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Chapter 12 Motivation and Emotion
Motivation <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An internal state that activates behavior and directs it toward a goal...
Motivation <ul><li>Name some things that motivate you </li></ul><ul><li>We experience motivation in different ways because...
Instinct <ul><li>Innate tendencies that determine behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologist William McDougall was the fi...
Instinct <ul><li>Flaws with the instinct theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They do not explain behavior, they label it </li></...
Motivation <ul><li>Drive-Reduction Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tens...
Drive-Reduction Theory <ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological or psychological requirement of an organism </li></ul...
Harry Harlow  Monkey Experiment <ul><li>Proved that the drive-reduction theory wasn’t necessarily true </li></ul><ul><li>T...
Incentive <ul><li>An external stimulus, reinforcer, or reward that motivates behavior </li></ul><ul><li>People are motivat...
Cognitive Theory <ul><li>Extrinsic motivation: engaging in activities that either reduce biological needs or help us obtai...
Over-justification Effect  <ul><li>When people are given extrinsic motivation needed to perform a task, their intrinsic mo...
Section 2 Biological and  Social Motives
Biological Motives <ul><li>Biological needs are critical to our survival and physical well-being </li></ul><ul><li>We have...
Homeostasis  <ul><li>The tendency of all organisms to correct imbalances and deviations from their normal state </li></ul>
Hunger <ul><li>What motivates us to eat?  Smell?  Habit? </li></ul><ul><li>Body requires food to grow, to repair itself, a...
Motivation-Hunger <ul><li>Stomach contractions accompany our feelings of hunger </li></ul>
Motivation-Hunger <ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the form of sugar that circulates in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Motivation-Hunger <ul><li>Set Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is suppos...
Motivation-Hunger <ul><li>The hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions </li></ul>
Motivation-Hunger
Eating Disorders <ul><li>Anorexia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantl...
Motivation at Work <ul><li>Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a completely, involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminis...
Motivation at Work <ul><li>Personnel Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sub-field of I-O psychology that focuses on employee...
Motivation at Work
Motivation at Work <ul><li>Structured Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process that asks the same job-relevant questions of...
Motivation at Work <ul><li>Personnel psychologists’ tasks </li></ul>
Motivation at Work <ul><li>360-degree feedback </li></ul>
Motivation at Work <ul><li>On the right path </li></ul>
Motivation <ul><li>Task Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and...
Motivation <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically ...
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>begins at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied </li></ul><ul...
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Motivation and Emotion chapter12

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Motivation and Emotion chapter12

  1. 1. Chapter 12 Motivation and Emotion
  2. 2. Motivation <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An internal state that activates behavior and directs it toward a goal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychologists infer motivation from goal-directed behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human behavior is energized by many motives that may originate from the outside of us or inside of us </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Motivation <ul><li>Name some things that motivate you </li></ul><ul><li>We experience motivation in different ways because of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instinct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive-reduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incentive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive theories of motivation </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Instinct <ul><li>Innate tendencies that determine behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologist William McDougall was the first to note the concept that humans are motivated by instinct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychologist William James stated that humans have the instincts of: cleanliness, curiosity, parental, love, sociability, and sympathy. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Instinct <ul><li>Flaws with the instinct theory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They do not explain behavior, they label it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is still studied, but have began to focus on other theories to explain motivation </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Motivation <ul><li>Drive-Reduction Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need </li></ul></ul>Drive-reducing behaviors (eating, drinking) Need (e.g., for food, water) Drive (hunger, thirst)
  7. 7. Drive-Reduction Theory <ul><li>Need </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological or psychological requirement of an organism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drive </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A state of tension produced by a need that motivates an organism toward a goal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Harry Harlow Monkey Experiment <ul><li>Proved that the drive-reduction theory wasn’t necessarily true </li></ul><ul><li>The monkey spent more time with the cloth monkey for comfort and just enough time for getting food from the other </li></ul>
  9. 9. Incentive <ul><li>An external stimulus, reinforcer, or reward that motivates behavior </li></ul><ul><li>People are motivated to obtain positive incentives and to avoid negative incentives </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cognitive Theory <ul><li>Extrinsic motivation: engaging in activities that either reduce biological needs or help us obtain external incentives </li></ul><ul><li>Intrinsic motivation- engaging in activities because they are personally rewarding or because they fulfill our beliefs and expectations </li></ul>
  11. 11. Over-justification Effect <ul><li>When people are given extrinsic motivation needed to perform a task, their intrinsic motivation declines </li></ul><ul><li>Book example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You enjoy reading –someone begins paying you to read </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You question whether you should read or not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You stop getting paid, you might lose complete interest in the task </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Section 2 Biological and Social Motives
  13. 13. Biological Motives <ul><li>Biological needs are critical to our survival and physical well-being </li></ul><ul><li>We have built in regulating systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Body temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood sugar levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Production of hormones </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Homeostasis <ul><li>The tendency of all organisms to correct imbalances and deviations from their normal state </li></ul>
  15. 15. Hunger <ul><li>What motivates us to eat? Smell? Habit? </li></ul><ul><li>Body requires food to grow, to repair itself, and store reserves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lateral hypothalamus- the part of the hypothalamus that produces hunger signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventromedial- the part of the hypothalamus that can cause one to stop eating </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Motivation-Hunger <ul><li>Stomach contractions accompany our feelings of hunger </li></ul>
  17. 17. Motivation-Hunger <ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the form of sugar that circulates in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides the major source of energy for body tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when its level is low, we feel hunger </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Motivation-Hunger <ul><li>Set Point </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the point at which an individual’s “weight thermostat” is supposedly set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger and a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Basal Metabolic Rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>body’s base rate of energy expenditure </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Motivation-Hunger <ul><li>The hypothalamus controls eating and other body maintenance functions </li></ul>
  20. 20. Motivation-Hunger
  21. 21. Eating Disorders <ul><li>Anorexia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>when a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly ( > 15%) underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>usually an adolescent female </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bulimia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Motivation at Work <ul><li>Flow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a completely, involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial/Organizational (I/O) Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Motivation at Work <ul><li>Personnel Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sub-field of I-O psychology that focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sub-field of I-O psychology that examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Motivation at Work
  25. 25. Motivation at Work <ul><li>Structured Interview </li></ul><ul><ul><li>process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rated on established scales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Achievement Motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a desire for significant accomplishment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for mastery of things, people, or ideas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for attaining a high standard </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Motivation at Work <ul><li>Personnel psychologists’ tasks </li></ul>
  27. 27. Motivation at Work <ul><li>360-degree feedback </li></ul>
  28. 28. Motivation at Work <ul><li>On the right path </li></ul>
  29. 29. Motivation <ul><li>Task Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>goal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>group-oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Motivation <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assumes that workers are basically lazy, error-prone, and extrinsically motivated by money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>workers should be directed from above </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><ul><li>assumes that, given challenge and freedom, workers are motivated to achieve self-esteem and to demonstrate their competence and creativity </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>begins at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied </li></ul><ul><li>then higher-level safety needs become active </li></ul><ul><li>then psychological needs become active </li></ul>Self-actualization needs Need to live up to one’s fullest and unique potential Esteem needs Need for self-esteem, achievement, competence, and independence; need for recognition and respect from others Safety needs Need to feel that the world is organized and predictable; need to feel safe, secure, and stable Belongingness and love needs Need to love and be loved, to belong and be accepted; need to avoid loneliness and alienation Physiological needs Need to satisfy hunger and thirst

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