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His 102 chapters 16-17 ages of science and reason


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His 102 chapters 16-17 ages of science and reason

  1. 1. History 102: Ages of Science and Reason (Chapters 16-17)
  2. 2. Witches and Reason
  3. 3. Some Historical Context  Copernicus published Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543)  Galileo and Shakespeare born in 1564  Reginald Scott: Discoverie of Witchcraft (1584)  Questioned reality of witchcraft based on empirical observation and reason  Threat of witchcraft charges or heresy stifled observation and experimentation of natural phenomena  Johannes Kepler published Mysterium Cosmographicum in 1596  Galileo published The Starry Messenger in 1610 and Letters on Sunspots in 1613  30 Years War: Sovereignty and Religion  1618-1648 war involved most of the Kingdoms in Western and Central Europe  Who decides religion of the Kingdom? Prince or Church?
  4. 4. Scientific Theory and Medieval World View: Aristotle  Aristotle: all things in nature are composed of 4 fundamental elements:  Air  Fire  Water  Earth  These elements were bound to follow their ideal nature:  Air & Fire move upward.  Water & Earth move downward  The elements strive against one another and this striving is what keeps everything in place  Air and fire combined to form Aether which is what heavenly bodies –stars and planets– are made of and why they remain in the sky
  5. 5. Scientific Theory and Medieval World View: Ptolemy  Stars on a fixed sphere and earth was its center  Beyond the earth moving about it in a spherical plane were the planets  Beyond the planets were the stars  Beyond the stars was the “Prime Mover” or “First Cause”  Ptolemy’s theory said planets moved in epicycles to explain why planets appeared to stop and change direction  More and more complex epicycles were needed as observation improved through telescopes and lenses and as mathematics improved
  6. 6. Dante & Thomas Aquinas  Nature is kept going moment to moment by a miracle always new and forever renewed  God ordered the universe through this miracle  The miracle depended not only on God but man’s faith in God—absolute and unwavering  During the Renaissance and after the Black Plague: scholars became more interested in studying the miracle  How did it work?  Study was not intended to disprove but to understand  Knowledge about the miracle can bring man closer to God
  7. 7. Copernicus and the Heliocentric Universe “Finally we shall place the sun himself at the center of the universe…if only we face the facts, as they say, with both eyes open.” – Nickolaus Copernicus
  8. 8. Nicolaus Copernicus (1473- 1543)
  9. 9. Copernicus and Christianity  Investigate the images on the previous slide. What evidences of Christianity do you see?  Copernicus was deeply religious  He believed that his system, based on mathematical calculations, would restore a pure understanding of God’s design
  10. 10. Copernican Theory  Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543)  Argued the case for a heliocentric view of the universe  Published the year Copernicus died  Remained a subject of debate for 100+ years  Magisterium Cosmographicum by Johannes Kepler published in 1596 supported Copernican theory through mathematics
  11. 11. Kepler’s Laws  Everything in creation had been created according to mathematical laws  Understanding these laws would allow humans to share God’s wisdom  Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion  Planetary orbits of the sun are elliptical  Speed of planets varied with their distance from the sun  Magnetic forces between the sun and the planets kept the planets in orbital motion around the sun
  12. 12. Galileo  Born in 1564  Professor of Mathematics at University of Padua  Galileo’s Patron: Cosimo de Medici (wealthy banker and ruler of Florence)  1597: Galileo read Kepler’s book  Galileo had already adopted Copernican theory but feared the wrath of the church if he published his views  Unlike Copernicus and Kepler who wrote in Latin and whose writings were heavy on math, Galileo wrote in Italian and explained concepts with words.
  13. 13. Letter to Foscarini  Cardinal Bellarmine to Paolo Antonio Foscarini (1615)  Argued that acceptance of Copernican theory contradicts the holy scriptures
  14. 14. “Doubt thou the stars are fire?”  Shakespeare and Galileo were born in the same year-1564  Doubt thou the stars are fire, Doubt that the sun doth move, Doubt truth to be a liar, But never doubt I love. Shakespeare, Hamlet, II.2 (c. 1600)
  15. 15. The Sun and the Earth  Psalm 19:4-6 yet their voice goes out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them he has set a tent for the sun, which comes forth like a bridegroom leaving his chamber, and like a strong man runs his course with joy. Its rising is from the end of the heavens, and its circuit to the end of them; and there is nothing hid from its heat.  Psalm 93:1 The Lord reigns; he is robbed in majesty; the lord is robbed, he is girded with strength. Yea, the world is established; it shall never be moved.  Hyperbole or fact?  Is Cardinal Bellarmine’s position based on his not knowing the difference between poetic license by the Psalmist or because the Church was under increasing pressure from the spread of Protestantism and Royal claims of sovereignty that undermined the power of the Church?
  16. 16. Belief, Reason  “I do not feel obliged to believe that that same God who has endowed us with senses, reason, and intellect has intended to forgo their use and by some other means to give us knowledge which we can obtain by them.”  ---Galileo, Letter to Grand Duchess Christina (1615)
  17. 17. Galileo & Heresy  Charged with heresy in 1616  Published A Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems in 1632  A debate between supporters of geocentric and heliocentric view of universe  Inquisition banned Dialogue and ordered Galileo to stand trial in 1633  Galileo convicted & ordered to repent heresy of heliocentric universe  Banned from working on or discussion Copernican ideas  House arrest for life  The Roman Catholic church dropped opposition to the heliocentric universe in 1835
  18. 18. Aristotle Copernicus Kepler French Academy of Science & Louis XIV
  19. 19. Structural Foundations of Scientific Advances  Body of Knowledge  Heliocentric universe  Mathematical physics  Method of inquiry  Scientific method  Observation  Experimentation  Testing  New societies and Institutions  Royal patrons  Wealthy patrons  University Systems
  20. 20. Galileo Galilei (1564- 1642)  Invented a telescope that enabled him to confirm many of Kepler’s observations  The Starry Messenger (1610) confirmed heliocentric view of the universe  Church indicted Galileo in 1616 for heresy  Galileo published A Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems in 1632  A debate between supporters of geocentric and heliocentric view of universe  Inquisition banned Dialogue and ordered Galileo to stand trial in 1633  Galileo convicted  Repent heresy of heliocentric universe  Banned from working on or discussion Copernican ideas  House arrest for life  Two New Sciences published in 1638 in Holland  Early version of theory of inertia  Same laws which govern the motion of objects on earth could also be observed in the heavens  The church dropped opposition to the heliocentric universe in 1835
  21. 21. Sir Francis Bacon
  22. 22. Methods for a New Philosophy I  Frances Bacon (1561-1626)  “Knowledge is power”  Authority of the ancients should not constrain modern thinkers  “If thinkers will be content to begin with doubts they will end with certainties”  Scientific method  Observation  Experimentation  Confirmation  Inductive reasoning: amassing evidence from specific observations to draw general conclusions
  23. 23. Rene Descartes
  24. 24. Methods for a New Philosophy II  Rene Descartes (1596-1650)  Discourse on the Method (1637)  Doubt everything  “Never to receive anything as a truth which [he] did not clearly know to be such.”  Cogito Ergo Sum “I think, therefore I am”  The thinking individual existed, reason existed, God existed  Deductive Reasoning: proceeding logically from one certainty to another, “so long as we avoid accepting as true what we do not know.”
  25. 25. Isaac Newton
  26. 26. Isaac Newton (1642- 1727)  Cambridge 1664-1666  Optics: white light composed of different colored rays  Mathematics: integral calculus and differential calculus  Gravity: Apple falls to earth because the earth draws it  Principia Mathematica 1687 & 1713  Gravitation is a universal force and can be expressed mathematically  Law of Gravitation “All bodies whatsoever are endowed with a principle of mutual gravitation.”  Science need not always uncover causes, science could and did describe natural phenomena and accurately predict the behavior of objects as confirmed by experimentation  Role of Print Capitalism  Publication across Europe in vernacular  John Locke published Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690).  Read Newton twice.
  27. 27. Observations about the Scientific Revolution  Elite knowledge  Formed by core of ancient and medieval scholarship—did not spin out of empty space  Did not undo the authority of the ancients in one fell swoop  Change occurred gradually  Did not usurp Christian religious belief  natural philosophers did not attempt to refute the idea of a divinely ordered universe  Intricate universe was evidence of God’s guiding presence. Newton: a firm advocate of this view.  Challenged authority of the Church in matters related to studying the physical world  Question to consider:  Is religious opposition to man made climate change similar to religious opposition to heliocentric universe?
  28. 28. What was Different about the Scientific Revolution? 1. Produced new answers to fundamental questions about the physical world 2. Developed new approach to amassing and integrating information in a systematic way 3. Science moved out of the church and into universities and lay organizations 4. New beliefs about the purpose and methods of science  No longer sought to confirm old truths  New methods designed to explore the unknown and discover new truths  Old model of learning: read, reason logically, compare classical texts.  New model of learning: discovery (hypothesize, experiment, observe, reason) 5. Replaced the medieval view of physical world
  29. 29. The Enlightenment (1700-1800)
  30. 30. The Enlightenment (1700- 1800)  Shared characteristics of Enlightenment Writings  Confidence in the power of human reason  Stemmed from accomplishments of the scientific revolution especially Locke, Bacon and Newton.  Nature operated according to laws that could be grasped by study, observation, and reason.  Societies are a product of nature (man) and can be observed to discern natural laws that govern society.  “Dare to know”: confront the power of established institutions including the monarch and the church  Belief in the perfectibility and goodness of humanity  Locke’s tabula rasa (blank slate)  Education might level social hierarchies  Scientific method: observe particular phenomena to arrive at general laws as applicable to study of human affairs
  31. 31. General Observations  Not all Enlightenment thinkers agreed  Elite pursuit like Scientific Revolution  Educated middle class artisans and merchants read Enlightenment thinkers as a result of  print capitalism  Expansion of education by enlightened absolutists  growing markets of people with new wealth.  Literacy extended to growing numbers of women.  Enlightenment thought varied from country to country
  32. 32. Philosophes  Enlightenment thought was a European phenomenon  British thinkers played a key role  France was the stage and the language of the Enlightenment  Philosophe Fr., free thinker; a person whose reflections were unhampered by the constraints of religion or dogma in any form
  33. 33. Important Enlightenment Themes  Humanitarianism: stressed the dignity and worth of all human beings  Caesare Beccaria On Crimes and Punishments (1764)  Punishments should not represent vengeance  Purpose of Punishment: maintain social order & deterrence  Opposed torture and the death penalty  Opposed principle of slavery  Few opposed the practice of slavery  Applied to women as long as they maintained their proper roles as wives and mothers, subordinate to men.  Religious toleration  Toleration of religious minorities  Applied mostly to Christians not Jews or Muslims  Personal Liberty  Capitalism  Social contract  Representative government or Enlightened monarchs
  34. 34. Voltaire (1694-1778)  Francois Marie Arouet  Religious and political liberty  Compared British open-mindedness and empiricism with French society, aristocracy and church  Praised British tax system for fairness compared with French tax system (too many exemptions to church and nobility)  Compared British constitutional monarchy with French absolutism  Condemned religious bigotry  “The less superstition, the less fanaticism; and the less fanaticism the less misery.”
  35. 35. Adam Smith  An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations (1776)  Central Issues  Productivity of labor  How labor was used in different sectors of the economy  Mercantile restrictions did not encourage the productive deployment of labor and did not create real economic health  General prosperity could best be obtained by allowing individuals to pursue their own interests without interference from state chartered monopolies or legal restraints that privileged some interests over others  “Invisible hand” of the free market  “Obvious and simple system of natural liberty” champion of justice against state sponsored economic privilege and monopoly
  36. 36. Observations and Questions about Smith  Smith would oppose ALL subsidies and monopolies including:  Oil company subsidies  Farm subsidies  Insurance company subsidies  Commodity subsidies  Smith wrote when Europeans were in a position to dominate global markets. How would he react to the global markets today?  Smith did not address natural disasters; effects of war  Smith believed in the right of governments to tax citizens and colonies for benefits provided  Smith did not answer questions about how to manage boom and bust cycle of capitalism. Boom and bust was a natural law.  Did Smith’s belief represent a naïve faith that the rich would share the wealth?  Did Smith consider the danger of unrestricted capitalism on natural resources?  Late 18th and early 19th century Whaling is good example of dangers to natural resources by unrestricted capitalism
  37. 37. Enlightenment Thinkers had Complex Ideas about Slavery  Most Enlightenment thinkers opposed slavery in principle  Few Enlightenment thinkers opposed the practice  Theory  Smith: uneconomical  Voltaire: would Europeans look away if Africans enslaved Europeans  Montesquieu: Slavery debased both Europeans and Africans  Beliefs  Africans and African cultures were less “civilized” than Europeans  Hard work raises the moral and cultural development of less civilized peoples  Each society free to balance their systems of labor in accordance with their special needs  Individual rights to property should be protected and slaves were property  Slaves were not ready for freedom because they had never known freedom and slavery had destroyed their natural virtue
  38. 38. Pacific Exploration  Systematically mapping new sections of the Pacific presented new opportunities for knowledge  Scientific missions  Luis Anne de Bougainville (1729-1811)  Sought new trade route to China  Discovered Tahiti  James Cook (1728-1779)  Charted coasts of New Zealand  New Hebrides, Hawaii, explored coasts of Antarctica, the Bering Sea & Arctic Ocean  Expanded knowledge of Botany, Zoology and Geology  Portraits of Maoris and Tahitians  Travel literature widely popular with non- academic public
  39. 39. Impact of Scientific Exploration  Spawned theories of man in his “natural environment” based on information and observation about Tahitian, Maori, and Hawaiian peoples  Diderot, Supplement au Voyage de Bougainville, (1772)  Simplicity of “natives” exposed the hypocrisy, and rigidity of over-civilized European society  Represented break with earlier European views which understood the world as divided between Christendom and heathen “others”  Gave rise to paternalistic views of European colonialism  Duty to protect simplistic societies in their natural state  Unintended Consequence?  Enabled advance of colonialism in name of “science”  Resulted in deaths of hundreds of thousands of Pacific Islanders
  40. 40. Radical Enlightenment
  41. 41. Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712- 1778)  The Social Contract  “Man was born free but everywhere he is in chains.”  In the state of nature all men are free  Inequality is anchored in private property which profoundly corrupted the social contract  Under these conditions of property and inequality, governments protected only the rich and the privileged.  “The problem is to find a form of association…in which each, while uniting himself with all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before.”  Freedom does not mean the absence of restraint but that all obey the laws that they had made themselves  Equality= no man is rich enough to buy another, nor poor enough to have to sell himself  The Body Politic  Sovereignty belongs to the people alone  No separation of powers  Exercising sovereignty transformed the nation  Creating a regenerated and powerful nation in which citizens are bound by mutual obligation rather than coercive laws  United in equality rather than divided by privilege  National community is guided by the General Will  Common interest of the nation arose above individual demands  Was not particularly concerned with balancing individual interest against the General Will
  42. 42. Mary Wollstonecraft (1759- 1797)  A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)  Opposed to monarchy and favored Republicanism  Opposed artificial distinctions or rank, birth or wealth  Argued that equality laid the basis for virtue  Women had same innate capacity for reason and self- government as men  Virtue should mean the same thing for men and women  Relations between the sexes should be based on equality  Legal inequalities of marriage laws deprived women of property rights and gave husbands despotic power over their wives  “Civilized women are …so weakened by false refinement that, respecting morals, their condition is much below what it would be were they left in a state nearer to nature”  A culture that encouraged feminine weakness produced women who are childish, cunning, cruel and vulnerable  Education for women had to promote liberty and self-reliance  Believed women and men had different duties  Women’s foremost responsibility was mothering
  43. 43. The mixed Legacy of the Enlightenment  Developed & popularized arguments about natural rights  Elevated differences to a higher plane by suggesting that nature dictated different and possibly unequal social roles  Complex ideas about nature and its dictates about social roles  Slavery and “civilized” vs. “uncivilized”  Meaning of Paternalism  Natural and unequal social roles
  44. 44. Print Capitalism and the Book Trade  Enlightenment bound up in the expansion of printing and print culture  Readers bought books from stores, subscription, special mail order from book distributers abroad  Daily Newspapers appeared in London in 1702, called “Dailies”  Freedom of the Press varied from place to place  Publishing licenses  England had few restrictions  France and Russia had many restrictions  Restrictions had little impact on pamphlets; minimal impact even on books: censorship only made banned books expensive  Literary underground
  45. 45. What is the Public Sphere?  Informal deliberations, debates about how to regenerate the nation, discussions of civic virtue and efforts to forge a consensus of the population moved politics beyond the confines of the court into a “public” space  Expanding networks of social contact  Flourishing book trade  Circulation of Enlightenment ideas about humanity, society, government, and reason  By the late 18th century, European governments recognized the existence of a civic minded group that cut across traditional divisions of society and to which they needed to respond
  46. 46. The Public Sphere  Elites had “learned societies” who published books  New Frontiers of interaction between elites and middle class  Salons  Informal gatherings of social and commercial elites in which impoverished artists and scholars were welcome  Informal and formal patronages were created  Included both genders—aristocratic French women ruled French salons  Madame Marie-Therese Geoffrin patron of Encyclopedia and influenced placing scholars in Academies  Enabled elite women to exercise influence informally when they had little formal power  Masonic Lodges  Members pledged themselves to regeneration of society  Attracted men across divisions of birth and wealth (egalitarian behind closed doors)
  47. 47. The Public Sphere II  Middle Class—artisans and bureaucrats and housewives  High literacy  Targeted by publishers  Circulation of books about science, history, geography, travel and fiction  Means of control for middle class women  Etiquette  Running a household  Nutrition and meals  Raising children, especially daughters  Novels were most popular form of literature in Britain  Discussions of feeling and emotion linked middle class with concern about personhood and humanity and natural law