Five Major World Religions


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Five Major World Religions

  1. 1. Western Religions <ul><li>Judaism </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Islam </li></ul>
  2. 4. Judaism <ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Texts – The Torah, Talmud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Torah is the most sacred text and consists of 5 books </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other laws and customs written down later make up the Talmud </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Founded by Abraham, Isaac and Moses </li></ul>
  3. 5. Abraham <ul><li>At age 75, God made a covenant with Abraham that would make Jews the “chosen people”. </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham had a son Isaac at 100 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>Isaac has a son Jacob (renamed Israel) who fathers the Twelve Tribes of Israel. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Covenant with Abraham <ul><li>God made the descendants of Abraham the “Chosen people” </li></ul><ul><li>Cannan would one day belong to the Israelites as their “promised land” </li></ul>
  5. 7. Moses <ul><li>Born in Egypt while the Jews were enslaved. </li></ul><ul><li>Is adopted by the Pharaohs daughter, but is forced to flee Egypt. </li></ul><ul><li>Moses leads the Jews out of Egypt, unleashes the ten plagues, brings the ten commandments down from Mount Sinai and leads the Jews to the edge of the sacred land of Canaan </li></ul>
  6. 8. Ten Commandments <ul><li>&quot;I am the LORD your God who brought you out of the land of Egypt, from the house of slavery. Thou shalt have no other gods before Me... ..&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Do not make a sculpted image or any likeness of what is in the heavens above...&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Thou shalt not swear falsely by the name of the LORD...&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Remember [ zachor ] the Sabbath day and keep it holy&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Thou shalt honor your father and your mother...&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Thou shalt not murder&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Thou shalt not commit adultery.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Thou shalt not steal.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Thou shalt not bear false witness against your neighbor“ </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Thou shalt not covet your neighbor's house...&quot; </li></ul>
  7. 9. David and Solomon <ul><li>David reunites the Twelve Tribes of Israel as the second king of Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>David’s son Solomon continues the Kingdom of Israel and its influence spreads. </li></ul><ul><li>Solomon builds his capital at Jerusalem. </li></ul>
  8. 10. The Fall of Israel <ul><li>Revolts erupted in Israel after the death of Solomon. </li></ul><ul><li>By 722 B.C. the Israelites were conquered by the Assyrian empire </li></ul><ul><li>In 586 B.C. the Babylonians capture Judah and exile the Jews to Babylonia. </li></ul><ul><li>After being freed by the Persian ruler Cyrus many Jews returned to Judah. </li></ul>
  9. 11. Influence <ul><li>Judaism has left a large imprint on history. </li></ul><ul><li>The morals taught have influenced Western civilization for centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>Both Islam and Christianity are based on the teachings of Judaism. </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism is the oldest of all Western religions. </li></ul>
  10. 12. Christianity <ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Texts – The Bible </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Old Testament – Hebrew Bible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Testament – Life and Teachings of Jesus Christ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Three Major Denominations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Christianity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protestants </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Great Schism 1378-1417 Protestant Reformation 1500’s-1600’s Christianity Orthodox Catholicism Protestantism Lutherns, Calvanists, Baptists, Evangelicists
  12. 14. History of Christianity <ul><li>Jesus Lived and taught from around 3 B.C.-30 A.D. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 4 th century A.D. Christianity becomes a legal religion in the Roman Empire </li></ul><ul><li>391 A.D. Christianity becomes central religion in Roman Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Emperors use Christianity to create unity </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity becomes a basis for governing in Europe. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 7 th Century A.D. Christianity becomes threatened by Islam. </li></ul><ul><li>Remains the major world religion today </li></ul>
  13. 15. Islam <ul><li>Monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred Texts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Qur’ an (Koran) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Final Revelation of God to humanity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correction of Jewish and Christian Scriptures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Muhammad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Muslims believe that God revealed his direct word for humanity to Muhammad (c. 570–632) through the angel Gabriel and earlier prophets </li></ul></ul>
  14. 16. Muhammad <ul><li>In the year 610 A.D. Muhammad was first visited by the Angel Gabriel who commanded him to recite verses sent by God </li></ul><ul><li>He preached monotheism and accepted the teachings of Judaism and Christianity but said he was sent to complete and perfect these teachings by God. </li></ul>
  15. 17. Foundation of Islam <ul><li>In his home of Mecca he was persecuted and forced to flee in what is known as Hijra, or migration. </li></ul><ul><li>He went to Medina where he set up the first Muslim community. </li></ul><ul><li>Muhammad led a force that defeated the Meccans and founded Islam there </li></ul><ul><li>During Muhammad’s life he created the basis for the Muslim religion. </li></ul>
  16. 18. Five Pillars of Islam <ul><li>1) Shahada: Testifying to God's One-ness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The declaration &quot;There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is His prophet.&quot; </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2) Salat: Prayer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five prayer times each day: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>early morning, noon, mid-afternoon, sunset, evening </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3) Zakat: Giving charity. </li></ul><ul><li>4) Sawm: Fast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>During month of Ramadan , daylight hours. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5) Hajj: Pilgrimage. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every Muslim man and woman (if physically and economically able) should try to make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their life-time. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. Sunni <ul><li>Sunni’s make up 90% of Islamic followers. </li></ul><ul><li>Following Muhammad’s death, Sunni’s claim that the following leaders were rightful leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sunni caliphs ruled the Arab world until after World War I. </li></ul>
  18. 20. Shiite’s <ul><li>Has roughly 1 million followers </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that Ali, Muhammad’s cousin was the true successor. </li></ul><ul><li>They follow the leader of Immam, which means: Leader </li></ul>
  19. 21. Jihad <ul><li>an Islamic term , from the Arabic root ǧhd (&quot;to exert utmost effort, to strive, struggle&quot;), which connotes a wide range of meanings : anything from an inward spiritual struggle to attain perfect faith to a political or military struggle to further the Islamic cause </li></ul>
  20. 22. Eastern Religions
  21. 23. Hinduism <ul><li>henotheistic religions </li></ul><ul><li>They recognize a single deity, and view other Gods and Goddesses as manifestations or aspects of that supreme God </li></ul><ul><li>Shruti, Bhagavad Gita, Smriti </li></ul>
  22. 24. Basic Ideas <ul><li>The term Hinduism is not a single well-defined religion, in the sense that Hinduism consists of several schools of thought and traditions </li></ul><ul><li>All Hindus believe in a supreme cosmic spirit called Brahman, who is worshipped in many forms such as Vishnu, Shiva or Shakti </li></ul><ul><li>Religion to the Hindu is the eternal search for the divine Brahman </li></ul>Vishnu
  23. 25. Beliefs <ul><li>Dharma : (individual ethics, duties and obligations), </li></ul><ul><li>Samsāra : R eincarnation , or the soul's transmigration through a cycle of birth and death </li></ul><ul><li>Karma : &quot;actions&quot;, leading to a cause-and-effect relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Moksha : (salvation) for every soul through a variety of paths (known as margs or yogas ), such as Bhakti (devotional service), Karma (selfless action) and Jñāna (enlightenment, knowledge), Raja ( meditation ) and belief in God ( Īshvara ) </li></ul>
  24. 26. History <ul><li>The classical theory of the origins of Hinduism traces the religion's roots to the Indus valley civilization circa 4000 to 2200 BC </li></ul><ul><li>The caste system was closely linked to Hinduism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Caste system was based on Social classes and set up complex rules to govern every aspect of a persons life. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People could not change the caste they were in in this life, but could hope to attain a higher level in their next life. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Buddhism <ul><li>Religion, Philosophy </li></ul><ul><li>focusing on the teachings of the Gautama Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>No God only the attempt to reach Nirvana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It denotes being free from mind-contaminants such as lust, anger or craving and is thus a state of great inner peace and contentment -- it is the end of suffering </li></ul></ul>
  26. 28. The Buddha <ul><li>Gautama was born a prince around 563 B.C. </li></ul><ul><li>Prophets foresaw him being a wandering holy man. </li></ul><ul><li>Seeing suffering he left the comfort of his palace to understand the source. </li></ul><ul><li>For years he wandered and meditated, finally understanding the cause of and cure for suffering. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;I teach one thing and one thing only: suffering and the end of suffering&quot; </li></ul>
  27. 29. 4 Noble Truths <ul><li>1. All Life is Full of Suffering </li></ul><ul><li>2. The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hatred and desire </li></ul><ul><li>3. The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirtue </li></ul><ul><li>4. The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold path. </li></ul>
  28. 30. Noble Eightfold Path <ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Right view: the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism must be fully understood by the Buddhist practitioner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Right intention: deals with the Buddhist practitioner's reasons for practicing Buddhism, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethical conduct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Right speech: deals with the way in which a Buddhist practitioner would best make use of his or her words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Right action: deals with the proper way in which a Buddhist practitioner would act in his or her daily life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Right livelihood: not to engage in trades or occupations which, either directly or indirectly, result in harm to other living beings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mental discipline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6. Right effort: Buddhist practitioner's continuous effort to keep his or her mind free of thoughts that might impair his or her ability to realize the other elements of the Noble Eightfold Path; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>7. Right mindfulness: Buddhist meditation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8. Right concentration: is concerned broadly with the practice of Buddhist meditation. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 31. Buddhism v. Hinduism <ul><li>Buddhism grew out of Hindu traditions </li></ul><ul><li>Both believed in karma and a cycle of rebirth </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhists rejected the many gods of Hinduism and the Caste System </li></ul>
  30. 32. Questions <ul><li>How are all religions similar? </li></ul><ul><li>Why have different religions appeared in different areas of the world? </li></ul><ul><li>Why is there religious hatred? </li></ul><ul><li>Are Religions supposed to promote peace? </li></ul><ul><li>Will we ever know one true religion? </li></ul>