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  2. 2. WHAT IS MOTIVATION?    What makes people happiest and most productive at work? Is it money, benefits, opportunities for growth, interesting work, or something else together? MOTIVATION is the set of forces that initiates, directs, and makes people persist in their efforts to accomplish a goal. INITIATION OF EFFORT is concerned with the choices that people make about how much effort to put forth in their jobs. (“Do I really knock myself out for these performance appraisals or just do a decent job”)
  3. 3. MOTIVATION    DIRECTION OF EFFORT is concerned with the choices that people make in deciding where to put forth effort in their jobs. (“I should be spending time with my high-dollar accounts instead of learning this new computer system!”) PERSISTENCE OF EFFORT is concerned with the choices that people make about how long they will put forth effort in their jobs before reducing or eliminating those efforts. (“ I am only halfway through the project, and I am exhausted. Do I plow through to the end, or just call it quits?”) INITIATION, DIRECTIONS, AND PERSISTENCE ARE AT THE HEART OF MOTIVATION
  4. 4. BASIC MODEL OF MOTIVATION  EFFORT AND PERFORMANCE – Not surprisingly, managers often assume motivation to be the only determinant of performance when they say things such as “Your performance was really terrible this quarter. What’s the matter? Aren’t you as motivated as you used to be?.  MOTIVATION Is just one of the three primary determinants of job performance.  JOB PERFORMANCE = MOTIVATION X ABILITY X SITUATIONAL CONSTRAINTS
  5. 5. MOTIVATION  JOB PERFORMANCE is how well someone performs the requirements of the job. MOTIVATION in this formula is effort, the degree to which someone works hard to do their job well. ABILITY is the degree to which workers possess the knowledge, skills, and talent needed to do a job well. And SITUATIONAL CONSTRAINTS are factor beyond the control of individual employees such as tools, policies, and resources that have an effect on job performance.
  6. 6. NEED SATISFACTION    What leads to effort? Determining employee needs is the first step to answering that question. NEEDS are the physical or psychological requirements that must be met to ensure survival and well-being. There are three well-known theories in relation to NEEDS:       MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS -PHYSIOLOGICAL (food and water) -SAFETY (physical and economic) -BELONGINGNESS (friendship, love and social interaction) -ESTEEM (achievement and recognition) -SELF-ACTUALIZATION (realizing your full potential)
  7. 7. NEEDS  ALDERFER’S ERG THEORY – this collapses Maslow’s five types of needs into three:     EXISTENCE (safety and physiological needs) RELATEDNESS (belongingness) GROWTH (esteem and self-actualization) MCLLELAND’S LEARNED NEEDS THEORY – suggests that people are motivated by the need for    AFFILIATION (to be liked and accepted) ACHIEVEMENT (to accomplish challenging goals) POWER (to influence others)
  8. 8. EXTRINSIC AND ENTRINSIC REWARDS   EXTRINSIC REWARDS are tangible and visible to others and are given to employees contingent on the performance of specific tasks or behaviors. Ex: external agents (managers) determine and control the distribution, frequency and amount of extrinsic rewards such as pay, company stock, benefits, and promotions INTRINSIC REWARDS are the natural rewards associated with performing a task or activity for its own sake. Ex: aside from the external rewards management offers for doing something well, employees often find the activities or tasks they perform interesting and enjoyable. Ex of intrinsic rewards are a sense of accomplishment or achievement, a feeling of responsibility,
  9. 9. INTRINSIC REWARDS  the chance to learn something new or interact with others, or simply the fun that comes from performing an interesting, challenging and engaging task.
  10. 10.  How Perceptions and Expectations affect Motivation?  … be discussed next meeting  ……THANK YOU!!!!!
  11. 11. LEADERSHIP   According to Prof. Warren Benis, the primary difference between leaders and managers is that LEADERS are concerned with doing the right thing, whereas managers are concerned with doing things right. Though leaders are different from managers , organizations need them both. Managers are critical to getting out the day-to-day work and leaders are critical to inspiring employees and setting the organization’s long-term direction.
  12. 12. LEADERSHIP TRAITS  Trait Theory is one way to describe who leaders are. TRAIT THEORY says that effective leaders possess a similar set of traits or characteristics. TRAITS are relatively stable characteristics such as abilities, psychological motives, and consistent patterns of behavior. TRAIT THEORY is also known as “great person” theory” because early versions of the theory stated that leaders are born not made.
  13. 13. LEADERS VERSUS NONLEADERS    They differ based on the following: drive, the desire to lead, honesty/integrity, selfconfidence, emotional stability, cognitive ability, and knowledge of the business. DRIVE refers to a high level of effort and is characterized by achievement, motivation, initiative, energy, and tenacity. Successful leaders also have a stronger DESIRE TO LEAD. They want to be in charge and think about ways to influence or convince others about what should or shouldn’t be.
  14. 14. LEADERS VERSUS NONLEADERS  HONESTY being truthful with others. And is a cornerstone of leadership. Leaders wont be trusted if they are dishonest. When they are honest, subordinates are willing to overlook other flaws. INTEGRITY is the extent to which leaders do what they say they will do. Leaders may be honest and have good intentions, but they also won’t be trusted if they don’t consistently deliver on what they promise.
  15. 15. LEADERS VERSUS NONLEADERS  SELF-CONFIDENCE believing in one’s abilities. Self-confident leaders are more decisive and assertive and more likely to gain others confidence. Moreover, self-confident leaders will admit mistakes because they view them as learning opportunities rather than as refutation of their leadership capabilities. EMOTIONAL STABILITY even when things go wrong, they remain even-tempered and consistent in their outlook and in the way they treat others. Leaders who cant control their emotions, who anger quickly or attack and blame others for mistakes, are unlikely to be trusted.
  16. 16. LEADERS VERSUS NONLEADERS  Leaders are also smart. They typically have strong cognitive abilities. They doesn’t mean that leaders are necessarily geniuses. But rather means that leaders have the capacity to analyze large amounts of seemingly unrelated, complex info., and see patterns, opportunities, or threats where others might not see them. Finally, Leaders who have a good knowledge of the business understand the key technological decisions and concerns facing their companies.
  17. 17. LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS   WHAT LEADERS DO? IT MEANS THE BEHAVIOR THEY PERFORM OT THE ACTIONS THEY TAKE TO INFLUENCE OTHERS TO ACHIEVE GROUP OR ORGANIZATIONAL GOALS. Three universities in the U.S. have examined the behaviors that leaders use to improve the satisfaction and performance of their subordinates. They arrived into two basic leader behaviors emerged as central to successful leadership. These are:
  18. 18. BASIC LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS   INITIATING STRUCTURE OR JOB-CENTERED LEADERSHIP – Is the degree to which a leader structures the roles of followers by setting goals, giving directions, setting deadlines, and assigning tasks. A leaders ability to initiate structure primarily affects subordinates job performance. CONSIDERATE LEADER BEHAVIOR or EMPLOYEE CENTERED LEADERSHIPConsideration is the extent to which a leader is friendly, approachable and supportive and shows concern for employees. Consideration primarily affects subordinates job satisfaction.
  19. 19. BASIC LEADERSHIP BEHAVIORS  Specific leader consideration behaviors include listening to9 employees, problems and concerns, consulting with employees before making decisions, and treating employees as equals.  The most effective leaders based on various researches and studies are those who excelled at both initiating structure and considerate leader behaviors.