Pilgrimages

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Pilgrimages

  1. 1. THE HEIGHT OF THE PILGRIMAGE Peregrino = per ager = el que va por el campo = viajero
  2. 2. QUESTIONSWhy was so important to mamake pilgrimages in the MiddleAges?What was there to make such a dangerous thing worth it?- -
  3. 3. MENTALITY RELIGION is everywhere, is the basis of all behaviour Life is just a passage to the real life in Heaven. Saints can intercede on our behalf; even things that used to belong to a Saint can be “powerful”= RELICS
  4. 4. WHAT IS A RELIC? Pieces of the body, generally bones but also clothes, hair, blood, even the male foreskin …
  5. 5. A CHURCH WITH A RELIC Attracts more people The more important the Saint the more powerful the relic Having a relic was really important for a church. There were even some fights and relics being stolen by neighbor churches!
  6. 6.  THE 3 MOST IMPORTANT PLACES FOR CHRISTIANS  JERUSALEM Life & dead of Jesus
  7. 7.  ROMESaint Peter, Saint Paul& the Pope
  8. 8.  SANTIAGOSt. James Tomb
  9. 9. A PILGRIMAGE TO SANTIAGO WAS DIFFERENT FINIS TERRAE: It was in the “end of the known world” It was the frontier with Islam It was a risky business
  10. 10. A PILGRIMAGE WAS SOMETHING SERIOUS No roads Different money Different languages No maps Most of the time crossing war zones No bridges No proper shoes or clothes No police ….
  11. 11. THEN, WHY??1.- Devotion.2.- Praying for a Miracle.3.- Adventure & business.4.- Penance.5.- For money.6.- To help somebody else.7.- The false pilgrimage.
  12. 12. SYMBOLS OF A PILGRIM Bordón o báculo: palo de madera para andar y defenderse.
  13. 13. SYMBOLS OF A PILGRIM Broad-brim hat
  14. 14. SYMBOLS OF A PILGRIM Pumpkin
  15. 15. SYMBOLS OF A PILGRIM Cape, cloak
  16. 16. SYMBOLS OF A PILGRIM Bag
  17. 17. SYMBOLS OF A PILGRIM SCALLOP:
  18. 18. THE XIth CENTURY
  19. 19. CHRISTIAN KINGS HELP THE PILGRIMAGE THEY BUILD MONASTERIES HOSTELS HOSPITALS ROADS BRIDGES
  20. 20.  No taxes for pilgrims New laws to protect them The Order of Santiago The Pope granted Santiago with the Holy Years
  21. 21. CODEX CALIXTINUS THE FIRST GUIDEBOOK
  22. 22.  It’s a compilation of five books relating to St James and the pilgrimage It’s called Calixtinus because it is prefaced by a letter attributed to Pope Calixtus II Was written in the XIIth century It’s also called LIBER SANCTI IACOBI
  23. 23. BOOK V: LIBER PEREGRINATIONIS Written by a French monk (Aymerich Picaud) 1- de los caminos a Santiago 2- de las jornadas del camino de Santiago 3- de los nombres de los que repasaron el camino 4- de los tres buenos edificios del mundo 5- de los hombres que repararon el camino 6- de las aguas amargas y dulces del camino 7- de las cualidades de las tierras y gentes del camino 8- de las visitas a los cuerpos de santos del camino 9- de la calidad de la ciudad y la iglesia de Santiago 10- de la distribución de las limosnas del altar de Santiago 11- del digno recibimiento a los peregrinos
  24. 24. The Codex was stolen in 2011 from the archive of the Cathedral of Santiago and found about a year later in a near basement.An ex-electrician of the Cathedral was imprissioned.
  25. 25. MILITARY ORDERS PRAY & FIGHT
  26. 26. MILITARY ORDERSThe principal feature of the military order is the combination ofmilitary and religious ways of life.Military orders appeared following the First Crusade  (1099 d. C.)They protected the Holy Places and the pilgrims as well as fightinginvading Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula.
  27. 27. KNIGHTS TEMPLARThe Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon
  28. 28. KNIGHTS TEMPLARSo called because their original site was the oldTemple of Solomon in JerusalemRapidly assumed extensive feudal powers. Theybecame extremely rich, acting as bankers for kings
  29. 29. E ND KNIGHTS TEMPLAR THE of theIn 1305 Pope Clement V, based in France, and the TemplarGrand Master Jacques de Molay discussed charges that hadbeen made two years prior by an ousted Templar.Clement sent King Philip IV of France a written request forassistance in the investigation. (what a clever swine)
  30. 30. E ND KNIGHTS TEMPLAR THE of theKing Philip was already deeply in debt to the TemplarsHebegan pressuring the Church to take action against theOrderOn Friday, October 13, 1307 Philip ordered de Molay andscores of other French Templars to be simultaneously arrested.
  31. 31. E ND KNIGHTS TEMPLARTHE of theThe Templars were charged with numerous offences(including apostasy, idolatry, heresy, obscene rituals andhomosexuality, financial corruption and fraud)Many of the accused confessed to these charges under tortureAfter more bullying from Philip, Pope Clement then issued thepapal bull Pastoralis Praeeminentiae, which instructed allChristian monarchs in Europe to arrest all Templars and seizetheir assets.
  32. 32. E ND KNIGHTS TEMPLARTHE of thePope Clement finally agreed to disband the Order Grand Master Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney,Preceptor of Normandy, insisted on their innocenceBoth men were declared guilty of being relapsed heretics, andthey were sentenced to burn alive at the stake in Paris on March18, 1314.
  33. 33. JACQUES DE MOLAY the legend He called out from the flames that both Pope Clement and King Philip would soon meet him before God.
  34. 34. Pope Clement died only a month later, andKing Philip died in a hunting accident beforethe end of the year…
  35. 35. ORDER OF SANTIAGOTHE MILITARY ORDER OF SAINT JAMES OF THE SWORD 1175
  36. 36. ORDER OF SANTIAGO-Was originally a small military brotherhood based near Caceresin Extremadura.-Their initial purpose was to provide protection for the pilgrimstraveling to and from the tomb of Saint James at Compostela-They too provide hospital services to sick pilgrims.-Like the Templars, the Order of Santiago rapidly assumedextensive feudal powers.
  37. 37. When acquiring new estates, whether by gift or conquest, the Order would typically establish some kind of defensible buildings
  38. 38. The area around would necessarily be dedicated to the production of food for the garrisonand networks of villages and peasant communities would be joined by primitive roads radiating from the centre.
  39. 39. THEIR SYMBOL WAS THE SWORD-CROSSSword representing:- The martyrdom of Santiago- The fight for ChristIts origin:Crusaders used to carry a “cross-knife”they could use anywhere just bystabbing it to the floor.
  40. 40. NOBILITYTo qualify for membership candidates had to prove four noblequarteringToday the Grand Master of the Order is the King of Spain
  41. 41. MONASTERIES "Ora et labora"
  42. 42. MONASTERIES The word monastery comes from the Greek word μοναστήριος -monasterios “to live alone” Abbot (Arameic abba, father) They were centers of intellectual progression and education. The monastery is the keeper of knowledge during the Middle Ages
  43. 43. MONASTERIES Saint Benedict, founder of western monasticism. His "Rule of Saint Benedict" was adopt by most of the religious communities throughout the Middle Ages. Organises the monastic day into regular periods of communal and private prayer, sleep, spiritual reading, and manual labour  Ora et Labora  
  44. 44. MONASTERIES The Horarium Matins - 12 pm Religious office Lauds - 3 am Morning office & sleep Prime - 6 am Wash & office. Instructions for the day. Private Mass or spiritual reading or work Terce - 9 am Office & High Mass Sext - 12 am Office, midday meal & Rest None - 3 pm Office, farming & housekeeping work Vespers - 6 pm Evening prayer Compline - 9 pm Night prayer & sleep
  45. 45. MONASTERIES Monasteries offered respite for weary pilgrim travelers, monks were obligated also to care for their injuries or emotional needs. Over time, people started to make pilgrimages to monasteries instead of just using them as a stopover. Families would donate money, land or a son in return for blessings.  MONEY = POWER
  46. 46. THE IMPORTANCE OF MONASTERIES They kept the knowledge in their scriptorium. They spread new forms of art throughout the Christendom. They helped repopulate conquered territories. They protected & helped pilgrims
  47. 47. Típico Monasterio Benedictino
  48. 48. CLUNY
  49. 49. THE ROLE OF CLUNY The process of repopulating the recaptured areas in the Iberian Peninsula was assisted by the royal encouragement of Frankish (French) settlement on privileged terms.  The French Road King Alfonso VI invited the Cluniacs to establish a chain of religious houses along the Roman thoroughfares that crossed the reconquered territories.
  50. 50. THE IMPORTANCE OF CLUNY Consolidate territorial gains and the Christian presence along the frontier. Care for pilgrims. Encourage the long journey to the shrine of St James. The Monks of Cluny also brought to Spain new solutions in construction and ideas in art….

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