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- 1. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />Heliocentric System<br />
- 2. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />Nicolaus Copernicus<br />Polish astronomer<br />Birth: February 19, 1473 <br />Death: May 24, 1543 <br />Place of Birth: Torun, Poland<br />
- 3. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />
- 4. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />Known for :<br />Proposing a heliocentric (sun-centered) model (1500s) for the solar system, in which the Sun is stationary at the center, and Earth and the other planets orbit around it.<br />Copernican System<br />theory of planet movements: <br />the theory of Nicolaus Copernicus regarding the mechanics of the solar system, which postulates that the Earth and other planets revolve around the Sun. <br />This theory challenged the Ptolemaic system of astronomy that had prevailed since the 2nd century.<br />
- 5. Copernican System<br />
- 6. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />Heliocentric plan of the Solar System in the first edition of Copernicus’ De Revolutionibus<br />1. Sun<br />2. Mercury<br />3. Venus <br />4. Earth<br />5. Mars<br />6. Jupiter <br />7. Saturn <br />8. Celestial sphere<br />
- 7. Nicolaus Copernicus <br />Career: <br />1491-1494: Studied mathematics at Kraków Academy (now Jagiellonian University) <br />1496: Went to Italy to study astronomy and law at the University of Bologna <br />1497: Began observations of the Sun, Moon, and planets 1514?: Wrote Commentariolus, an outline of his astronomical ideas, but did not circulate it widely <br />1543: Published De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres), which held that Earth and the other planets orbit a centrally located Sun.<br />
- 8. First editions of De Revolutionibus<br />
- 9. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />Did You Know: <br />Before Copernican theory was accepted, astronomers believed that Earth was stationary at the center of the solar system, and the Sun and planets revolved around it.<br /> Copernicus was best known to his contemporaries as a doctor and the Canon of Frauenburg Cathedral. <br />Italian physicist and astronomer Galileo attempted to publicize Copernican theory in the early 1600s, and was convicted of heresy as a result. <br />Copernican theory was not widely accepted until the late 17th century—over 100 years after Copernicus's death.<br /> Copernicus's book, De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, was banned as heretical by the Catholic Church until 1835.<br />
- 10. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />Planetary Motions According to Copernicus<br />A person moving at uniform speed is not necessarily aware of his motion.<br />Copernicus argued that the apparent annual motion of the Sun about the Earth could be represented equally well by a motion of the Earth about the Sun.<br />The apparent rotation of the celestial sphere could also be accounted for by assuming that the Earth rotates about a fix axis while the celestial sphere is stationary.<br />
- 11. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />Planetary Motions According to Copernicus<br />He deduced that the nearer a planet is to the Sun, the greater is its orbital speed.<br />The retrograde motions of the planets were easily understood without the necessity for epicycles.<br />He worked out the correct approximate scale of the Solar System.<br />He resorted to using a number of epicycles in order to achieve the accuracy he required in predicting the positions of the planets in the sky.<br />He maintained the concept of uniform circular motion in his theory. <br />
- 12. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />Planetary Motions According to Copernicus<br />The heliocentric model did not prove that the Earth revolves around the Sun.<br />Ptolemaic model was clumsy, it lack the beauty and symmetry of the Copernican model.<br />In the Copernican model the Earth seems to be no longer the central element of the universe.<br />
- 13. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />The Scale of the Solar System<br />Definition of Terms<br />1. Superior Planet<br />Any planet whose orbit is larger than that of the Earth.<br />2. Inferior Planet<br />A planet closer to the Sun than the Earth is.<br />3. Elongation<br />The angle formed at the Earth between the Earth-planet direction and the Earth-Sun direction.<br />
- 14. Nicolaus Copernicus <br />The Scale of the Solar System<br />Definition of Terms (Continued)<br />4. Opposition<br />Configuration of the planet when its elongation is 180 degrees.<br />5. Conjunction<br />The configuration of a planet when it has the same celestial longitude as the Sun, or the configuration when any two celestial bodies have the same celestial longitude or ascension.<br />6. Quadrature<br />A superior planet is at quadrature when a line from the Earth to the Sun makes a right angle with the line from the Earth to the planet. <br />
- 15. Configurations of a superior planet<br />
- 16. Configurations of an inferior planet<br />
- 17. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />The Scale of the Solar System<br />When an inferior planet is at greatest elongation:<br />EP - must be tangent to the orbit of the planet.<br /> - hence perpendicular to the line from the planet to<br /> the Sun (PS).<br /> We therefore have a right triangle (EPS).<br />Greatest elongation is at PES.<br />ES – will be Earth’s distance from the Sun.<br />PS – distance of the planet to the Sun, can then be found in terms of the Earth’s distance, by geometrical construction or by having trigonometric calculation.<br />
- 18. Determination of the distance an inferior planet from the Sun<br />
- 19. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />The Scale of the Solar System<br />Suppose planet P is at opposition.<br />We can now time the interval until the planet is next at quadrature.<br />Quadrature happens when:<br />The planet is at P’ and the Earth is at E’.<br />With a knowledge of the revolution periods of the planet and the Earth, we can calculate the fractions of their respective orbits that have been traversed by the two bodies.<br />Thus the angles PSP’ and ESE’ can be determined.<br />
- 20. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />The Scale of the Solar System<br />Subtracting PSP’ and ESE’ gives the angle P’SE’.<br />SE’ is the Earth’s distance from the Sun. <br />Enough data are then available to solve the triangle and find the distance for P’S by geometric construction or calculation.<br />
- 21. Distances of the Planets<br />
- 22. Determination of the distance of the superior planet from the Sun<br />
- 23. Nicolaus Copernicus<br />Sidereal and Synodic Period<br />Copernicus recognized the distinction between the sidereal period and the synodic period.<br />Sidereal period is simply the period of revolution of a planet about the Sun.<br />Synodic period is the time required for it to return to the same configuration, such as the time from opposition to opposition or conjunction to conjunction. <br />What is observed directly from the planet is the synodic period.<br />
- 24. Relation between Synodic and Sidereal periods of a planet<br />

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