1945 – 70's Modern trend


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1945 – 70's Modern trend

  1. 1. The Philippines: 19601975  The Culture Center of the Philippines and the Implications of the PCN  During the Marcos regime, Imelda had a vision to make the Philippines a center of fashion, art, and culture. She implemented this vision through various million-dollar infrastructure projects. Such projects included the Cultural Center of the Philippines, which was meant to promote and preserve Filipino art.
  2. 2.  It was established in 1966 and was designed by Leandro Locsin, a Filipino architect (who appreciated the use of concrete, as you can tell by the facade of the main building.) On its opening day in 1969, there was a three-month celebration with a musical and other series of events. It was that big of a deal that even Mr. and Mrs. Ronald Reagan were in attendance!
  3. 3. Kabataang Makabayan  Kabataang Makabayan is a social activism organization founded on November 30, 1964 by Filipino revolutionary Jose Maria Sison. Kabataan Makabayan (KM) translates to “Pro People Youth,” and is centered in the power of society‟s youth to change the status quo of injustice in their political system.  KM is made up of students, young workers, peasants and professionals. In the late 1950s, study circles under the Student Cultural Association of the University of the Philippines (SCAUP) on the Philippine-Revolution and MarxismLeninism would later form the student membership of KM.
  4. 4.  In the early 1950s, KM was born out of reactions to the fall of the Old People‟s army and the Armed Revolutionary movement of the people. Sison declared in his speech that LM “arose from the concrete conditions of sharpening oppression and exploitation of the Filipino youth and people from the early 1960s onwards.”  Kabataang Makabayan protestors during martial law chanting, “Ibagsak! Ibaksak ang mga tuta!” They are notorious to conservatives and the Philippine government for mobilizing youth in mass protest actions, including during the Anti-Martial Law movement against the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos.  KM protested and continues to organize against unjust Philippine treaties with the US in the economic and military fields, against US wars of aggression, “against the killing of Filipinos in US military bases, against the puppetry of the reactionary regime, against the big compradors and landlords, against oppressive and exploitative school authorities” (Sison)
  5. 5.  the influence of KM in my hometown- known as “Pro People Youth” and “KmB” here, their chapter in Los Angeles and is constantly educating Filipino-American youth, encouraging consciousness and community activism. They have organized for Justice for Filipino American Veterans, collaborated with other Fil-Am organizations to send supplies and money to Typhoon Ondoy victims in the Philippines, and have rallied alongside PalestinianAmericans against the Israeli occupation of Gaza.  KmB flag was at a Gabriela Network protest in Los Angeles for the “GabNet 3,” three GabNet women prevented from boarding their flight back home to the US after allegedly being blacklisted by President Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. (GabNet is active in speaking against human rights violations under GMA‟s administration.) KmB member John-Eric Concordia, told that standing against this kind of injustice was not only important but necessary.
  6. 6. Movies and Cinema in the Philippines during the 1960s  In the Philippines during the 1960s to the early 1970s, so-called “bomba” pictures largely summarized Filipino cinema. These films were largely based off of James Bond and other western-spinoff films. During this time, Sampaguita Pictures (one of the movie production companies) came under siege from the growing labor movements.
  7. 7.  The decade also saw the emergence of the youth revolution demonstrated by the Beatles and rock and role. Thus, certain movie genres were made to cater this “revolt.” Through this revolution, fan movies and teen love teamups were created which included Nora Aunor, Vilma Santos, Tirso Cruz III, and Edgar Mortiz.  Movies genres showing disapproval for the status quo during the political era were also popular. Action movies with Pinoy cowboys and secret agents as the movers of the plots depicted a “society ravaged by criminality and corruption.” This was not the only form of youth revolution, movies featuring child stars started to gain fame. Towards the end of the decade “bomba films,” also known as soft porn movies, became increasingly popular and were seen as a direct challenge to the conventions, norms, and conduct.
  8. 8.  Color movie technology, called Eastmancolor, helped Filipino filmmakers create successful fulllength movies. One of the first color productions was Ito ang Pilipino. After the release of Ito ang Pilipino, movie producers completely stopped producing movies in black and white.  Under martial law set in 1972 by order of President Ferdinand Marcos, many films in popular cinema were used as political propaganda against the government. In spite of this portrayal of the government, Marco‟s and his staff created the Board of Censors for Motion Pictures, which regulated the content and government portrayal in movies. Through this agency, movies were required to include ideologies of the New Society such as discipline, uprightness, and
  9. 9. Filipino Sports/The Araneta Coliseum  Sports in the Philipines was highlighted on March 16, 1960 when the Araneta Coliseum opened with a wrestling match between the boxer Gabriel „Flash‟ Elorde and the World Junior Lightweight crown from American Harold Gomes. During this opening ceremony match, more than 33,000 spectators attended. Due to it‟s popularity, admission prices were favorable at 80 centavos for a general seat and five pesos for reserve seating. The mission of the Araneta Coliseum was to provide the people of the Philippines with the best entertainment available at the lowest cost. Many of these events included concerts, boxing matches, wresting, and eventually basketball games. Some of the most remembered performances were the “Thrilla in Manila” which was the Ali-Fraizer World Heavyweight Championship Fight, the Philippine Basketball Association Games, and annually, the Bb. Pilipinas Beauty Pageant.
  10. 10.  For the Philippine Basketball Association, the Araneta Coliseum was and is still considered home. Commissioned in 1975, the Philippine Basketball Association is the oldest country in Asia to have a professional basketball league. Since it‟s debut, the arena has been home to more than 400 games.  The historic “Thrilla in Manila”, the 15-round bout between Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier, was held at the Big Dome on October 1, 1975. This was the fight that carved out the legendary reputation of Muhammad Ali as one of the greatest boxers of all time.
  11. 11. Timeline of Sigificant Moments in Filipino Sports from 1960 – 1975:        March 16, 1960 – Gabriel “Flash” Elorde became a world champion in the 130-pound division on when he knocked out American Harold Gomes at the Araneta Coliseum in Cubao, Quezon City. February 6, 1964 – Filipino boxer Anthony Villanueva won the country‟s first silver medal in the Tokyo Olympics. March 20, 1964 – Roberto Cruz knocked out Raymundo Torres in the first round to clinch the vacant World Boxing Association (WBA) junior welterweight championship in Los Angeles, California. December 14, 1968 – Pedro Adigue beat American Adolph Pruitt to bag the World Boxing Council (WBC) junior welterweight title. February 15, 1969 – Rene Barrientos was declared World Boxing Council (WBC) super featherweight champion of the world in Tokyo, Japan April 25, 1972 – Ben Villaflor dethroned Alfredo Marcano as the world junior lightweight champion at the age of 18 years old. October 1, 1975 – The Araneta Coliseum in Quezon City hosted the infamous “Thrilla in Manila”, the thrilling boxing match between Heavyweight champions Muhammad Ali and Joe Frazier. -NC
  12. 12. A Hectare of Rice  One important part of a nation‟s economy is agriculture. At the time of Marcos‟s regime, the world was relying on chemicalintensive technologies of the green revolution. Growing numbers of farmers are beginning to outperform and outgrow other competitors that are using chemicals that work with natural ecological forces.  The Philippine based research group, International Rich Research Institute (IRRI), created hybrid varieties of rice yielding record numbers that responds to all the pesticides, chemical fertilizers, and irrigation methods. Some institutions pitched in incredible amounts of money to encourage a more widespread use of the hybrid rice. By the 1960s, the first “miracle rice” was introduced to the world and by 1973, Filipino farmers were using the seeds but found themselves harvesting a low 1.7 tons per hectare compared to the IRRI average levels of production
  13. 13.  The cost of planting eventually covered the income from the crops his health was deteriorating. Other farmers that experienced the same thing Lorenzo did turned to the Department of Agriculture to shift to organic farming methods. Having been shot down, they turned to the CADI (Center for Alternative Development Initiatives) promoting ecological agriculture for help. Ikapati Farms and Co. was a for-profit affiliate of CADI and demonstrated the viability of biodynamic farming. This involves high yielding seeds and natural pest control with several methods of preparation and practice to maintain and enhance the fertility of the soil and nitrogen levels and stimulate the process of photosynthesis. With the help of Ikapati technology, farmers were able to harvest 6.5 tons per hectare, 3 times the average of harvest in the area. Most farmers harvested more than the average of chemical farmers and made more than 2 and a half times more money of typical chemical farmers. These farmers demonstrated the possibility on immediate shifting from chemical to biodynamical methods on commercial sale that increased both yields and income.
  14. 14. PHILIPPINE LITERATURE POST-WAR PERIOD             In the year 1941-1945, Philippine Literature was interrupted in its development when the Philippines were again conquered by another foreign country, Japan. Philippine literature in English came to halt. After the war, it took some time before the writers could find their bearings. -Writing in English was consigned to limbo. The reason was that almost writings in English were stopped or strictly prohibited by the Japanese. * In other words, Filipino literature was given a break during this period. * This had an advantages effect on Filipino Literature, w/c experienced renewed attention because writers in English turned to writing in Filipino. * After the war, however with a fervor and drive for excellence that continues to this day. Until 50th years – literary output still carried the stock theme of war and its hardship. Bitterness was a common tone. Later a new group of writers sprung up. *writing of this new group was characterized by liberalism in thought and outlook. They were influenced by new literary theories by a new of symbolism, by existentialism by the post-war European, new communication modes, by ideology and practice of communism. Filipino had by this time, learned to express themselves more confidently but post-war problems beyond language and print like economic stability, the threat of new ideas and morality had to be grappled with side by side.
  15. 15. Filipino post war writers:  Virginia Moreno is a feminist. She is recognized not only as a poet but as a Philippine woman artist whose vision of art includes both aesthetics and politics. She is a poet whose works are deeply imbricated in her country‟s socio-political and cultural milieu. Moreno has, however, managed to marry form, content and create texts whose polyvalence of idioms allow readers to contend with their very own historicity. She is a poet who has an interest in French Impressionism and Symbolist poetry while the rest of her generation, having been immersed in English and American Literature.
  16. 16.  Estrella D. Alfon (1917) – December 28, 1983) was a well-known Filipina author who wrote almost exclusively in English. As a Filipino writer, Estrella Alfon lived her life of being a prolific writer who hailed from Cebu. Because of unwavering and poor health, she could manage only an A. A. degree from the University of the Philippines. She then became a member of the U. P. writers club and earned and was given the privileged post of National Fellowship in Fiction post at the U. P. Creative Writing Center. She died in the year 1983 at the age of 66.
  17. 17.  Personal  Estrella Alfon was born in Cebu City in 1917. Unlike other writers of her time, she did not come from the intelligensia. Her parents were shopkeepers in Cebu.[1] She attended college, and studied medicine. When she was mistakenly diagnosed with tuberculosis and sent to a sanitarium, she resigned from her pre-medical education, and left with an Associate of Arts degree.  Alfon has several children: Alan Rivera, Esmeralda "Mimi" Rivera, Brian Alfon, Estrella "Twinkie" Alfon, and Rita "Daday" Alfon (deceased). She has 10 grandchildren.  Her youngest daughter, was a stewardess for Saudi Arabian Airlines, and was part of the Flight 163 crew on August 19, 1980, when an in-flight fire forced the aircraft to land in Riyadh. A delayed evacuation resulted in the death of everyone aboard the flight.  Alfon died on December, 28 1983, following a heart attack suffered on-stage during Awards night of the Manila Film Festival
  18. 18.  Professional  She was a storywriter, playwright, and journalist. In spite of being a proud Cebuana, she wrote almost exclusively in English. She published her first story, “Grey Confetti”, in the Graphic in 1935. [2]  She was the only female member of the Veronicans, an avant garde group of writers in the 1930s led by Francisco Arcellana and H.R. Ocampo, she was also regarded as their muse. The Veronicans are recognized as the first group of Filipino writers to write almost exclusively in English and were formed prior to the World War II. She is also reportedly the most prolific Filipina writer prior to World War II. She was a regular contributor to Manila-based national magazines, she had several stories cited in Jose Garcia Villa‟s annual honor rolls.
  19. 19. “Alfon was one writer who unashamedly drew from her own real-life experiences. In some stories, the first-person narrator is “Estrella” or “Esther.” She is not just a writer, but one who consciously refers to her act of writing the stories. In other stories, Alfon is still easily identifiable in her first-person reminiscences of the past: evacuation during the Japanese occupation; estrangement from a husband; life after the war. In the Espeleta stories, Alfon uses the editorial “we” to indicate that as a member of that community, she shares their feelings and responses towards the incidents in the story. But she sometimes slips back to being a first-person narrator. The impression is that although she shares the sentiments of her neighbors, she is still a distinct personality who detaches her self from the scene in order to understand it better. This device of separating herself as narrator from the other characters is contained within the larger strategy of distantiation that of the writer from her strongly autobiographical material. Thelma E. Arambulo”  In the 1950s, her short story, "Fairy Tale for the City", was condemned by the Catholic League of the Philippines as being "obscene". She was even brought to court on these charges. While many of her fellow writers did stand by her, many did not. These events hurt her deeply.  In spite of having only an A.A. degree, she was eventually appointed as a professor of Creative Writing at the University of the Philippines, Manila. She was a member of the U.P. Writers Club, she held the National Fellowship in Fiction post at the U.P. Creative Writing Center in 1979.  She would also serve on the Philippine Board of Tourism in the 1970s. 
  20. 20.       Achievements 1940: A collection of her early short stories, “Dear Esmeralda,” won Honorable Mention in the Commonwealth Literary Award. 1961-1962: Four of her one-act plays won all the prizes in the Arena Theater Play Writing Contest: “Losers Keepers” (first prize), “Strangers” (second prize), “Rice” (third prize), and “Beggar” (fourth prize). 1961-1962: Won top prize in the Palanca Contest for “With Patches of Many Hues.” 1974: Second place Palanca Award for her short story, "The White Dress".[7] 1979: National Fellowship in Fiction post at the U.P. Creative Writing CPalanca Award
  21. 21.  Estrella Alfon has won the Palanca Awards a number of times  Forever Witches, One-act Play (Third place, 1960)  With Patches of Many Hues, One-act Play (First place, 1962)  Tubig, One-act Play (Second place, 1963)  The Knitting Straw, One-act Play, (Third place, 1968)  The White Dress, Short Story (Second place, 1974)
  22. 22.  Stories  Magnificence and Other Stories (1960)  Stories of Estrella Alfon (1994) (published posthumously)  Servant Girt (short story)
  23. 23.  Influence  Estrella Alfon writes about everyday life, but she captures the details in this dazzling, intense light. She could write about the ordinary and make it extraordinary. She could write about a day on the farm or a picnic with friends or a poor laundry woman wishing that her life were different because she was being abused by her mistress. They were very simple stories about ordinary people, whose lives we don't know until she uncovers them in the stories. I was just hooked. Whatever designs my mother may have had, they worked.
  24. 24. Philippine Literature in the PostWar and Contemporary Period  Published in 1946, Ginto Sa Makiling - a novel by Macario Pineda, is the first work of note that appeared after the second world war. In plot, it hews close to the mode of romantic fantasy traceable to the awits, koridos and komedyas of the Balagtas tradition. But it is a symbolical narrative of social, moral and political import. In this, it resembles not only Balagtas but also Rizal, but in style and plot it is closer to Balagtas in not allowing the realistic mode to restrict the element of fantasy.
  25. 25.  Two novels by writers in English dealt with the war experience: (Medina, p. 194) Stevan Javellana‟s Without Seeing the Dawn (1947), and Edilberto Tiempo‟s Watch in the Night. Both novels hew closely to the realist tradition. Lazaro Francisco, the eminent Tagalog novelist of the pre-war years, was to continue to produce significant work. He revised his Bayaning Nagpatiwakal (1932), refashioning its plot and in sum honing his work as a weapon against the policies that tended to perpetuate American economic dominance over the Philippines. The updated novel was titled Ilaw Sa Hilaga (1948) (Lumbera, p. 67). He was to produce three more novels.Sugat Sa Alaala (1950) reflects the horrors of the war experience as well as the human capacity for nobility, endurance and love under the most extreme circumstances. Maganda Pa Ang Daigdig (1956) deals with the agrarian issue, and Daluyong (1962) deals with the corruption bred by the American-style and American-educated pseudo-reformers. Lazaro Francisco is a realist with social and moral ideals. The Rizal influence on his work is profound.
  26. 26.  The poet Amado Hernandez, who was also union leader and social activist, also wrote novels advocating social change. Luha ng Buwaya (1963) (Lumbera) deals with the struggle between the oppressed peasantry and the class of politically powerful landlords. Mga Ibong Mandaragit (1969) deals with the domination of Filipinos by American industry (Lumbera, p. 69).  Unfortunately, the Rizalian path taken by Lazaro Francisco and Amado Hernandez with its social-realist world-view had the effect of alienating them from the mode of the highly magical oral-epic tradition. Imported social realism (and, in the case of Amado Hernandez, a brand of socialist empiricism), was not entirely in touch with the folk sentiment and folk belief, which is why the Tagalog romances (e.g., Ginto Sa Makiling, serialized in the comics), were far more popular than their work.
  27. 27.  It was Philippine Literature in English which tapped the folk element in the Philippine unconscious to impressive, spectacular effect. Nick Joaquin, through his neo-romantic, poetic and histrionic style, is reminiscent of the dramas of Balagtas and de la Cruz. His dizzying flashbacks (from an idealized romantic Spanish past to a squalid Americanized materialistic present) are cinematic in effect, ironically quite Hollywoodish, serving always to beguile and astonish.  Francisco Arcellana, his younger contemporary, was a master of minimalist fiction that is as native as anything that could be written in English, possessing the potent luminosity of a sorcerer‟s rune.
  28. 28.  Wilfrido Nolledo, fictionist-playwright growing up in the aura of such masters, was the disciple who, without conscious effort, created a school of his own. His experiments in plot and plotlessness, his creation of magical scenes, made splendorous by a highly expressive language, easily became the rage among young writers who quickly joined (each in his/her own highly original style) the Nolledo trend. Among these poetic fictionists of the 1960‟s were Wilfredo Pasqua Sanchez, Erwin Castillo, Cesar Ruiz Aquino, Resil Mojares, Leopoldo Cacnio and Ninotchka Rosca. Of them all, only the last two did not publish verse. Their non-realistic (even anti-realistic) style made them perhaps the most original group of writers to emerge in the post-war period. But such a movement that slavishly used the American colonists‟ language (according to the Nationalist, Socialist Tagalog writers who were following A.V. Hernandez) were called decadent (in the manner of Lukacsian social realism).
  29. 29.  Post-war poetry and fiction was dominated by the writers in English educated and trained in writers‟ workshops in the United States or England. Among these were the novelists Edilberto and Edith Tiempo (who is also a poet), short-fictionist Francisco Arcellana, poetcritic Ricaredo Demetillo, poet-fictionist Amador Daguio, poet Carlos Angeles, fictionists N.V.M. Gonzales and Bienvenido N. Santos. Most of these writers returned to the Philippines to teach. With their credentials and solid reputations, they influenced the form and direction of the next generation mainly in accordance with the dominant tenets of the formalist New Critics of America and England.
  30. 30.  Even literature in the Tagalog-based national language (now known as Filipino) could not avoid being influenced or even (in the critical sense) assimilated. College-bred writers in Filipino like Rogelio Sikat and Edgardo Reyes saw the need to hone their artistry according to the dominant school of literature in America of that period, despite the fact that the neo-Aristotelian formalist school went against the grain of their socialist orientation. Poetcritic Virgilio Almario (1944- ), a.k.a. Rio Alma, in a break-away move reminiscent of Alejandro Abadilla, and in the formalist (New Critical) mode then fashionable, bravely opined that Florante at Laura, Balagtas‟ acknowledged masterpiece, was an artistic failure (Reyes, p. 71-72). It was only in the early 1980‟s (Reyes, p. 73) that Almario (after exposure to the anti-ethnocentrism of structuralism and Deconstruction) revised his views.
  31. 31.  The protest tradition of Rizal, Bonifacio and Amado Hernandez found expression in the works of Tagalog poets from the late 1960‟s to the 1980‟s, as they confronted Martial Law and repression. Among these liberationist writers were Jose Lacaba, Epifanio San Juan, Rogelio Mangahas, Lamberto Antonio, Lilia Quindoza, and later, Jesus Manuel Santiago. The group Galian sa Arte at Tula nurtured mainly Manila writers and writing (both in their craft and social vision) during some of the darkest periods of Martial Law.  Meanwhile, behind the scenes on the printed page, oral literature flourished in the outlying communities. Forms of oral poetry like the Cebuano Balak, the Ilokano Bukanegan, the Tagalog Balagtasan, and the SamalTinis-Tinis, continued to be declaimed by the rural-based bards, albeit to dwindling audiences. In the late 1960‟s, Ricaredo Demetillo had, using English (and English metrics) pioneered a linkage with the oral tradition. The result was the award-winning Barter in Panay, an epic based on the Ilonggo epic Maragtas. Inspired by the example, other younger poets wrote epics or long poems, and they were duly acclaimed by the major award-giving bodies. Among these poets were writers in English like Cirilo Bautista (The Archipelago, 1968), Artemio Tadena (Northward into Noon, 1970) and Domingo de Guzman (Moses, 1977).
  32. 32.  However, except for Demetillo‟s modern epic, these attempts fall short of establishing a linkage with the basic folk tradition. Indeed, most are more like long meditative poems, like Eliot‟s or Neruda‟s long pieces. Interest in the epic waned as the 1980‟s approached. The 1980‟s became a decade of personalistic free verse characteristic of American confessional poetry. The epic "big picture" disappeared from the scene, to be replaced by a new breed of writers nourished by global literary sources, and critical sources in the developed world. The literary sources were third world (often nativistic) poetry such as that of Neruda, Vallejo and Octavio Paz. In fiction, the magic-realism of Borges, Garcia Marquez and Salman Rushdie, among others, influenced the fiction of Cesar Aquino, Alfred Yuson, and poet-fictionist Mario Gamalinda.
  33. 33.  On the other hand, the poets trained in American workshops continue to write in the lyrical-realist mode characteristic of American writing, spawned by imagism and neo-Aristotelianism. Among these writers (whose influence remains considerable) are the poet-critics Edith L. Tiempo, Gemino Abad, Ophelia A. Dimalanta and Emmanuel Torres. Their influence can be felt in the short lyric and the medium-length meditative poem that are still the Filipino poet‟s preferred medium. Some contemporary poets in English such as Marjorie Evasco and Merlie Alunan, derive their best effects from their reverence for the ineluctable image. Ricardo de Ungria‟s and Luisa Aguilar Cariño‟s poems, on the other hand, are a rich confluence of imagism, surrealism and confessionalism.
  34. 34.  The Philippine novel, whether written in English or any of the native languages, has remained socialrealist. Edgardo Reyes‟ Sa Mga Kuko ng Liwanag (1966), for instance, is a critique of urban blight, and Edilberto K. Tiempo‟s To Be Free is a historical probe of the western idea of freedom in the context of indigenous Philippine culture. Kerima Polotan Tuvera‟s novel The Hand of the Enemy (1972), a penetratingly lucid critique of ruling-class psychology, is entirely realistic, if Rizalian in its moments of high satire, although unlike the Rizalian model, it falls short of a moral vision.  Only a few novelists like Gamalinda, Yuson and Antonio Enriquez, can claim a measure of success in tapping creative power from folk sources in their venture to join the third world magic-realist mainstream.
  35. 35.  But the poets of oral-folk charisma, such as Jose Corazon de Jesus, are waiting in the wings for a comeback as astonishing as Lamang‟s legendary resurrection. Modernist and post-modernist criticism, which champions the literature of the disempowered cultures, has lately attained sufficient clout to shift the focus of academic pursuits towards native vernacular literatures (oral and written) and on the revaluation of texts previously ignored, such as those by women writers. Sa Ngalan Ng Ina (1997), by prize-winning poet-critic Lilia Quindoza Santiago, is, to date, the most comprehensive compilation of feminist writing in the Philippines.