot;jihad&quot;? </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the differences between Sunni Muslims and Shiite Muslims. </li></ul>
  32. 34. Spread of Islam (17 R) <ul><li>Sufis- group that spread Islam by preaching and teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Sunnis- Muslim group that accepts descendants of the Umayyads as rightful rulers of Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Shiites- Muslim group that accepts only the descendents of Muhammad’s son-in-law Ali as rightful ruler of Muslims </li></ul>
  33. 35. <ul><li>Umayyad dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunni/Shiite split </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Abbasid dynasty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Abu al-Abbas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baghdad </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Seljuk Turks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nomad warriors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sultan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ottoman Empire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suleiman I </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moguls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Akbar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delhi </li></ul></ul>
  34. 36. Muslim Ways of Life <ul><li>Very successful traders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spread Arabic language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rulers distributed coins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helped cities grow to become important centers of government, learning, and the arts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Muslim cities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mosques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bazaar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most lived in villages and farmed land </li></ul>
  35. 37. Muslim Society <ul><li>Social groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1) Top- Government leaders, landowners, traders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2) Middle- artisans, farmers, workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3) Bottom- enslaved people </li></ul></ul>
  36. 38. Achievements <ul><li>Mathematics and science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Algebra </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arabic numerals (0-9) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Astrolabe-study the stars, measure the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered founders of chemistry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical discoveries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Arabian Nights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubaiyat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Historians-Study effect of geography and climate on people </li></ul></ul>
  37. 39. Art and Buildings <ul><li>Not allowed to show images of Muhammad </li></ul><ul><li>Designs of flowers, leaves, and stars </li></ul>
  38. 45. Crumple and Toss Review <ul><li>Create 3 “quiz questions” from Middle East Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Crumple and toss </li></ul><ul><li>find piece of paper </li></ul><ul><li>Answer questions </li></ul><ul><li>Study all notes given so far!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Great Efforts=Great Rewards </li></ul>
  39. 46. Putting it all together directions <ul><li>You need 3 colored pencils & 1 pen/pencil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use your pen/pencil to construct chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use 1 color for Muslim information, 1 for Israelite information, and 1 for Christian information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4 columns (red line-red line) </li></ul><ul><li>16 rows (2 lines each) </li></ul><ul><li>Fill 1 st column in order with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-Blank, 2-Symbol, 3-Religion, 4-Number, 5-Size Rank, 6-Major Concentration, 7-Sacred Text, 8-Religious Leaders, 9- House of Worship, 10- Day of Worship, 11- Church and State, 12- Date Founded, 13- Place Founded, 14- Founder, 15- Original Language, 16-Major Splits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fill 1 st row in order with: Muslims, Israelites, Christians </li></ul>
  40. 47. Putting it all together (19 R) Europe, N. & S. America, rapid growth in Africa Israel, Europe, USA Middle East, Southeast Asia Major concentration 1st 12th 2nd Size Rank 2 billion 14 million 1.3 billion Number Christianity Judaism Islam Religion Symbol Christians Israelites (Jews) Muslims
  41. 48. Separate Separate Integrated Church and state Sunday Saturday Friday Main day of Worship Church Synagogue Mosque House of Worship Priests, Ministers Rabbis Various Religious leaders Bible Torah Quran Sacred text Christians Jews Muslims
  42. 49. Orthodox/ Protestant Reform/ Orthodox Sunni/Shiite Major splits Latin/Greek Hebrew Arabic Original language Jesus Abraham Muhammad Founder Palestine Palestine Saudi Arabia Place founded A.D. 33 around 1800 B.C. A.D. 622 Date Founded Christians Jews Muslims
  43. 50. Comparison Question (18L) <ul><li>What are some similarities of the three groups? Explain. </li></ul><ul><li>What are some differences of the three groups? Explain. </li></ul><ul><li>How does knowledge of these people and religions help you in your day to day life? </li></ul>