Middle East Slides

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Middle East Slides

  1. 1. Middle East Unit
  2. 2. Outlining
  3. 3. 2.1 City-States in Mesopotamia
  4. 4. 1. Summarize how geography affected culture in the Fertile Crescent 2. Describe city-states and how other cultures learned about them 3. Describe Sumerian religious beliefs, social structure, and technology 4. Explain the influence of Sumer of later civilizations
  5. 5. Bronze technology developed first in Sumeria, 3300 BCE
  6. 6. Sargon of Akkad unites Mesopotamia, 2350 BCE Amorites form Babylonian Empire, ~2000 BCE Hammurabi, ~1700 BCE Hammurabi’s Code, 282 written laws
  7. 7. 3.4 Origins of Judaism
  8. 8. 1. What was the ancient name for “Palestine”? 2. When did the descendants of Abraham move to Egypt? 3. Summarize the first covenant between Yahweh and Abraham. 4. How long did the Jews travel through the Sinai Desert after escaping from slavery in Egypt? 5. Why was Solomon’s kingdom divided into two?
  9. 9. Despite challenges, the Hebrews maintained monotheistic beliefs that were unique in the ancient world. 1. Summarize the history and beliefs of the ancient Hebrews 2. Explain the historical and cultural importance of the Exodus 3. Describe Israel under Saul, David, and Solomon 4. Describe Israel’s destruction and the Hebrews’ exile in Babylon
  10. 10. Palestine was Canaan The Torah Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy Abraham 1800 BCE, Canaan 1650 BCE, Egypt Monotheism
  11. 11. Hebrews migrated to Egypt to avoid draught & famine - but then enslaved. Fled captivity between 1300 -1200 BCE, led by Moses Legend says the Hebrews wandered the Sinai Desert for 40 years 10 Commandments . . .
  12. 12. Hebrew law Mishna Hebrew bible • Torah • Prophets Talmud • Writings Talmud • Mishnah • Gemara Gemara
  13. 13. What do you notice about the first four commandments as opposed to the last six? Which two are stated in the positive form? Why? How would you characterize the difference between the Ten Commandments and Hammurabi’s Code?
  14. 14. 12 Tribes down to Judah (Jews & Judaism) Saul David Solomon
  15. 15. 4.2 The Assyrian Empire
  16. 16. Assyria developed a dominant military and established a well-organized administration until revolts wore down the empire. 1. Analyze the sources of Assyrian military strength 2. Evaluate Assyrian achievements 3. Trace the Assyrian decline
  17. 17. 850 BCE, Assyria rises Sennacherib destroyed 89 cities and 820 villages, burned Babylon and ordered tens of thousands killed Advances SW to Egypt Esarhaddon: “I tore up the root of Kush, and not one therein escaped to submit to me”
  18. 18. Technology Strategies • Leather & metal body • Siege armour • Pontoon bridges • Metal helmets • Dug beneath walls • Iron swords and • Archers cleared walls spears • Battering rams for • Ladders gates • No mercy
  19. 19. Archers & ladders
  20. 20. Tunneling
  21. 21. Battering ram
  22. 22. 612 BCE, Medes & Chaldeans unite Chaldeans rebuild Babylon, 600 BCE Nebuchadnezzar Hanging Gardens of Babylon 350 BCE, Assyrians try to reunite . . . 33 CE - 1300, Assyrian missionaries
  23. 23. 10.1 The Rise of Islam
  24. 24. Muhammad unified the Arab people both politically and through Islam. 1. Describe Arabia before the rise of Islam 2. Explain how Muhammad began to unify the Arabian Peninsula under Islam 3. Identify Islamic beliefs and practices
  25. 25. 630, Return to Mecca 622, Hijrah Umma Islam vs Muslim Five Pillars of Faith Quran vs Sunna vs Shari’a
  26. 26. Without depicting Muhammad or God, students will illustrate a storyboard of the assigned section of the text, paying particular attention to specifics. 1. Deserts, Towns, and Trade Routes 2. and 7. Revelations 3. The Hijrah 4. Returning to Mecca 5. The Five Pillars 6. A Way of Life & Sources of Authority
  27. 27. 10.2 Islam Expands
  28. 28. In spite of internal conflicts, the Muslims created a huge empire that included lands on three continents. 1. Describe how Muhammad’s successors spread Islam 2. List conflicts within the Umayyad state 3. Explain how rivalries split Islam
  29. 29. 632, Muhammad died 632, Abu-Bakr, first “Rightly-Guided Caliph” Umar, Uthman, and Ali Reasons for success? Treatment of conquered?
  30. 30. Uthman murdered, Ali elected caliph then murdered Umayyads take control Moved capital to Damascus Surrounded selves with luxury
  31. 31. Shi’a Sunni Sufi
  32. 32. Abbasid Empire
  33. 33. 750-1258, Abbasids Fatimid caliphate, among others, follow Trade, including sakks
  34. 34. 10.3 Muslim Culture
  35. 35. Muslims combined and preserved the traditions of many peoples and also advanced learning in a variety of areas. 1. Describe society under the Abbasids 2. Identify Muslim accomplishments in art and science 3. Describe Muslim attitudes toward philosophy and religion
  36. 36. 4.3 Persia Unites Many Lands
  37. 37. • Explain the rise of the Persian Empire • Describe the unique features of the Persian government and its official religion, Zoroastrianism
  38. 38. Cyrus, conquered from 550 to 539 BCE Son, Cambyses, did not rule long Darius takes throne in 521 BCE satrap Royal Road Zoroastrianism...
  39. 39. 10.1 The Rise of Islam
  40. 40. • Describe Arabia before the rise of Islam • Explain how Muhammad began to unify the Arabian Peninsula under Islam • Identify Islamic beliefs and practices
  41. 41. The Prophet Muhammad • Khadjah • Hijrah, 622, from Mecca to Yathrib • the angel Gabriel • From Medina to Mecca, • Allah 630 • Islam, “submission to the • Ka’aba will of Allah” • umma • Muslim, “one who has submitted”
  42. 42. Five Pillars of Faith Faith Shahada Prayer Salat Alms Zakaat Fasting Sawm Pilgrimage Hajj
  43. 43. Five Pillars of Faith Faith Shahada Prayer Salat Alms Zakaat Fasting Sawm Pilgrimage Hajj
  44. 44. Five Pillars of Faith Faith Shahada Prayer Salat Alms Zakaat Fasting Sawm Pilgrimage Hajj
  45. 45. • ulama, scholar class • imam, spiritual leader • Qu’ran • Sunna • Shari’a
  46. 46. • ulama, scholar class • imam, spiritual leader • Qu’ran • Sunna • Shari’a
  47. 47. • ulama, scholar class • imam, spiritual leader • Qu’ran • Sunna • Shari’a
  48. 48. • ulama, scholar class • imam, spiritual leader • Qu’ran • Sunna Had crimes • Shari’a { Qesas crimes Tazir
  49. 49. 10.2 Islam Expands
  50. 50. Shane’s Birthday Quiz
  51. 51. Shane’s Birthday Quiz 1.Who was Muhammad’s first successor?
  52. 52. Shane’s Birthday Quiz 1.Who was Muhammad’s first successor? 2.Which sub-group of Islam believed that the caliph had to be related to Muhammad?
  53. 53. Shane’s Birthday Quiz 1.Who was Muhammad’s first successor? 2.Which sub-group of Islam believed that the caliph had to be related to Muhammad? 3.What was Muhammad’s daughter’s name?
  54. 54. Outcomes • Describe how Muhammad’s successors spread Islam • List conflicts within the Umayyad state • Explain how rivalries split Islam
  55. 55. • Rightly-guided caliphs (“successor”) • Abu-Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali • jihad • jizra • Uthman and Ali murdered
  56. 56. Sunnah Shi’a meaning “well-trodden path” “party of Ali” # 940m/ 90% 120m/ 10% Locations most Muslim countries Iran, Iraq & Yemen Abo Bakr, father of the Ali ibn Abi Talib, true Caliph Prophet’s favored wife, husband of the Prophet’s A’ishah daughter Fatimah tribe of the Prophet qualifications for (Quraysh); later, anyone family of the Prophet ruler of Islam qualified Religious authority ijma (consensus) of infallible imams other than Qu’ran Muslim community
  57. 57. Abbasid Empire Fatimid Dynasty circa 820 CE
  58. 58. 10.3
  59. 59. Outcomes • Describe society under the Abbasids • Identify Muslim accomplishments in art & science • Describe Muslim attitudes toward philosophy and religion

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