THE HEIGHT OF THE PILGRIMAGE Peregrino = per ager = el que va por el campo = viajero
QUESTIONSWhy was so important to mamake pilgrimages in the MiddleAges?What was there to make such a dangerous thing worth it?- -
MENTALITY RELIGION is everywhere, is the basis of all behaviour Life is just a passage to the real life in Heaven. Saints can intercede on our behalf; even things that used to belong to a Saint can be “powerful”= RELICS
WHAT IS A RELIC? Pieces of the body, generally bones but also clothes, hair, blood, even the male foreskin …
A CHURCH WITH A RELIC Attracts more people The more important the Saint the more powerful the relic Having a relic was really important for a church. There were even some fights and relics being stolen by neighbor churches!
THE 3 MOST IMPORTANT PLACES FOR CHRISTIANS JERUSALEM Life & dead of Jesus
It’s a compilation of five books relating to St James and the pilgrimage It’s called Calixtinus because it is prefaced by a letter attributed to Pope Calixtus II Was written in the XIIth century It’s also called LIBER SANCTI IACOBI
BOOK V: LIBER PEREGRINATIONIS Written by a French monk (Aymerich Picaud) 1- de los caminos a Santiago 2- de las jornadas del camino de Santiago 3- de los nombres de los que repasaron el camino 4- de los tres buenos edificios del mundo 5- de los hombres que repararon el camino 6- de las aguas amargas y dulces del camino 7- de las cualidades de las tierras y gentes del camino 8- de las visitas a los cuerpos de santos del camino 9- de la calidad de la ciudad y la iglesia de Santiago 10- de la distribución de las limosnas del altar de Santiago 11- del digno recibimiento a los peregrinos
The Codex was stolen in 2011 from the archive of the Cathedral of Santiago and found about a year later in a near basement.An ex-electrician of the Cathedral was imprissioned.
MILITARY ORDERSThe principal feature of the military order is the combination ofmilitary and religious ways of life.Military orders appeared following the First Crusade (1099 d. C.)They protected the Holy Places and the pilgrims as well as fightinginvading Muslims in the Iberian Peninsula.
KNIGHTS TEMPLARThe Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon
KNIGHTS TEMPLARSo called because their original site was the oldTemple of Solomon in JerusalemRapidly assumed extensive feudal powers. Theybecame extremely rich, acting as bankers for kings
E ND KNIGHTS TEMPLAR THE of theIn 1305 Pope Clement V, based in France, and the TemplarGrand Master Jacques de Molay discussed charges that hadbeen made two years prior by an ousted Templar.Clement sent King Philip IV of France a written request forassistance in the investigation. (what a clever swine)
E ND KNIGHTS TEMPLAR THE of theKing Philip was already deeply in debt to the TemplarsHebegan pressuring the Church to take action against theOrderOn Friday, October 13, 1307 Philip ordered de Molay andscores of other French Templars to be simultaneously arrested.
E ND KNIGHTS TEMPLARTHE of theThe Templars were charged with numerous offences(including apostasy, idolatry, heresy, obscene rituals andhomosexuality, financial corruption and fraud)Many of the accused confessed to these charges under tortureAfter more bullying from Philip, Pope Clement then issued thepapal bull Pastoralis Praeeminentiae, which instructed allChristian monarchs in Europe to arrest all Templars and seizetheir assets.
E ND KNIGHTS TEMPLARTHE of thePope Clement finally agreed to disband the Order Grand Master Jacques de Molay and Geoffroi de Charney,Preceptor of Normandy, insisted on their innocenceBoth men were declared guilty of being relapsed heretics, andthey were sentenced to burn alive at the stake in Paris on March18, 1314.
JACQUES DE MOLAY the legend He called out from the flames that both Pope Clement and King Philip would soon meet him before God.
Pope Clement died only a month later, andKing Philip died in a hunting accident beforethe end of the year…
ORDER OF SANTIAGOTHE MILITARY ORDER OF SAINT JAMES OF THE SWORD 1175
ORDER OF SANTIAGO-Was originally a small military brotherhood based near Caceresin Extremadura.-Their initial purpose was to provide protection for the pilgrimstraveling to and from the tomb of Saint James at Compostela-They too provide hospital services to sick pilgrims.-Like the Templars, the Order of Santiago rapidly assumedextensive feudal powers.
When acquiring new estates, whether by gift or conquest, the Order would typically establish some kind of defensible buildings
The area around would necessarily be dedicated to the production of food for the garrisonand networks of villages and peasant communities would be joined by primitive roads radiating from the centre.
THEIR SYMBOL WAS THE SWORD-CROSSSword representing:- The martyrdom of Santiago- The fight for ChristIts origin:Crusaders used to carry a “cross-knife”they could use anywhere just bystabbing it to the floor.
NOBILITYTo qualify for membership candidates had to prove four noblequarteringToday the Grand Master of the Order is the King of Spain
MONASTERIES The word monastery comes from the Greek word μοναστήριος -monasterios “to live alone” Abbot (Arameic abba, father) They were centers of intellectual progression and education. The monastery is the keeper of knowledge during the Middle Ages
MONASTERIES Saint Benedict, founder of western monasticism. His "Rule of Saint Benedict" was adopt by most of the religious communities throughout the Middle Ages. Organises the monastic day into regular periods of communal and private prayer, sleep, spiritual reading, and manual labour Ora et Labora
MONASTERIES The Horarium Matins - 12 pm Religious office Lauds - 3 am Morning office & sleep Prime - 6 am Wash & office. Instructions for the day. Private Mass or spiritual reading or work Terce - 9 am Office & High Mass Sext - 12 am Office, midday meal & Rest None - 3 pm Office, farming & housekeeping work Vespers - 6 pm Evening prayer Compline - 9 pm Night prayer & sleep
MONASTERIES Monasteries offered respite for weary pilgrim travelers, monks were obligated also to care for their injuries or emotional needs. Over time, people started to make pilgrimages to monasteries instead of just using them as a stopover. Families would donate money, land or a son in return for blessings. MONEY = POWER
THE IMPORTANCE OF MONASTERIES They kept the knowledge in their scriptorium. They spread new forms of art throughout the Christendom. They helped repopulate conquered territories. They protected & helped pilgrims
THE ROLE OF CLUNY The process of repopulating the recaptured areas in the Iberian Peninsula was assisted by the royal encouragement of Frankish (French) settlement on privileged terms. The French Road King Alfonso VI invited the Cluniacs to establish a chain of religious houses along the Roman thoroughfares that crossed the reconquered territories.
THE IMPORTANCE OF CLUNY Consolidate territorial gains and the Christian presence along the frontier. Care for pilgrims. Encourage the long journey to the shrine of St James. The Monks of Cluny also brought to Spain new solutions in construction and ideas in art….