Gilded Age1

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Gilded Age1

  1. 1. Gilded Age
  2. 2. 1. A Two-Party Stalemate
  3. 3. Intense Voter Loyalty to the Two Major Political Parties
  4. 4. 3. Well-Defined Voting Blocs Democratic Bloc Republican Bloc <ul><li>White southerners (preservation of white supremacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics </li></ul><ul><li>Recent immigrants (esp. Jews) </li></ul><ul><li>Urban working poor (pro-labor) </li></ul><ul><li>Most farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Northern whites (pro-business) </li></ul><ul><li>African Americans </li></ul><ul><li>Northern Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>Old WASPs (support for anti-immigrant laws) </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the middle class </li></ul>
  5. 5. Well-Defined Voting Blocs 2009 <ul><li>emocratic Bloc </li></ul>Democrats Republicans Catholics Pro business Jewish Protestants Catholics – pro life African Americans Protestants Recent immigrants Women women – pro life Most Farmers farmers in mid west Young voters Lower middle class Upper middle class Middle class
  6. 6. Very Laissez Faire Federal Govt. <ul><li>From 1870-1900  Govt. did very little domestically. </li></ul><ul><li>Main duties of the federal govt.: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver the mail. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain a national military. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collect taxes & tariffs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct a foreign policy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exception  administer the annual Civil War veterans’ pension. </li></ul>
  7. 7. 5. The Presidency as a Symbolic Office <ul><li>Party bosses ruled. </li></ul><ul><li>Presidents should avoid offending any factions within their own party. </li></ul><ul><li>The President just doled out federal jobs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1865  53,000 people worked for the federal govt. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1890  166,000 “ “ “ “ “ “ </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. 1880 Presidential Election: Republicans James A. Garfield Chester A. Arthur (VP)
  9. 9. 1880 Presidential Election: Democrats
  10. 10. 1880 Presidential Election
  11. 11. 1881: Garfield Assassinated! Charles Guiteau: I Am a Stalwart, and Arthur is President now!
  12. 12. Pendleton Act (1883) <ul><li>Civil Service Act. </li></ul><ul><li>The “Magna Carta” of civil service reform. </li></ul><ul><li>1883  14,000 out of 117,000 federal govt. jobs became civil service exam positions. </li></ul><ul><li>1900  100,000 out of 200,000 civil service federal govt. jobs. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 1884 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland James Blaine * (DEM) (REP)
  14. 14. A Dirty Campaign Ma, Ma…where’s my pa? He’s going to the White House, ha… ha… ha…!
  15. 15. 1884 Presidential Election
  16. 16. Cleveland’s First Term <ul><li>The “Veto Governor” from New York. </li></ul><ul><li>First Democratic elected since 1856. </li></ul><ul><li>A public office is a public trust! </li></ul><ul><li>His laissez-faire presidency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed bills to assist the poor as well as the rich. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vetoed over 200 special pension bills for Civil War veterans! </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Interstate Commerce Act - 1887 <ul><li>No more rebates </li></ul><ul><li>Set up Interstate Commerce Commission – regulate the railroad </li></ul><ul><li>Commission weak until Congress passed more effective enforcement laws </li></ul>
  18. 18. 1888 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison (DEM) * (REP)
  19. 19. Sherman Anti-Trust <ul><li>No more trusts or monopolies </li></ul><ul><li>Enforcement difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Courts used it to control unions instead of businesses </li></ul>
  20. 20. 1892 Presidential Election Grover Cleveland Benjamin Harrison again! * (DEM) (REP)
  21. 21. Cleveland Loses Support Fast! <ul><li>The only President to serve two non-consecutive terms. </li></ul><ul><li>Blamed for the 1893 Panic. </li></ul><ul><li>Defended the gold standard. </li></ul><ul><li>Used federal troops in the 1894 Pullman strike. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Reforms and Reformers <ul><li>Reformers – progressives </li></ul><ul><li>forward thinking people who wanted </li></ul><ul><li>to improve American life </li></ul><ul><li>the ills of society could be solved or </li></ul><ul><li>cured </li></ul>
  23. 23. Robert La Follette “Battling Bob” <ul><li>More direct participation in government </li></ul><ul><li>Introduced Primaries </li></ul><ul><li>voter’s select party’s candidates </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative – voters can propose legislation </li></ul><ul><li>Referendum- voters can overturn an existing law </li></ul><ul><li>Recall- voters can remove elected officials from office </li></ul>
  24. 24. Mother Jones <ul><li>Mary Harris Jones </li></ul><ul><li>March of the Mill Children </li></ul><ul><li>Child Labor laws passed by states </li></ul><ul><li>“ Slowly the cause of his children becomes the cause of all.” </li></ul>
  25. 25. John Muir <ul><li>Protector of the Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Worked to set aside land for Parks </li></ul>
  26. 26. Upton Sinclair <ul><li>Mukraker </li></ul><ul><li>The Jungle – best seller </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passed Meat Inspection Act </li></ul><ul><li>Congress passed Pure Food and Drug Act </li></ul>
  27. 27. Alice Paul <ul><li>Wanted to win suffrage by constitutional amendment </li></ul><ul><li>states in the west gave women right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Carrie Chapman Catt organized plans to win the right to vote </li></ul><ul><li>1920 – 19 th amendment ratified </li></ul>
  28. 28. Women’s Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) <ul><li>Organized in 1874 </li></ul><ul><li>Spoke out against “evils of alcohol” </li></ul><ul><li>Carrie Nation </li></ul><ul><li>radical crusader </li></ul><ul><li>18 th Amendment – illegal to </li></ul><ul><li>sell alcohol in </li></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><li>ratified in 1919 </li></ul>
  29. 29. W.E.B. DuBois <ul><li>Discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>Lynching </li></ul><ul><li>Disagreed with Booker T Washington – education would win respect and jobs </li></ul><ul><li>NAACP – worked for equal rights </li></ul>
  30. 30. Two Amendments <ul><li>Income tax – 16 Amendment – ratified in 1913 </li></ul><ul><li>Direct election on Senators – 17 th Amendment </li></ul><ul><li>ratified in 1913 </li></ul>
  31. 31. Election of 1896 <ul><li>William McKinley William Jennings Bryan </li></ul><ul><li>Republican Democrat </li></ul>
  32. 33. McKinley <ul><li>USS Maine explodes in Cuban harbor </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish-American war (chapter 23) </li></ul>
  33. 34. Election of 1900 <ul><li>William McKinley William Jennings Bryan </li></ul><ul><li>Republican Democrat </li></ul>
  34. 36. Teddy Roosevelt 26 th President <ul><li>Intervenes in coal mining strike </li></ul><ul><li>Makes Philippines a United States territory </li></ul><ul><li>Begins work on Panama Canal </li></ul><ul><li>Youngest President (42) </li></ul>
  35. 38. Election of 1904 <ul><li>Roosevelt Alton B Parker </li></ul><ul><li>Republican Democrat </li></ul>
  36. 40. Teddy Roosevelt <ul><li>Hepburn Act </li></ul><ul><li>Meat Inspection Act </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Food and Drug Act </li></ul>
  37. 41. Election of 1908 <ul><li>William Howard Taft Bryan </li></ul><ul><li>Republican Democrat </li></ul>
  38. 42. Taft – 27 th President <ul><li>Triangle Shirtwaist company fire </li></ul><ul><li>Standard Oil asked to dissolve under Sherman Anti-Trust act </li></ul><ul><li>Eight hour work day for all workers with federal contracts </li></ul><ul><li>16 th amendment ratified </li></ul>
  39. 43. Election of 1912 <ul><li>Taft Woodrow Wilson Teddy Roosevelt </li></ul><ul><li>Republican Democrat Bull Moose </li></ul>
  40. 44. <ul><li>In 1912 presidential campaign saw issues raised that raised questions about the future of </li></ul><ul><li>American democracy, </li></ul><ul><li>direct democracy </li></ul><ul><li>conservation of natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>the future shape of the American economy, </li></ul><ul><li>the tariff </li></ul><ul><li>regulation of big business </li></ul><ul><li>labor question </li></ul>
  41. 45. <ul><li>and the relationship between the federal government and American citizens.  </li></ul><ul><li>women voting </li></ul><ul><li>race problems </li></ul>
  42. 47. Wilson – 28 th President <ul><li>New Freedom </li></ul><ul><li>Federal Reserve system established </li></ul><ul><li>17 th amendments ratified </li></ul><ul><li>Panama Canal is completed </li></ul><ul><li>WWI begins in Europe </li></ul>

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