TX History Ch 19.1

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TX History Ch 19.1

  1. 1. Chapter 19: Reconstruction Section 1: Presidential Reconstruction
  2. 2. Bellwork <ul><li>What are some problems that Texas and the United States might have faced at the end of the Civil War? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Emancipation <ul><li>U.S. troops take control of Texas at end of Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>June 19, 1865: Gen. Gordon Granger issues proclamation freeing slaves </li></ul>Gen. Gordon Granger
  4. 4. Emancipation <ul><li>Many freedpeople left plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Formally married and searched for family </li></ul><ul><li>Gathered at military posts & towns to seek work </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Freedmen’s Bureau <ul><li>Reconstruction —the process of reuniting the Southern states back into the Union </li></ul><ul><li>13 th Amendment —amendment to U.S. Constitution that abolished slavery </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Freedmen’s Bureau <ul><li>Freedman's Bureau —organization created by the U.S. Congress to give legal aid to former slaves </li></ul><ul><li>Freedpeople had no land and few job opportunities </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Freedmen’s Bureau <ul><li>Bureau and churches established schools </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteracy rate of African American dropped </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Freedmen’s Bureau <ul><li>Only a few dozen Freemen’s Bureau agents were sent to Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Former Confederates used violence against freedpeople </li></ul>
  9. 9. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>Some wanted to punish the South </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln did not want to increase bitterness </li></ul>President Lincoln & Mr. Taylor
  10. 10. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>April 1865: Lincoln assassinated </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Johnson becomes president </li></ul>Andrew Johnson
  11. 11. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>Step 1: Voters in former Confederate states had to take an oath of loyalty to the United States </li></ul>
  12. 12. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>Step 2: High ranking Confederate officials and wealthy landowners had to apply for a pardon </li></ul>
  13. 13. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>Step 3: States had to form provisional governments </li></ul>
  14. 14. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>Step 4: States had to form new constitutions declaring secession illegal & abolishing slavery </li></ul>
  15. 15. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>Step 5: States had to agree not to pay any outstanding Confederate debts </li></ul>
  16. 16. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>Step 6: Ratify new constitutions & elect new government officials </li></ul>
  17. 17. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>Step 7: Ratify 13 th Amendment </li></ul>
  18. 18. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>November 1865: Provisional Governor Andrew Hamilton calls for an election to select delegates to constitutional convention </li></ul>Andrew J. Hamilton
  19. 19. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>African Americans could not vote for delegates to the constitutional convention of 1866 </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution completed in 2 months </li></ul>
  20. 20. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>African Americans did not receive equal rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suffrage —voting rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could not testify in court cases involving whites </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>June 1866: voters approve new constitution </li></ul><ul><li>James Throckmorton elected governor </li></ul>James Throckmorton
  22. 22. President Johnson’s Plan <ul><li>Former secessionists elected to state legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Legislature refused to ratify 13 th amendment </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Black Codes <ul><li>Black Codes —laws passed after Reconstruction to deny African Americans’ civil rights </li></ul><ul><li>Required to sign labor contracts </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Black Codes <ul><li>Arrested for not having jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Violence: 1865-1868 468 freedpeople killed in Texas </li></ul>

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