Scientific Revolution

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Scientific Revolution

  1. 1. The Scientific Revolution A New World View
  2. 2. What Was the Scientific Revolution?  A revolution in human understanding and knowledge about the physical universe  17th Century  Began w/ Kepler, Galileo  Ended w/ Newton
  3. 3. “Science” Before the SR  Based on reasoning  Experimental method or observation - not used  Medieval Science  Alchemy  Astrology
  4. 4. Creating a New Worldview  Hallmarks of SR  Questioning of old knowledge & assumptions  Gradual replacement of religious & superstitious presumptions  Gradual rise of science & reason
  5. 5. Factors Leading to SR  Rise of universities  Renaissance  Reformation  Exploration
  6. 6. Astronomy & Physics  Work with the person next to you and diagram the Universe as we know it today  Be as accurate as possible  You have 2 minutes…
  7. 7. How does your diagram differ?
  8. 8. Astronomy & Physics  Prior to SR - Ptolemaic System prevailed  Geocentric Universe  Earth is at center  Remains fixed while the heavens move around it
  9. 9. Nicolaus Copernicus  1473-1543  Polish  Suggested the universe was heliocentric
  10. 10. Copernicus’ Heliocentric Universe  Sun centered  Planets revolved around sun  Moon, around Earth  Earth rotated on an axis
  11. 11. Copernican Universe  Afraid of the Catholic Church  Published theory on his deathbed
  12. 12. Tycho Brahe  1546-1601  Danish mathematician  More accurate positioning of planets
  13. 13. Johannes Kepler  1571-1630  German mathematician  Proved Copernican theory via math  Kepler’s First Law  Earth orbits in an elliptical (egg-shaped) pattern, not circular like Copernicus suggested
  14. 14. Galileo Galilei  1564-1642  Italian mathematician  First telescope  Went public with heliocentrism
  15. 15. Science on Trial  Catholic Church - not happy  Arrested by Inquisition  Tried  Condemned  Forced to recant Copernican views  House arrest
  16. 16. Sir Isaac Newton  1642-1727  British mathematician  Laws of motion
  17. 17. Universal Law of Gravity  Explains why planets continue an elliptical orbit around sun  Mathematical in nature  States that every object in the universe is attracted to every other object by a force called gravity
  18. 18. Medicine  Better understanding of anatomy & physiology  Microscope invented
  19. 19. Chemistry  Robert Boyle  Boyle’s Law (properties of gasses)  Antoine Lavoisier  Father of modern chemistry  Invented system for naming chemical elements still used today (periodic table)
  20. 20. Rationalism  Reason, not tradition, is the source of all knowledge  René Descartes (1596- 1650)  French philosopher & mathematician  Cogito, ergo sum (“I think, therefore I am”)  Deductive reasoning (general specific)
  21. 21. Empiricism  The belief that experience is the only true source of knowledge  Huge shift toward empiricism in the SR  Led to development of the Scientific Method
  22. 22. Scientific Method  Francis Bacon (1561-1627)  English philosopher & empiricist  Systematic procedure for collecting & analyzing evidence  Inductive reasoning (specific general)
  23. 23. Homework: Women of the SR  Read page 307 in your textbook  Write, in your notes, the field of study & major accomplishment(s) of:  Margaret Cavendish  Maria Winkelmann Margaret Cavendish
  24. 24. Homework  Read “Opposing Viewpoints: Faith vs. Science” on pg. 305  Answer the DBQs using BOTH:  Facts from class  The primary sources given

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