The new south


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The new south

  1. 1. The New South
  2. 2. Bourbon Triumvirate <ul><li>Redemption Era : period after Reconstruction and before the “New South” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Redeem the state from the hardships of Reconstruction (i.e.…The Republican Party) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The Bourbon Triumvirate : Joseph Brown, Alfred Colquitt, and John Gordon </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Democrats who wanted stronger economic ties with northern industry but maintain “old South traditions” (White Supremacy) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Joseph Brown <ul><li>Yale Law School </li></ul><ul><li>Opened law office in Canton, GA </li></ul><ul><li>State senator </li></ul><ul><li>Judge </li></ul><ul><li>N. Georgia farmer </li></ul><ul><li>1857: elected governor </li></ul><ul><li>State’s rights activist </li></ul><ul><li>Possible connections to KKK </li></ul><ul><li>Annals : records </li></ul>Governor Joseph Brown
  4. 4. Alfred Colquitt <ul><li>Princeton Law School </li></ul><ul><li>Fought in Mexican War </li></ul><ul><li>State senator </li></ul><ul><li>Maj. Gen. in Confederate Army </li></ul><ul><li>1876: elected Governor </li></ul><ul><li>State debt reduced </li></ul><ul><li>New state constitution (1877) </li></ul><ul><li>Political Ally : one who shares a common cause </li></ul>Alfred Colquitt
  5. 5. John B. Gordon <ul><li>Lt. Gen. in Confederate Army </li></ul><ul><li>Newspaper man </li></ul><ul><li>Manager of coal mine </li></ul><ul><li>Rumored Head of Georgia’s KKK during Reconstruction </li></ul><ul><li>1886: elected Governor </li></ul><ul><li>Brought new industry to Georgia. </li></ul>Lt. Gen. John B. Gordon
  6. 6. The Bourbon Triumvirate <ul><li>Successes </li></ul><ul><li>State taxes lowered </li></ul><ul><li>State war debts reduced </li></ul><ul><li>Business and industry expanded </li></ul><ul><li>Failures </li></ul><ul><li>Did not improve lives of poor </li></ul><ul><li>Education suffered </li></ul><ul><li>Did not reform prisons </li></ul><ul><li>Poor working conditions in factories </li></ul>
  7. 7. Convict Lease System <ul><li>Prisoners were leased (rented) to people who provided them with housing and food in exchange for labor (Slavery?) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Repairing/building Railroads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mining </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rules ignored, such as…health care, work on Sundays, adequate clothing and housing. </li></ul><ul><li>Paid workers were not given work because of cheap Convict Lease System…Bourbon Triumvirate took advantage of this! </li></ul>Chain gang in western North Carolina
  8. 8. The 1906 Atlanta Riot <ul><li>Occurred Sept. 22 nd - Sept. 24, 1906 </li></ul><ul><li>The Negro population grew from 9000 in 1880 to 35, 000 in 1910. </li></ul><ul><li>Growth caused increased competition for jobs and deepened class divisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Articles printed in local newspapers evoked racial tension to riot level. </li></ul><ul><li>2 day rioting resulted in an unofficial death toll of 25-40 blacks and 2 whites </li></ul><ul><li>The barbershop owned by Alonzo Herndon was damaged. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Who is Alonzo Herndon? <ul><li>Was a Georgia native who became the wealthiest Black man in the city of Atlanta at the time of his death in1927. </li></ul><ul><li>His businesses include a chain of barbershops and the most successful </li></ul><ul><li>black-owned insurance co. in the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>He owned 100 houses on Auburn Avenue. </li></ul><ul><li>He was active an active member of the NAACP and founded the National Negro Business League. </li></ul>Alonzo Herndon Alonzo Herndon’s house
  10. 10. Rebecca and William Felton <ul><li>Roots of Populist Movement </li></ul><ul><li>Led a group of independent Democrats against the Triumvirate </li></ul><ul><li>From Cartersville </li></ul><ul><li>William Felton : U.S. Congressman; served in GA General Assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Worked to improve education, prison reform, and paved the way for controls and limits on alcohol. </li></ul></ul>Rebecca Latimer Felton Picture of 1930 Prohibition Picture of 1930 Prohibition
  11. 11. Rebecca Felton <ul><li>A leader towards suffrage -votes, particularly for women. </li></ul><ul><li>Pushed for temperance -anti-alcohol </li></ul><ul><li>Popular writer for the “Atlanta Journal” </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used paper as a forum (Way to communicate ideas…TV, paper, radio, speech…) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Began Georgia Training School for Girls in Atlanta </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With Margaret Olivia Slocum Sage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>First female U.S. Senator in nation’s history </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Replaced another Senator due to death (24 hours </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. “ The New South” <ul><li>New South : A phrase used to describe southern progress in the late 1800s… Industry ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry W. Grady : first to use the phrase…editor for the Atlanta Daily Journal </li></ul></ul>Henry W. Grady The international Cotton Exposition
  13. 13. The International Cotton Exposition <ul><li>In 1881, as part of his New South Program, Henry Grady promoted Georgia's first International Cotton Exposition </li></ul><ul><li>The exposition attracted 200,000 paid visitors during its two and a half month run and showed the country that Georgia was ready for more industry </li></ul>
  14. 14. T. Washington
  15. 15. Jim crow laws <ul><li>Jim Crow - term used for practices and rules that discriminate along color lines. </li></ul><ul><li>System of segregation </li></ul><ul><li>Jim Crow was the stage name of a white minstrel who performed in Black face makeup in the late 1800s. </li></ul><ul><li>His act caricatured blacks. </li></ul><ul><li>The name Jim Crow came to stand for all the segregation laws that were instituted in the South after the Civil War. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Plessy v. Ferguson <ul><li>The Plessy v . Ferguson Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Court case heard in the Supreme Court </li></ul><ul><li>Case originated in Lousiana in 1896 </li></ul><ul><li>Upheld segregation and deemed legal and long as facilities were “separate but equal” </li></ul><ul><li>Ruling in this case justified racial segregation for 50 years </li></ul>The Plessy v . Ferguson Supreme Court
  17. 17. Populist <ul><li>Populism was a political party know as the People Party. </li></ul><ul><li>The populist wanted the government to do more to regulate the economy so that farmers could earn more money for their crops. </li></ul><ul><li>Populist encouraged farmers to work together for their cause through alliances </li></ul><ul><li>Most of these farmers were white, but were some African-American Populists </li></ul>
  18. 18. Populist
  19. 19. The Populist Party <ul><li>The Farmers’ Alliance joined with labor organizations (unions) to form this new political party . </li></ul><ul><li>Platform: </li></ul><ul><li>8hour workday </li></ul><ul><li>Gov’t ownership of railroad, telephone, and telegraph </li></ul><ul><li>Graduated federal income tax </li></ul><ul><li>Direct election of U.S. Senators </li></ul><ul><li>Restriction of immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Australian Ballot: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ballot printed by gov’t, distributed at voting places, and collected in secret sealed boxes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1892 Election : Democrat Grover Cleveland won…Populist candidate: James B. Weaver </li></ul>James B. Weaver White and black farmers
  20. 20. Tom Watson <ul><li>Georgia’s best known Populist. </li></ul><ul><li>1882 : elected to Georgia General Assembly </li></ul><ul><li>1890 : elected to Congress with backing of Farmers’ Alliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduced the Rural Free Delivery Bill (RFD): required the postmaster general to find a way to deliver mail to rural homes free of charge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Warren County : 1 st in GA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>1896 : ran as vice-president under William Jennings Bryant (Lost) </li></ul>Tom Watson, Populist Conti…
  21. 21. Conti… <ul><li>Tom Watson become the most powerful voice for populism in GA and of the most powerful in the nation. </li></ul><ul><li>Watson was frustrated that the Democrats weren’t doing enough to help the farmers </li></ul><ul><li>He left the party and become populist </li></ul><ul><li>He found it hard to defend himself against white racism </li></ul>