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Searching for the
Identity and Faith of
the Ulster Protestant
Standing in the Shadow of Three
Historic Leaders
Searching f...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
John Knox
Converting our
Scottish
Ancestors from
Catholicism...
Prelates and
Preachers
The Battle for Christ and
His Kirk
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant 3
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
The Reformation In Scotland
“England, in reforming itself, w...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Early Witnesses
1407; James Resby
1431; Paul Crawer
1494;
30...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Three Men who Changed
Scotland
Patrick Hamilton; 1504
John K...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
The Beaton Dictat
David Beaton was the
virtual ruler who
dom...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
A Changing Spiritual Climate
By 1525 Tyndale’s translation o...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Patrick Hamilton
1504 -1528
A member of the Stewart dynasty....
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Patrick Hamilton
Ministry and Death
His Father’s home.
Throu...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
George Wishart
1512-1546
The son of Sir James.
Cambridge edu...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Tough Days for a New Convert
After Hamilton’s death the Refo...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
His Flight from Scotland
1538 – Five Protestants burnt, Cast...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Failure and Redemption
Burnt his Faggot in Bristol.
Travelle...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
His Ministry
1543 – Returned to Scotland.
Preaching in Montr...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
His Martyrdom and Legacy
Burned at Saint Andrews 28th Februa...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
John Knox
1505 - 1572
Educated at Haddington and Glasgow Uni...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
John Knox
1505 - 1572
May 1546, Norman Leslie
seized St Andr...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
The Papacy as the Anti-Christ
2nd Thessalonians 2:3-4
“Let n...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
The Papacy as the Anti-Christ
2nd Thessalonians 2:3-4, 7
ANT...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
From The Ministry To The Galley
Rome remained in the
ascenda...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Serving The English King
After his release he laboured in En...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
In Calvin’s Geneva
4 happy and blessed years:
“…the most per...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Visiting Home
He longed for Scotland; “bound in the chains o...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
The Cause Advances
The Lords of the Congregation entered int...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
The Last of the Reformation
Martyrs
Parish Priest Walter Mil...
The Crisis of 1549
Cometh the Hour, Cometh the Man
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant 27
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Demands to the Regent
Dispense sacraments and preach in the
...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
The Moment of Crisis
Mary of Guise introduced a new law proh...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Cometh the Hour….
At this moment Knox arrived.
He promised t...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Disturbances in Perth
Knox preached against idolatry.
A prie...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
St Andrews
Archbishop threatened assassination.
Against much...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
On The Brink of Civil War
The Regent was building a strong F...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
A New Scotland is Born
1560 – 1st Scots Confession.
Mass out...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Presbyterianism Established
Offices Employed:
1: Ministers f...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Presbyterianism Established
The Government:
1: Kirk Session ...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
His Principle
“Take from us the purity
of the Communion-tabl...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Knox’s Emphasis on Education
A school in each Parish.
A coll...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Mary Queen of Scots
Married to Francis 2nd
of France.
Widowe...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Challenges the Reformed Faith
Celebrates Mass in
Holyrood Pa...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
The Famous Interviews
Queen – “Who are you in this Commonwea...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
As a Result of 3 Private Interviews
“If there be not in her ...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Knox on Trial
1563 – Queen managed to have Knox tried for tr...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
The Demise of Mary
Queen of Scots
1565 – married her cousin,...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
The Period of the Regency
She was succeeded by her Son, Jame...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
News of St Bartholomew
24th August 1572
Estimated 70,000
Pro...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
John Knox –
Died 24th November 1572
“Here lies one who never...
A Legacy Forgotten?
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant 48
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Was the Battle Won?
James Douglas pursued a policy of Episco...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Andrew Melville
“But your majesty there are two Kings
And tw...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
James 1st of England
1606 – detained in the Tower of London ...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Revival and Renewed
Convictions
Preachers testified to new p...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Jenny’s Geddes
In 1625 Charles 1st was crowned.
1633 – Willi...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
Refusing to Conform
Many godly Presbyterian Ministers refuse...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
The National Covenant
1638 – all classes vowed to defend the...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
A Century of Agitation
The battle for Presbyterianism in Sco...
Searching for the Identity and
Faith of the Ulster Protestant
The Ulster Connection
Throughout the 17th Century many Presb...
Archbishop James
Ussher
Forging the Faith of the Ulster
Plantation in the Fires of
Persecution and Genocide
Searching for ...
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JOHN KNOX; Converting our Scottish Ancestors from Catholicism to Protestantism

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Searching for the Identity of the Ulster Protestant Part 4

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JOHN KNOX; Converting our Scottish Ancestors from Catholicism to Protestantism

  1. 1. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Standing in the Shadow of Three Historic Leaders Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant 1
  2. 2. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant John Knox Converting our Scottish Ancestors from Catholicism to Protestantism 2
  3. 3. Prelates and Preachers The Battle for Christ and His Kirk Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant 3
  4. 4. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant The Reformation In Scotland “England, in reforming itself, worked mainly from the political centre. Scotland worked mainly from the religious one. The ruling idea in the former country was the emancipation of the throne from the supremacy of the Pope; the ruling idea in the latter was the emancipation of the conscience from the Popish faith. The more prominent outcome of the Reformation in England was a free State; the more immediate product of the Reformation in Scotland was a free Church.” J.A. Wylie, The History of Protestantism 4
  5. 5. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Early Witnesses 1407; James Resby 1431; Paul Crawer 1494; 30 Gentlemen charged with heresy 5
  6. 6. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Three Men who Changed Scotland Patrick Hamilton; 1504 John Knox; 1505 George Wishart; 1512 6
  7. 7. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant The Beaton Dictat David Beaton was the virtual ruler who dominated the 16 year old James 5th. His nephew, Cardinal James Beaton had similar power. These two men would see Protestantism as a threat to their power. 7
  8. 8. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant A Changing Spiritual Climate By 1525 Tyndale’s translation of the scriptures had found their way to Scotland. The work of reformation had commenced in the hearts of the people. There was a need for a preacher to expound these truths on a national scale. 8
  9. 9. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Patrick Hamilton 1504 -1528 A member of the Stewart dynasty. Great grandson of James 2nd. 1517 – appointed Titular Abbot of Ross-shire. 1518 – Paris, studied and Marburg. Lambert was an ex Franciscan who held the same views as Luther. Convicted about reaching his own people Hamilton returned to Scotland, 1527. 9
  10. 10. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Patrick Hamilton Ministry and Death His Father’s home. Throughout Scotland. St Andrews. Alexander Campbell. For six hours he burnt, 28th February 1528. The flames of the Reformation had been kindled. “his reek infected all it blew on” 10
  11. 11. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant George Wishart 1512-1546 The son of Sir James. Cambridge educated. A classical Greek scholar. Converted. 11
  12. 12. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Tough Days for a New Convert After Hamilton’s death the Reformed Faith progressed. The persecution intensified. 1532 – Henry Forrest burnt on high ground overlooking St Andrews. 1532 – Norman Gourley and and David Straiton burnt on a hill between Edinburgh and Leith. 12
  13. 13. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant His Flight from Scotland 1538 – Five Protestants burnt, Castle Hill. 1539 – David Beaton died to be replaced by Cardinal James Beaton. 1542 – James 5th died. His wife, Mary of Guise, a French Romanist became Regent, their daughter Mary sent to France. Godly ministers fled Scotland. During these turbulent years he fled Scotland. 13
  14. 14. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Failure and Redemption Burnt his Faggot in Bristol. Travelled to Switzerland. Restored to faith through the ministry of Henry Bullinger. 14
  15. 15. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant His Ministry 1543 – Returned to Scotland. Preaching in Montrose, Dundee, Ayr, Kyle and Edinburgh the people flocked. His preaching was expository, majored on Romans. Arrested; 16th January 1546 and taken to St Andrews. 15
  16. 16. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant His Martyrdom and Legacy Burned at Saint Andrews 28th February 1546. “The grim fire I fear not. I know surely that my soul shall sup with my Saviour this night.” Speaking of Cardinal Beaton he declared that he would die very soon. A young onlooker was both impressed and inspired by Wishart. JOHN KNOX. 16
  17. 17. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant John Knox 1505 - 1572 Educated at Haddington and Glasgow University. 1530 - Ordained as a Priest. 1535 – Convinced that Rome was false through reading the Scriptures. Became a private tutor. 1544 – declared himself a Protestant through Wishart’s ministry. 17
  18. 18. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant John Knox 1505 - 1572 May 1546, Norman Leslie seized St Andrews Castle. Easter 1547, John Knox became their Pastor. His preaching condemned the Papacy as Anti Christ. Laing – “He strikes at the root to destroy the whole.” 18
  19. 19. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant The Papacy as the Anti-Christ 2nd Thessalonians 2:3-4 “Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, that son of perdition.; who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God” 19
  20. 20. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant The Papacy as the Anti-Christ 2nd Thessalonians 2:3-4, 7 ANTI = INSTEAD OF “Let no man deceive you by any means: for that day shall not come, except there come a falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, that son of perdition.; who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God…for the mystery of iniquity doth already work: only he now hinders will hinder until he be taken out of the way” 20
  21. 21. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant From The Ministry To The Galley Rome remained in the ascendancy throughout Scotland. June 1547; Castle fell to French and Scots. Knox was captured and spent 19 months as a slave on a French warship. 21
  22. 22. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Serving The English King After his release he laboured in England because under Edward 6th things were more favourable than in Scotland. He became one of the King’s chaplains and was even offered a Bishopric which he refused. When Mary ascended the throne he made good his escape to the continent. 22
  23. 23. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant In Calvin’s Geneva 4 happy and blessed years: “…the most perfect school of Christ that ever was in the earth since the days of the apostles. In other places I confess Christ to be truly preached, but manners and religion to be so truly reformed, I have not yet seen in any other place”. John Knox 23
  24. 24. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Visiting Home He longed for Scotland; “bound in the chains of Rome, riveted by French steel.” (Wylie) Some noble families espoused the reformation. 1555 he briefly visited Scotland. He advised these noble families to refuse Mass and he dispensed the Lord’s Supper. The Reformation had now become a congregation. 24
  25. 25. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant The Cause Advances The Lords of the Congregation entered into a Covenant in 1557. Establish the Gospel, defend its Ministers and build up its Congregation. 1558 – they introduced the English Book of Common Prayer into their parishes. 25
  26. 26. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant The Last of the Reformation Martyrs Parish Priest Walter Millar had been faithful since the days of Cardinal Beaton. He had been sought for many years. At 82 years of age he was arrested. “I will not recant the truth, for I am corn and not chaff.” Burnt to death, St Andrews, 28th August 1558. 26
  27. 27. The Crisis of 1549 Cometh the Hour, Cometh the Man Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant 27
  28. 28. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Demands to the Regent Dispense sacraments and preach in the native tongue. Bishops should have the consent of the barons and priests must have the consent of the people. Immoral and incapable men removed from the pulpit. 28
  29. 29. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant The Moment of Crisis Mary of Guise introduced a new law prohibiting preaching which did not have the license of a bishop. Paul Methaven, John Cristison, William Harlow and John Willock refused. They were summoned to the Palace to meet the Regent. She planned their execution. France and Spain were willing to help her crush the Reformation. 29
  30. 30. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Cometh the Hour…. At this moment Knox arrived. He promised to accompany the preachers to their meeting. The Regent cancelled the meeting. Knox declared a rebel and outlaw. The preachers declared to be outlaws for refusing to meet her. 30
  31. 31. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Disturbances in Perth Knox preached against idolatry. A priest, a young boy and a stone. Idols broken, monasteries ransacked. Knox – “the best way to keep the rooks from returning was to pull down their nests” The Regent sent her army to Perth. Crisis temporarily averted as she met a strong Protestant Army. 31
  32. 32. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant St Andrews Archbishop threatened assassination. Against much advice Knox preached. Edinburgh and Glasgow decided to support the Reformation. Scotland was now fully supportive of Protestantism. 32
  33. 33. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant On The Brink of Civil War The Regent was building a strong French Army. Knox wrote to Queen Elizabeth 1st. English reinforcements were sent to support the Protestant forces. The French returned home. 1560 – Mary of Guise died. 33
  34. 34. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant A New Scotland is Born 1560 – 1st Scots Confession. Mass outlawed. A Protestant Church established by law. Knox was installed as Minister of St Giles Cathedral. 34
  35. 35. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Presbyterianism Established Offices Employed: 1: Ministers for preaching. 2: Doctors for teaching students. 3: Elders to rule. 4: Deacons to manage the finance. 5: Superintendents to inspect ministers and plant churches. 35
  36. 36. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Presbyterianism Established The Government: 1: Kirk Session for the local church. 2: Presbytery for governing a shire. 3: Synod for governing a province. 4: General Assembly for governing the national church. 5: The clergy and the people had equal powers. 36
  37. 37. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant His Principle “Take from us the purity of the Communion-table, and You take from us the Evangel.” “Take from us the freedom of Assemblies, and you take from us the Evangel.” 37
  38. 38. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Knox’s Emphasis on Education A school in each Parish. A college in each town. A University in each of the three cities. The poor would be educated free of charge. 38
  39. 39. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Mary Queen of Scots Married to Francis 2nd of France. Widowed in 1560. Returns in 1561 as Queen of Scotland. 39
  40. 40. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Challenges the Reformed Faith Celebrates Mass in Holyrood Palace. Knox persuaded Protestants from storming the palace. He preached against her Romanism. 40
  41. 41. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant The Famous Interviews Queen – “Who are you in this Commonwealth?” Knox – “A subject born within the same, and although I am neither earl, Lord, or baron in it, yet has God made me a profitable member within the same, and both my vocation and conscience require plainness of me”. “I have learned plainly and boldly to call wickedness by its own terms, a fig, a fig and a spade, a spade.” 41
  42. 42. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant As a Result of 3 Private Interviews “If there be not in her a proud mind, a crafty wit, a callous heart against God and his truth, my judgement faileth me” Knox 42
  43. 43. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Knox on Trial 1563 – Queen managed to have Knox tried for treason. “That man made me weep and shed never a tear himself I will now see if I can make him weep.” The council acquitted the preacher. That night the Queen sat in her palace in darkness and alone. 43
  44. 44. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant The Demise of Mary Queen of Scots 1565 – married her cousin, Lord Darnley 1567 – he was found murdered in his garden. James Hepburn, 4th Earl of Bothwell, charged with murder. April 1567 acquitted. The following month he married the Queen. There was an uprising against her reign. Abdicated – July 1567. She fled to England where Elizabeth had her imprisoned for 18 years before she was eventually executed. 44
  45. 45. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant The Period of the Regency She was succeeded by her Son, James 6th. Her half-brother, James, 1st Earl of Moray, Regent assassinated. Matthew Stewart, Earl of Lennox, grandfather of the young James 6th also assassinated Earl of Mar only survived a few months, some said he was poisoned. James Douglas, 4th Earl of Morton, was the last and most successful of the Regents. 45
  46. 46. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant News of St Bartholomew 24th August 1572 Estimated 70,000 Protestants murdered in France. In Rome the bells rang, medals were struck, the city was lit for 3 nights celebrating 46
  47. 47. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant John Knox – Died 24th November 1572 “Here lies one who never feared the face of man”. James Douglas, Regent 47
  48. 48. A Legacy Forgotten? Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant 48
  49. 49. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Was the Battle Won? James Douglas pursued a policy of Episcopacy He neither had the support of Presbyterian or Catholic. James 6th became King when only 11 years old. As James 6th and later as James 1st of England he never showed favour to the Presbyterian cause. As Monarch he believed that he ought to have power over the Church, sought to impose Prelacy. 49
  50. 50. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Andrew Melville “But your majesty there are two Kings And two Kingdoms in Scotland. There is King James, the head of this commonwealth, and there is Christ Jesus, the King of the Church, Whose subject James 6th is, and of whose Kingdom he is not a King, nor A lord nor a head but a member. We will yield you your place and give you all due obedience. But again I say you are not the Head of the Church.” 50
  51. 51. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant James 1st of England 1606 – detained in the Tower of London before being exiled to Sedan, France. 1618 – The Five Articles of Perth: 1. Kneeling during Communion 2. Private Baptism. 3. Private Communion for the sick. 4. Confirmation by the Bishops. 5. Holy Days – Christmas and Easter 51
  52. 52. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Revival and Renewed Convictions Preachers testified to new power. Many conversions. Two main centres: Ayrshire – Mr Dickson and his weekly lectures in Irvine. Kirk of Shotts – Mr John Livingstone, 500 converted during one communion address. 52
  53. 53. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Jenny’s Geddes In 1625 Charles 1st was crowned. 1633 – William Laud became Archbishop of Canterbury Prosecuted a policy of Catholic Ritualism. Many godly Scots tired of the strife saw Ireland as a more peaceful place to worship God. 1637 – Book of Common Prayer introduced to Scotland. Jenny Geddes threw her stool at the Dean of Edinburgh. 53
  54. 54. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant Refusing to Conform Many godly Presbyterian Ministers refused to accept these changes. Samuel Rutherford was exiled to Aberdeen. Robert Blair preferred to be ordained to Ulster. George Dunbar, moved to Ulster, after being ejected from Ayr twice. Edward Brice, moved to Broadisland, Co Antrim, opposed to the King’s policy. 54
  55. 55. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant The National Covenant 1638 – all classes vowed to defend the Reformed Church of Scotland. General Assembly annulled the 5 Articles. “We have cast down the walls of Jericho, let him who rebuildeth them beware of the curse of Hiel the Bethelite” Alexander Henderson, Moderator 55
  56. 56. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant A Century of Agitation The battle for Presbyterianism in Scotland climaxed in the infamous “killing times.” It was the Glorious Revolution of 1688 which settled the issue of an Established Church in Scotland which was Presbyterian in worship. 56
  57. 57. Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant The Ulster Connection Throughout the 17th Century many Presbyterians would seize new opportunities in Ulster. They came for freedom of worship. They fought the same battles as their Scottish brethren. Experienced the same revival. Felt the onslaught in Popery as they never experienced that in Scotland. Established an Irish Presbyerian Church. 57
  58. 58. Archbishop James Ussher Forging the Faith of the Ulster Plantation in the Fires of Persecution and Genocide Searching for the Identity and Faith of the Ulster Protestant 58

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