US History Unit 2 Notes on The Civil War


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  • Tariff=tax on imports Britain was buying less cotton because they were exporting less
  • Sumter was one of the few southern ports in federal command Sumter needed supplies so Lincoln said he was going to send a supply ship Confederate gov. then demanded that the Union Commander surrender the fort When he refuses Confederate forces in Charleston begin shelling fort Jefferson Davis is elected President of the Confederate States
  • Missouri, Kentucky and W. VA are border states
  • Lincoln receives pressure to make the war about slavery because of growing opposition to the war
  • US History Unit 2 Notes on The Civil War

    1. 1. The Civil War
    2. 2. Setting the Stage for Conflict <ul><li>Key issues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State v. federal government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Declaration of Independence (1776) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson’s original draft sought to outlaw slavery </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Setting the Stage for Conflict <ul><li>Whiskey Rebellion (1794) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Farmers in western Pennsylvania refuse to pay federal Whiskey Tax </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attack tax collectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Washington gathers army to end the rebellion </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Setting the Stage for Conflict <ul><li>Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jefferson and Madison (Democratic Republicans) get states to oppose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Virginia and Kentucky pass resolutions nullifying the law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nullification=the principle that states had the right to nullify or consider void any act of Congress that they deemed as unconstitutional </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Setting the Stage for Conflict <ul><li>Missouri Compromise (1820-1821) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Missouri request admission to the union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern and Southern state reps. fight in Congress over whether to admit Missouri as a slave or free state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compromise admitted Missouri as a slave state, Maine as a free state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rest of Louisiana Territory is divided into two parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern half could have slaves, North of the line (except Missouri) slavery was banned </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Setting the Stage for Conflict <ul><li>Nullification Crisis (1832) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South's economy is hurt by the Tariff of 1816 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To free South from tariff, John C. Calhoun of SC develops the concept of nullification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He said the Constitution was a compact between 14 sovereign states </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each would then have the right to determine if an act of Congress was constitutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If so a state could void the law within its borders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tariffs are raised again in 1832 </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Setting the Stage for Conflict <ul><ul><li>SC declares the tariffs unconstitutional and threatens to secede </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Jackson urge the passage of a bill to allow federal gov. to use force if state officials refused to pay proper duties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Henry Clay creates a compromise that lowers tariffs over 10 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoids conflict for now </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Setting the Stage for Conflict <ul><li>Indian Removal (1832) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State of Georgia tries to remove Cherokee’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Court rules in Worcester v. Georgia that the state cannot regulate the tribe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jackson ignores Supreme Court ruling and moves Cherokees for Georgia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to Trail of Tears </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Setting the Stage for Conflict <ul><li>Sectional Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern colonies: plantations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle colonies: mixed economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New England Colonies: small self sufficient farms, and towns that relied on trade </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. The Second Great Awakening <ul><li>Religious revival from 1790s-1830s </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to the development of the Church of Jesus Christ of Later Day Saints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Their persecution led them to move west as America expanded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspires abolition movement </li></ul>Fredrick Douglas, AA leader William Lloyd Garrison, founder of the Liberator Sojourner Truth fought for Civil Rights for women and AA
    11. 11. <ul><li>Compromise of 1850 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CA admitted as a free state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New Mexico and Utah would choose on own whether to be slave or free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sale of slaves in D.C. would be banned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fugitive Slave Act would order Americans citizens to help in the return of all slaves </li></ul></ul>Immediate Causes
    12. 12. <ul><li>Kansas Nebraska Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Territory, North of the Missouri Compromise line was legally closed to slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kansas-Nebraska Act allows territory to vote on slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opponents and supporters of slavery rush to move to Kansas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Struggle turns bloody and Kansas gets the nickname “Bleeding Kansas” </li></ul></ul>Immediate Causes
    13. 13. <ul><li>New political parties are formed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Republican Party forms in opposition to slavery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abraham Lincoln elected President in 1860 </li></ul></ul>Immediate Causes
    14. 15. Sides are chosen <ul><li>South Carolina and 6 other states secede after Lincoln is elected president </li></ul><ul><li>Form Confederate States of America </li></ul><ul><li>Fort Sumter is fired upon </li></ul><ul><li>Upper South, 4 more states secede </li></ul>Jefferson Davis is elected President of the Confederacy
    15. 16. Border States: Delaware, Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland and West Virginia Union The Confederacy: The States that succeeded The U.S. during the Civil War
    16. 17. Preparation for War <ul><li>North’s Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>More railroads </li></ul><ul><li>More factories </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced economy </li></ul><ul><li>Functioning gov. </li></ul><ul><li>2/3s the nation’s population </li></ul><ul><li>South’s Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>7 of the 8 military colleges </li></ul><ul><li>Trained officers </li></ul><ul><li>Defensive war </li></ul>
    17. 18. Here is a photo of the Merrimack rechristened the CSS Virginia.
    18. 19. A few Battles <ul><li>First Battle of Bull Run (July 21, 1861) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant Confederate victory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinted at a long war </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gettysburg (July 1-3, 1863) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The war’s turning point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Surrender at Appomattox Court House April 9, 1865 </li></ul>
    19. 20. African Americans and the Civil War <ul><li>Lincoln faces pressure to make the war about slavery </li></ul><ul><li>Emancipation Proclamation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>January 1, 1863 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freed slaves in states that seceded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Had little immediate effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ended potential support from Great Britain and France for South </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. <ul><li>African Americans Fight </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allowed to join union army after Emancipation Proclamation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On warships served with white soldiers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In army, served in all-black regiments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>54 th Massachusetts Infantry charge on Fort Wagner most famous contribution of AA, subject of movie Glory </li></ul></ul>African American Veteran of the Civil War.
    21. 22. Lincoln’s Assassination <ul><li>Watching play at Ford’s Theater, April 14, 1865 </li></ul><ul><li>John Wilkes Booth shoots Lincoln in back of head </li></ul><ul><li>Booth and conspirators are hanged </li></ul>