The presentation describes the processes involved in group’s formation, development, performance and the interaction among the group members. It helps in acquiring the necessary skills to intervene and improve individual and group performance in an organizational context and in building more successful organizations by applying techniques that provide positive impact on goal achievement.
Group Dynamics: Theory and Practice Ari Sudan Tiwari, Ph. D.
ObjectivesTo identify and analyze the processes that impact on group’s: Formation Development Performance Interaction among the group membersTo acquire the necessary skills to intervene and improveindividual and group performance in an organizational contextTo build more successful organizations by applying techniquesthat provide positive impact on goal achievement
Groups: ConceptGroup means there are Two or more individuals Interacting and interdependent Perceive themselves as members of the group Come together to achieve particular shared objectives and goals
Groups: Formation and developmentStages of group formation and development (Tuckman, 1965) Forming: Orientation, guidance (dependence) Storming: Conflict over roles and responsibilities, rules and procedures, individual recognition (counter-dependence) Norming: Issue resolution, Social agreements, cohesion, establishment of group norms (interdependence) Performing: Mutual assistance, creativity, understanding goals and roles (independence) Adjourning/Reforming/Transforming
Group dynamics: ConceptStructure of the group guiding interaction amonggroup membersThe social process by which people interact in agroup environmentThe influences of personality, power and behaviouron the group process
Factors of group dynamics: TypesStructural factors Norms Roles StatusFunctional factors Cohesiveness Social loafing Conflict: Group and inter-personal
Group normsSocial standards and acceptable behaviours(formal/informal)Collectively held expectations of group functioningProvide regularity and predictability to group functioningNorms differ among groups, communities and societies;but they all have them
Group norms: Types and classes Prescriptive Norms: Expectations within group regarding what is prescribed/supposed to be done Proscriptive Norms: Expectations within group regarding behaviors in which members are not prescribed/supposed to engageClasses of norms Performance norms Appearance norms Arrangement norms Allocation of resources norms
RolesConceptThe set of behaviours and tasks that a group member is expectedto perform because of his or her position in the groupTypes Assigned roles: Cross-functional/specific Emergent rolesIssues in role play Role Identity: Attitude and behavior associated with a role Role Ambiguity: Unclear job definition Role Conflict: Job overlap
StatusSocially defined position or rank given to the groupmembersDifferences in status characteristics create statushierarchies within group
CohesivenessDegree to which members are: Attracted to one another Motivated to stay in the group Share group goals Have common values
Cohesiveness: Sources and consequences Sources Consequences Group size Level of participationEffectively managed diversity Group cohesiveness Level of conformityGroup identity andhealthy competition Emphasis on group goals Success
Enhancing cohesivenessMaking small groupsEncouraging agreement with the group goalsIncreasing the time members spend togetherIncreasing the status of the group and the perceived difficultyof attaining membership in the groupStimulating competition with the other groupsReward to the group rather than to the individual members
Social loafingConcept The human tendency to put forth less effort in a group than individually Results in possibly lower group performance and failure to attain group goalsReducing social loafing Make individual efforts identifiable and accountable Emphasize the valuable contributions of individual members Keep group size at an appropriate level
Conflict: Group and inter-personalConcept Scarcity of resources and valued commodities Competition and struggle between people of groups over: Opposing needs and goals Ideas, values and attitudes
Conflict: SourcesPrejudices: Negative attitude towards a person only on the basisof his/her belongingness to a particular social group/sectionDiscrimination: Expressed behaviours based on ones prejudicesSocial categorization: Us-vs.-Them Enhanced self-identity Socio-biological rootsRealistic conflict and relative deprivation: Robbers’ cave study
Conflict: ResolutionIncreased proximitySocial re-categorizationIncreased cooperation and super ordinate goal: Robbers’ cavestudy
Group dynamics: An optimum modelIndividual Level Group Level Organizational Level Cohesiveness Trust Shared Functions Adaptability Group effectiveness
Group dynamics: Practicing principlesWhat is the group’s goalWhat are the patterns of communication in the group?What determines how influential each member is?What method of decision making is used and how effective is it?Why do/why don’t members challenge each other?What and how do conflicts arise and how are they managed?What actions by the group members help/hurt the groupeffectiveness?