Chapter 8




            Thinking, Language,
              and Intelligence    8-1
I. Thinking
A. Cognitive psychology
  – Thinking: manipulation of information that
    can take the form of images or conc...
Thinking
• We usually identify specific examples as
  members of a concept by judging their degree of
  similarity to a pr...
Thinking
• Algorithms
  – Anagram for APHYP
  – Formulae for solving
    math problems
  – Sudoku
                        ...
Thinking
            PiagetÕ Matchstick Problem
                  s
• Heuristics: educated guesses
                       ...
Thinking
• Try the nine dot
  problem!
• With no more than
  four lines, connect
  nine dots on the
  paper without liftin...
Luchins’ Water Jar Problem

     Problem   Jar A   Jar B   Jar C   Goal

       1        24     130      3      100

     ...
Luchins’ Water Jar Problem
 A           B           C   Total

20          31          2      7

20          57          3...
Thinking
• Rigidity
  – functional fixedness: inability to use familiar
    objects in new ways
  – set effect predicts th...
Lateral Thinking
• If you put a small coin into an empty wine bottle
  and replace the cork, how would you get the coin
  ...
Lateral Thinking
• Three switches outside a windowless room are connected to
  three light bulbs inside the room. How can ...
Thinking
• representativeness heuristic: decisions are
  based on the similarity of characteristics of the
  situation to ...
The Conjunction Fallacy
Steven is articulate, outgoing, artistic, and
   politically liberal. Is it more likely that he:
•...
Framing
• The way in which
  information is
  presented can
  dramatically alter our
  decision making
                   ...
Creativity




             8-15
Creativity
• Depends on divergent thinking (rather
  than the convergent thinking associated
  with intelligence testing)
...
What distinguishes creative thought from
       other types of problem solving?
•    Shake cow carton
•    Ball home naval...
Language
• There are two major theories of language
  acquisition:
  – A learned response (acquired like any other
    beh...
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
• The use of words (and
  syntax) can influence
  and guide thought
  processes.




    ...
Language

                                  Illustrates the
                                  acquisition of some of
     ...
Differential Language Exposure




                                 8-21
Sexist Language
• What happens when the child does
  not care if his hair is not combed?
• The child sometimes does not kn...
Intelligence
•   Francis Galton
•   Binet (and Simon)
•   Terman
•   Wechsler




                              8-23
Principles of Psychological Tests

• Reliability
• Validity
• Standardization




                                       8...
Intelligence




The majority of the scores are clustered around the
 middle, with fewer scores found at either extreme   ...
Intelligence
• Charles Spearman = g
• Howard Gardner = The Theory of Multiple
  Intelligences


                          ...
Heritability of Intelligence



          QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
   are needed to see this pict...
Heritability of Intelligence




                               8-28
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Chapter 8 Psych 1 Online Stud 1200601327285900 2[1]

  1. 1. Chapter 8 Thinking, Language, and Intelligence 8-1
  2. 2. I. Thinking A. Cognitive psychology – Thinking: manipulation of information that can take the form of images or concepts. • Visual imagery • Concepts: Mental categories sharing common characteristics 8-2
  3. 3. Thinking • We usually identify specific examples as members of a concept by judging their degree of similarity to a prototype, or best example, of the concept. 8-3
  4. 4. Thinking • Algorithms – Anagram for APHYP – Formulae for solving math problems – Sudoku QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. 8-4
  5. 5. Thinking PiagetÕ Matchstick Problem s • Heuristics: educated guesses ŠDecenteringŠ Make 6 equilateral triangles out of six matchsticks. 8-5
  6. 6. Thinking • Try the nine dot problem! • With no more than four lines, connect nine dots on the paper without lifting your pencil. 8-6
  7. 7. Luchins’ Water Jar Problem Problem Jar A Jar B Jar C Goal 1 24 130 3 100 2 9 44 7 21 3 21 58 4 29 4 12 160 25 98 5 19 75 5 46 6 23 49 3 20 7 18 48 4 22 8-7
  8. 8. Luchins’ Water Jar Problem A B C Total 20 31 2 7 20 57 3 31 5 48 8 27 20 100 11 58 4 17 3 7 8-8
  9. 9. Thinking • Rigidity – functional fixedness: inability to use familiar objects in new ways – set effect predicts that we will attempt to use solutions that have been successful in the past. 8-9
  10. 10. Lateral Thinking • If you put a small coin into an empty wine bottle and replace the cork, how would you get the coin out of the bottle without taking out the cork or breaking the bottle? • A man and his sister were out walking together one Saturday morning. The man pointed across the street to a boy and said: ‘That boy is my nephew.’ The woman replied: ‘He is not my nephew.’ Can you explain this. • Two Russians walk down a street in Moscow. One Russian is the father of the other Russian’s son. How are they related? 8-10
  11. 11. Lateral Thinking • Three switches outside a windowless room are connected to three light bulbs inside the room. How can you determine which switch is connected to which bulb if you are only allowed to enter the room once? • If it takes twelve 1c stamps to make a dozen, how many 3c stamps are needed? • A blind beggar had a brother who died. What relation was the blind beggar to the brother who died? (Brother is not the answer) • What is the product (ie. Multiplying all the numbers together) of the following series: (x-a),(x-b),(x-c),.....(x-z)? (A bit harder but really nothing for math-oriented minds) • Is it correct to say; "The herd of sheep is eating grass in the field” or "The herd of sheep are eating grass in the field"? 8-11
  12. 12. Thinking • representativeness heuristic: decisions are based on the similarity of characteristics of the situation to previously established concepts. HHHTTT HTHTTH Availability Heuristic: http://oldweb.uwp.edu/academic/psychology/demos/UTICdemo/UTICdemo.html 8-12
  13. 13. The Conjunction Fallacy Steven is articulate, outgoing, artistic, and politically liberal. Is it more likely that he: • is an engineering major, or • started out as an engineering major and switched to journalism? 8-13
  14. 14. Framing • The way in which information is presented can dramatically alter our decision making Most opt for surgery 8-14 Barely half opt for surgery
  15. 15. Creativity 8-15
  16. 16. Creativity • Depends on divergent thinking (rather than the convergent thinking associated with intelligence testing) • Creative people have a high capacity for hard work, a willingness to take risks, and a high tolerance for ambiguity and disorder. • NO defined standard! 8-16
  17. 17. What distinguishes creative thought from other types of problem solving? • Shake cow carton • Ball home naval • Stream goose town • Dance ladder door • Dog pepper rod • Sand mouse door • Ball shake lotion • Puff whipped ice 8-17
  18. 18. Language • There are two major theories of language acquisition: – A learned response (acquired like any other behavior) – Children are hard-wired (LAD) How is language related to memory? 8-18
  19. 19. Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis • The use of words (and syntax) can influence and guide thought processes. 8-19 P. 331
  20. 20. Language Illustrates the acquisition of some of the rules of language QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. and supports Chomsky's claims of an inborn ability to find grammatical structure. 8-20
  21. 21. Differential Language Exposure 8-21
  22. 22. Sexist Language • What happens when the child does not care if his hair is not combed? • The child sometimes does not know why they are being spanked. • It was possible for the child to learn from the consequences of their behavior. 8-22
  23. 23. Intelligence • Francis Galton • Binet (and Simon) • Terman • Wechsler 8-23
  24. 24. Principles of Psychological Tests • Reliability • Validity • Standardization 8-24
  25. 25. Intelligence The majority of the scores are clustered around the middle, with fewer scores found at either extreme 8-25 [Note: text says gifted at 140]
  26. 26. Intelligence • Charles Spearman = g • Howard Gardner = The Theory of Multiple Intelligences QuickTime™ and a QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. are needed to see this picture. 8-26
  27. 27. Heritability of Intelligence QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. [next] 8-27
  28. 28. Heritability of Intelligence 8-28

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