W.I.O. Life in the Rocky Mountains (pg. 2 L) If you had to survive in the Rocky Mountains in July for one week and could only bring three items, what would you bring and why?
Greek Geography “The Land Around the Sea” (pg. 3 R) 1) Located around the Aegean Sea 2)Land is rugged, not good for farming. 3) Climate a) like southern California- hot summer, warm winter
continuation of Grk. geography b) year-round farming- grapes, olives, wheat c) became prolific(talented) traders
continuation of Grk. geography 4) Population Centers a) Peloponnesus- large peninsula in southern Greece b) Islands- especially Crete- large island south of the mainland
Minoan Civilization ( 2800-1450 B.C.E.) (pg. 5 R) 1) Located on the island of Crete a) named after the legendary King Minos 2) Archaeologists have found: a) palace at Knossos - huge jars of wine, oil, grain (taxes)
cont. of Minoan civilization b) goods from as far away as Egypt 3) 1450 B.C.E. – sudden catastrophe- what happened? <ul><li>tsunami caused by </li></ul><ul><li>a volcano </li></ul>b) invasion of the Mycenaean's from mainland Greece
Mycenaean Civilization (1600-1100 B.C.E.) pg. 7 R 1) Lived on the Peloponnesus (southern half of Greece) 2) Loose association of tribes (different kings) 3) War-like society
Cont. of Mycenaeans 4) Group of Mycenaean’s led by Agemmenon sacked Troy in 1250 B.C.E. 5) Why did they collapse? a) Taken over by the Dorians from the north b) Kings from the different tribes fought amongst themselves c) Earthquake!
R.A.P. (pg. 8 L) “The person who pursues revenge should dig 2 graves.” Relate this quote to the Trojan War, specifically the Myceneans.
Greek Polis Notes (pg. 13 R) I. The Polis ( City-State) - avg. pop. 5-10,000 people a) Aerial view Orchards, villages, farmland Agora-marketplace Acropolis-fortified hill temple
Cont of Greek polis notes B) Gov’t and Laws 1) each polis has it’s own gov’t and laws 2) women, children, helots(slaves) and immigrants were NOT citizens
3) Citizens rights were… a) could vote b) own property c) hold public office d) could speak for themselves in court
4) Citizens responsibilities were... a) defend polis in times of war b) take part in government 5) Greeks value their polis above everything else - valued civic and personal honor
<ul><li>Sparta and Athens (2 strongest </li></ul>polises) 1) Sparta had the strongest army -very military minded 2) Athens had the strongest navy -valued intelligence and culture
Sparta Notes (page 15 right) <ul><li>Sparta </li></ul><ul><li>A. conquered and enslaved their neighbors (helots) </li></ul><ul><li>- greatest fear was rebellion of helots-very strict </li></ul>B. Training for war 1. Age 7: Boys left family to live in military barracks- extremely harsh lifestyle
Plutarch, “Spartan Discipline” “ After they were twelve years old, they were no longer allowed to wear any undergarment; they had one coat to serve them a year;…They lodged together in little bands upon beds made of the reeds (grasses) …which they were to break off with their hands without a knife.”
Spartan military continued… <ul><li>Age 20: Spartan men entered army </li></ul><ul><li>- remained in military barracks for 10+ years </li></ul><ul><li>- ate all meals in dining hall with other soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>example of meal: black broth- pork boiled in animal blood, salt and vinegar. </li></ul><ul><li>Age 30: Returned home, but stayed in army until the age of 60. </li></ul><ul><li>- continued to train for combat </li></ul>
<ul><li>Military philosophy: </li></ul><ul><li>- Expected to either win on the battlefield or die, but NEVER surrender. </li></ul><ul><li>- “Come home carrying your shield or being carried on it.” </li></ul><ul><li>Girls in Sparta </li></ul><ul><li>- trained in sports: running, wrestling, and throwing the javelin. </li></ul><ul><li>- expected to stay fit to be healthy mothers-could own property and had more freedom </li></ul>
E. Spartan government Oligarchy (2 or more leaders) 2 Kings Council of Elders – included 28 citizens over age of 60 - presented laws to assembly Assembly- must be at least 30 years old - voted on council’s laws - chose 5 Ephors Ephors – enforced laws and managed tax collection
F. How did the government keep control? 1. To keep anyone from questioning the Spartan system, government discouraged foreign visitors. <ul><li>banned travel abroad for any reason, except military ones. </li></ul><ul><li>frowned upon citizens who studied literature/arts </li></ul><ul><li>Spartans succeeded in keeping control over helots for 250 years. </li></ul><ul><li>- by focusing on military training, Spartans fell behind other Greeks in trade, education (science, etc.) </li></ul>
Athens Notes (page 19 right) I. Geography – Athens lies NE of Sparta (2 day trip away) <ul><li>Daily life in Athens </li></ul><ul><li>1. Athenian children went to school and were taught to read, write and do math. </li></ul><ul><li>- also taught sports, singing and to play the lyre. </li></ul><ul><li>- focus was on a well-rounded education that created strong minds and bodies </li></ul><ul><li>- Age 18: boys finished school and became citizens. </li></ul>
2. Athenian girls: Stayed home and their mothers taught them spinning, weaving and other household duties. <ul><li>only in some wealthy families did girls learn to read, write and play the lyre. </li></ul><ul><li>once married, women were expected to stay home and keep house and teach their own daughters. </li></ul>