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  • LAS MENINAS, VELÁZQUEZ (1656) Museo del Prado, Madrid
  • Rousseau y Voltaire
  • SM. p.361. Arterama, p.290.
  • Review

    1. 1. The first manifestation of Hispanic Art
    2. 2. PALEOLITHIC ART Paleo (Greek) = Old Lithic (Greek) = Stone Paleolithic = Old Stone Age 40,000 BCE – 4,000 BCE in Europe
    3. 3. MESOLITHIC-NEOLITHIC  In “open” places (rock shelters, not deep in caves anymore)  No glacial fauna = no Paleolithic  Three types of styles:  Levantine  Schematic  Macro schematic 10,000 BCE – 1,000 BC
    4. 4. LEVANTINE ART • Importance of the human figure. • Representation of clothes, genitals (phallic representations) and weapons (arrows, sticks, quivers, etc.). • Animals depicted are identifiable as belonging to species we can see in the present day (deer, goat, dog, cattle).
    5. 5. LEVANTINE ART Importance of the human figure •Frequently the main theme, and when it appears in the same scene as animals, the human figure runs towards them. •People performing other activities typical of their time such as: hunting, fighting, carrying out agricultural tasks, domestication of animals, gathering honey
    7. 7. SCHEMATIC ART • Associated with the first metallurgical cultures • Only the basic fragments of each figure are represented • Very simple and stylized figures • Monochromatic (red ochre)
    9. 9. MACRO SCHEMATIC ART  Big paintings in rock shelters  Wide lines  Use of dark red  Human figures and geometric symbols  Probably the oldest
    10. 10. THE IBERIAN ART
    11. 11. When  “Second Iron Age”  From V to III Century BC
    12. 12. CARACHTERISTICS  Polichrome sandstone  From S.V to Roman conquest  Mainly seated or standing females (Goddess? Priestess?)  Familiar groups  Males: heads or busts, warriors  Bulls, lions & griffins
    13. 13. CARACHTERISTICS Bulls, lions & griffins For protection
    14. 14. LADY OF BAZA  Policrome grey stone  A hole for ashes at the right side  Small bird in one hand (life after death?)
    15. 15.  Polichrome sandstone  IV Century BC  Complex headdress  Funerary statue? (has an apperture in the rear for ashes)  Strong Greek influence LADY OF ELCHE
    16. 16.  Maybe part of a seated statue?
    17. 17. ROMAN ART
    18. 18. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE •Functionalism and Pragmatism •Systematic use of arch and vault •Monumental proportions •Decorative art is associated to architecture •Stone, brick or mortar of concrete
    19. 19. THE ROMANESQUE
    20. 20.  Europe XI – XIII Centuries  FEUDALISM  It’s called Romanesque because of the use of Ancient Roman’s technical solutions (arc, vaux,…)  It’s basically a RELIGIOUS art.
    22. 22. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE  AUSTERITY very few ornaments  SIMPLICITY simple forms  SOLIDITY very thick walls
    23. 23. BARREL VAULT
    25. 25. EL MUDÉJAR  Mudajjan ‫,مدجن‬ meaning "domesticated", in a reference to the Muslims who submitted to the rule of the Christian kings  In erecting Romanesque buildings (Gothic and Renaissance too), builders used elements of Islamic art  Use of BRICKS in a geometrical character  Only in Spain
    26. 26. EL MUDÉJAR
    27. 27. Al-Andalus The Islamic Art in Spain
    28. 28. Year 711 aC
    29. 29. Islamic Architecture • Built to accommodate as many worshippers as possible in prostrate position: Communal Prayer • No elaborate ritual with a center of visual attention (like an altar) • Emphasizes horizontality as opposed to verticality (Christian Churches). • Roofed part held up by a combination of arches/columns called a hypostyle hall.
    30. 30. Parts of a Mosque MinaretMinaret
    31. 31. The Mosque of CórdobaThe Mosque of Córdoba
    32. 32. Great Mosque, Córdoba, begun in 786 • An infinite sea of columns on the interior (columns harvested from existing Roman and Visigoth buildings. • Short columns (c. 9 feet) necessitated 2-tiered arches to raise ceiling and increase light. • Columns interlace with each other • Columns have capitals, but no bases • Arches are rounded, with alternating stripes (red brick and white marble) • Columns represent endless number of worshippers • All face the mihrab
    33. 33. The Alhambra, Granada • Originally a military fortification built in 889 • Later reconstructed as a palace around 1333
    34. 34.  The palace complex was designed with the mountainous site in mind 
    35. 35. Court of the Myrtles The birka (pool) helped to cool the palace and acted as a symbol of power
    36. 36. Hall of the Ambassadors The largest in the Alhambra and occupies all the Torre de Comares
    37. 37. Hall of the Ambassadors This was the grand reception room, and the throne of the sultan was placed opposite the entrance. It was in this setting that Christopher Columbus  received Isabel and Ferdinand's support to sail to the New World
    38. 38. Court of the Lions •Fountain surrounded by lions, demonstrating some secular use of animal forms. •Lions are crudely carved, indicating infrequency with subject in art.
    39. 39. Each hour one lion would produce water from its mouth
    40. 40. GOTHIC
    41. 41. THE NAME ‘GOTHIC’  From the Renaissance  Begins in France in XIIth Century  Almost all Europe
    46. 46. RENAISSANCE: INTRODUCTION  Means “rebirth” in French  Term first used by Giorgio Vasari* to describe the renewal of classical Greek and Roman arts, movement toward perfection (* Biographer of the artists, and contemporary art historian)
    47. 47.  Rejection of mythological themes or the cult of the nude.  Religiouse painting basically.  Normally completed in oil.  The figures are all of the same size and anatomically correct.  The colors and the shading are applied in tonal ranges.  To accentuate the Italian style: a candelieri and Roman ruins on foreground. Characteristics
    48. 48.  The use of perspective  Foreshortening (the appearance that the object of a drawing is extending into space by shortening the lines with which that object is drawn)  Sfumato (the application of subtle layers of translucent paint so that there is no visible transition between colors, tones and often objects)  Chiaroscuro (use of exaggerated light contrasts in order to create the illusion of volume)  Balance and Proportion Techniques
    50. 50. •Unnaturally elongated features •Purposefully asymmetrical or unbalanced •Unusual light sources •Figura serpentina: twisting movement of body similar to that of a serpent’s MANNERISM
    51. 51. MANNERISM
    52. 52. Renaissance painting: El Greco
    53. 53. TECHNIQUE  Color have primacy over form (the painter liked "the colors crude and unmixed in great blots as a boastful display of his dexterity“)  Tendency to dramatize rather than to describe.  Each figure seems to carry its own light within or reflects the light that emanates from an unseen source
    54. 54.  It represents a legend of the beginning of the 14th century: the count of Orgaz was a very generous man, and because of that, when he died, Saint Stephen (Esteban) and Saint Agustine (Agustín) descended in person from the heavens and buried him by their own hands.
    55. 55. Upper zone Heaven (Paradise) with Christ, the Virgin, Saint Joan and other saints. Lower zone The burial of the Count with Saint Stephen, Saint Agustine and the people present at the ceremony. The painting is divided into two zones:
    56. 56. Artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur Artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur - From the Spanish barrueco, a large, irregularly-shaped pearl. - The term "Baroque" was initially used with a derogatory meaning, to underline the excesses of its emphasis and  its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details
    57. 57. The demands of the Council of Trent on art •Clarity, simplicity, and intelligibility •Realistic interpretation (unveiled truth, accuracy, decorum) •Emotional stimulus to piety •Emphasis on the splendor and glory of the church The demands of the Council of Trent on art •Clarity, simplicity, and intelligibility •Realistic interpretation (unveiled truth, accuracy, decorum) •Emotional stimulus to piety •Emphasis on the splendor and glory of the church Protestant ReformationProtestant Reformation Catholic Counter-ReformationCatholic Counter-Reformation
    58. 58. Hallmarks of Baroque art •Exaggerated emotionalism. •Manipulation of light and dark for theatrical effect (Chiaroscuro) •A dynamic sense of movement that extends beyond the artwork. •A heightened sense of realism. • Iconography was direct, simple, obvious, and theatrical. Hallmarks of Baroque art •Exaggerated emotionalism. •Manipulation of light and dark for theatrical effect (Chiaroscuro) •A dynamic sense of movement that extends beyond the artwork. •A heightened sense of realism. • Iconography was direct, simple, obvious, and theatrical.
    59. 59. Spanish mysticism is characterized by •Austerity and Asceticism •Emotive content •Religious devotion (particularly images of martyrdom) Spanish mysticism is characterized by •Austerity and Asceticism •Emotive content •Religious devotion (particularly images of martyrdom)
    60. 60. Spanish mysticism is characterized by •Austerity and Asceticism •Emotive content •Religious devotion (particularly images of martyrdom) Spanish mysticism is characterized by •Austerity and Asceticism •Emotive content •Religious devotion (particularly images of martyrdom)
    61. 61. V E L Á Z Q U E Z
    62. 62. Characteristics: Claroscuro (light and shade) Dark chromatic range Tenebrismo (tenebrism effects). Drawing control and verism/realism in mundane scenes. DIEGO RODRÍGUEZ DE SILVA Y VELÁZQUEZ (1599-1660)
    63. 63.  Born in Seville  Burguesía  At 12 study under Francisco de Herrera and Francisco Pacheco.  Amusing type scenes •Early period (1617-1629) • Tenebrism, shadows and lights • Ochres, browns, • Simple composition
    64. 64. Still-life and Naturalism. Realistis objects Tenebrism
    65. 65.  Simple composition  Realism  “Empty” backgrounds  Elegance and stylishness  Static portraits (full body, busts or ¾)  Buffoons and dwarfs in Felipe’s court and portraits of the king Philip IV In Madrid
    66. 66. First italian visit (1629-1631) 1629 - 1631 he saw renaissance paintings of Roman and Venetian painters (Tiziano).
    67. 67. Agustina Sarmiento (Menina) Infanta Margarita Marcela de Ulloa (Guardadamas) Isabel de Velasco (Menina) Maribárbola Nicolás de Portosanto Don Diego Ruiz de Arcona (servant)
    68. 68. VELÁZQUEZ Los Reyes: Mariana de Austria y Felipe IV D. José Nieto? Aposentador de la Reina
    70. 70. A space outside the scene The space Continues trough the door
    72. 72. The light creates the space
    73. 73. …and the aerial perspective creates the space…
    74. 74. Dynamism: Psycologic effect They’re looking at us…
    76. 76. NEOCLASSICISM  XVIII changes:  Population growth.  Industrial Revolution.  Middle classes growth.  Enlightment (Age of Reason)and its ideas.
    77. 77. Enlightment :  Science and intellectual interchange vs  Superstition, intolerance and abuses by church and state  Art must have a social and moral purpose.  Against the excess of Baroque (art for the church and royalty)
    78. 78.  Public buildings  Museums  Libraries.  Theaters.  Political buildings: Parliaments, Arches of Triumph
    79. 79. ROMANTICISM  EMOTION the authentic source of aesthetic experience.  Untamed nature  Classical ruins  A revived medievalism gothic  Landscape paintings 
    80. 80. Francisco de Goya y Lucientes
    81. 81. • He designed about 42 patterns; many of them were used to decorate and insulate the stone walls of El Escorial and the Palacio Real del Pardo. Tapestries
    82. 82. His portraits are notable because he did not worry to flatter, and in the case of Carlos IV of Spain and His Family, the lack of visual diplomacy is remarkable
    83. 83. PATRIOTIC PAINTINGS El dos de Mayo 1808
    84. 84. Los fusilamientos del 3 de mayo
    85. 85. Disasters of War (1810-1820)
    86. 86. Saturn eating his children BLACK PAINTINGS
    87. 87. Aquelarre (1821-1823). La romería de San Isidro (1821-1823)
    88. 88. Middle of the 19th century, France •The Académie des Beaux-Arts dominated French art •Historical subjects, religious themes, and portraits were valued (landscape and still life were not) •The Académie preferred carefully finished images that looked realistic when examined closely. •Color was somber and conservative. •Traces of brush strokes were suppressed. Middle of the 19th century, France •The Académie des Beaux-Arts dominated French art •Historical subjects, religious themes, and portraits were valued (landscape and still life were not) •The Académie preferred carefully finished images that looked realistic when examined closely. •Color was somber and conservative. •Traces of brush strokes were suppressed.
    89. 89. Violating the rules of academic painting: •Freely brushed colors that took precedence over lines and contours. •Realistic scenes of modern life. •Often painted outdoors (a plen air). Previously, still lifes and portraits as well as landscapes were usually painted in a studio. •They portrayed overall visual effects instead of details. •They used short "broken" brush strokes of mixed and pure unmixed color— not blended smoothly or shaded, as was customary—to achieve an effect of intense color vibration. •Pure impressionism avoids the use of black paint (they use the complementary colors to get greys) •An art of immediacy and movement, of candid poses and compositions, of the play of light.
    90. 90. Claude Monet, Woman with a Parasol
    91. 91. Sorolla
    92. 92.  His style is a special kind of impressionism: “Luminismo” (bright light)  Besides Sundays, he would work six to nine hours a day, often standing in the full glare of the sun dressed in a suit.  Sorolla painted very, very fast. "I could not paint at all if I had to paint slowly," he once said. "Every effect is so transient, it must be rapidly painted.“  Most of his pictures were painted in from four to six mornings, many in one or two. SOROLLA the artist
    93. 93. “The return from fishing” Salon du Paris
    94. 94. “The fishing nets”
    96. 96. MODERNISME  Barcelona, Catalonia late 19th c. And early 20th c.  Architectural style, which also involves other arts (painting and sculpture), and especially the design and decorative arts  Part of a general trend that emerges in Europe (known in each country as modernism, art nouveau, etc.)  Modernisme is basically derived from the English Arts and Crafts movement and the Gothic revival
    97. 97. MODERNISME Predominance of the curve and the dynamic shapes over the straight line
    98. 98. MODERNISME Rich decoration and detail
    99. 99. MODERNISME Frequent use of vegetal and other organic motifs
    100. 100. MODERNISME Asymmetry
    101. 101. MODERNISME Use of “industrial” materials, like iron forgery, ceramics and stained glass
    102. 102.  In the context of a spectacular urban and industrial development  It is a style for the Catalan industrial bourgeoisie, whoIt is a style for the Catalan industrial bourgeoisie, who built industrial buildings and summer residencesbuilt industrial buildings and summer residences (families like the(families like the GüellGüell,, BatllóBatlló oror MiláMilá) Modernisme
    103. 103.  His big passions in life: architecture, nature, religion. an organic style inspired by nature He rarely drew detailed plans of his works, instead preferring to create them as three-dimensional scale models and molding the details as he was conceiving them. ANTONI GAUDÍ
    104. 104. • First years under the influence of neo-Gothic art and Oriental styles
    105. 105. • Güell was a wealthy industrialist and entrepeneur • He was so impressed with his first works that he wanted to meet Gaudí • They became friends and Güell became Gaudí's main patron and sponsor
    106. 106. Originally part of a commercially unsuccessful housing site The focal point of the park is the main terrace, surrounded by a long bench in the form of a sea serpent.
    107. 107. To design the curvature of the bench surface Gaudí used the shape of buttocks left by a naked workman sitting in wet clay
    108. 108. New techniques in the treatment of materials, Trencadís, made of waste ceramic pieces
    109. 109. La Sagrada Familia
    110. 110. • It has a cruciform plan, with a five-aisled nave, a transept of three aisles, and an apse with seven chapels • It has three facades dedicated to the birth, passion and glory of Jesus
    111. 111. INTERIOR
    112. 112. PICASSO
    113. 113. “The old fisherman” 1895
    114. 114. “The first Communion” 1895
    115. 115. • Picasso made his first trip to Paris, the art capital of Europe at that time. • These were times of severe poverty, cold, and desperation. Much of his work was burned to keep his small room warm!
    116. 116. Blue Period 1901 - 1904 •Monochromatic paintings in shades of blue and blue-green, only occasionally warmed by other colors. •Influenced by a journey through Spain and by the suicide of his friend Carlos Casagemas, in 1901.
    117. 117. The old guitarist
    118. 118. Rose Period 1904 - 1906 •Picasso's painting used cheerful orange and pink colors in contrast to the cool, somber tones of the previous Blue Period. •Picasso was happy in his relationship with Fernandine Olivier and she was one of the reasons for him to change his style of painting. •The Rose Period has been considered French influenced, while the Blue Period more Spanish influenced. •Picasso often painted clowns, harlequins and circus performers.
    119. 119. On May 5, 2004 the painting was sold for US$ 104,168,000 at Sotheby's auction in New York City, breaking the record for the amount paid for an auctioned painting. Garçon a la Pipe, 1904
    120. 120. Black Period 1907–1909 •African influenced period. •African artifacts were being brought back to Paris museums in consequence of the expansion of the French empire into Africa. •In 1907, Picasso experienced a "revelation" while viewing African art at the ethnographic museum in Paris.
    121. 121. CUBISM •Objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form— instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. •In 1907 Picasso painted “The Ladies of Avignon” considered the origins of Cubism
    122. 122. Classicism & Surrealism •In the period following the disorder of World War I, Picasso produced work in a neoclassical style.
    123. 123. “Classicism”
    124. 124. Surrealism
    125. 125. The Guernica • Created in response to the bombing of Guernica by German and Italian warplanes during the Spanish Civil War. • The Spanish Republican government commissioned Picasso to create a large mural for the Spanish display at the Paris International Exposition at the 1937 World's Fair in Paris. • Shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it inflicts upon individuals, particularly innocent civilians. • It’s now an anti-war symbol.
    126. 126. Salvador DalíSalvador Dalí Surrealism: unreal worlds through real images
    127. 127. In 1924 he was expelled from the School of Fine Arts for saying that no one on the faculty of the school was competent to test him. Also in 1924 he made his first visit to Paris and met Pablo Picasso, whom he admired and was influenced by. He mixed classical and modern techniques, sometimes in the same painting, which confused critics and art patrons. THE BASKET OF BREAD (1926)
    128. 128. THE FIRST DAYS OF SPRING (1929) In 1929, he met a russian woman named Gala, who would become his wife, model and inspiration for much of his work. He joined a group of artists from the Montparnasse area of Paris who were surrealists. The subject matter of his paintings became very dreamlike, dealing with images from the subconscious.
    129. 129. The Persistence of Memory (1931) His most famous painting, challenges the idea that time is rigid. It is also said to be an interpretation of Einstein’s theory of relativity–the warping of space & time by gravity.
    130. 130. Lobster Telephone (1936) (yes, it worked) Aside from painting, Dalí created sculptures and other objects, dabbled in theater, fashion and photography. He was hired by a wealthy art patron to create these two works of art for his mansion: Lobster Telephone and Mae West Lips Sofa. Mae West Lips Sofa (1936) (Mae West was a famous actress whose lips Dalí found interesting)
    131. 131. The Metamorphosis of Narcissus (1937) While most of the surrealists were radical in their political beliefs, Dalí refused to discuss politics. Other artists accused him of being interested only in the money he could make through his art. He was eventually “disowned” by the surrealists. When World War II started in Europe, Dalí and Gala fled to the United States.
    132. 132. Sleep (1937) Said to depict a monster help up by the crutches of reality
    133. 133. He worked on several films with famous directors, such as Alfred Hitchcock (spellbound). In 1946, he began work on an animated film for Walt Disney called Destino. Dalí created dreamlike images of odd figures flying and walking around for a film that told the story of a mythological god who falls in love with a mortal woman. The project ran out of money and was never completed. In 2003, it was found and shown in limited release. Destino (1946/2003)
    134. 134. The Dali Atomicus, photo by Philippe Halsman (1948) After World War II ended, he returned to Spain. He had become interested in optical illusions as a way of creating false reality. If you look closely at this photo, you can see the wires holding up the objects (something we can do now with computers!) Dalí himself is the man in mid air in the center of the photo.
    135. 135. Blood Sweeter Than Honey - 1926
    136. 136. Apparatus & Hand 1927
    137. 137. First Day Of Spring - 1929
    138. 138. Bleeding Roses - 1930
    139. 139. The Royal Heart (1959) Between 1941 and 1970, Dalí created a set of 39 jewels. His most famous, the Royal Heart, was made of gold and encrusted with 46 rubies, 42 diamonds and 4 emeralds. It’s a moving sculpture: the center “beats” like a real human heart. These jewels are all on display at the Dalí museum in Catalonia, Spain (pictured below). Note the giant eggs along the roofline of the museum!
    140. 140. Dalí was very unique in his appearance, always wearing a long cape, carrying a walking stick, and having a huge, waxed mustache. When he signed autographs, he always kept peoples pens. When he appeared on the Tonight show, he brought a leather Rhinoceros and refused to sit on anything but it during the TV interview.
    141. 141. As his health deteriorated in the 1980s, he was unable to continue working. In 1982, King Juan Carlos of Spain bestowed upon him a title, making him the Marquis of Dalí de Púbol.The king visited Dalí in the hospital shortly before he died of heart failure on January 23, 1989. He is buried at the Dalí theatre and Museum in Figueres, Spain.