Emotion and motivation

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Behavioral Dentistry
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Emotion and motivation

  1. 1. Emotion and MotivationEmotion and Motivation ByBy Dr.Abdelaziz M. Elfaki, PhDDr.Abdelaziz M. Elfaki, PhD..
  2. 2. MotivationMotivation  WHYWHY WE DOWE DO WHATWHAT WEWE DODO??
  3. 3. What Is MotivationWhat Is Motivation?? Motivation is defined as the conditionsMotivation is defined as the conditions whichwhich initiate ,guide, and maintaininitiate ,guide, and maintain behaviors, usually until a goal has beenbehaviors, usually until a goal has been reachedreached or the response has beenor the response has been blockedblocked..
  4. 4. Types of Motives McClelland ,Koestner and Weinberger )1989(,posited that two types of of motives coexist within the person: A- Implicit motives, which operate noconsciously. People may have no or only very limited insight into what motivates their behavior. 
  5. 5. Types of Motives B – Self-attributed )or explicit( motives, are linked to the goals and expectations that are normative for a particular group )family ,peer ,society( and that thus focus the individual's decisions and behaviors on what the group deems important and desirable.
  6. 6. Types of Motives A. Primary or unlearned motivesA. Primary or unlearned motives:: Some unlearned motives are calledSome unlearned motives are called survival motives because they must besurvival motives because they must be satisfied for an organism to continue tosatisfied for an organism to continue to livelive.. Hunger –Thirst – the need for AirHunger –Thirst – the need for Air–– Pain –unlearned but is not a survivalPain –unlearned but is not a survival
  7. 7. Types of Motives B-Learned motives )social motivesB-Learned motives )social motives( :( : They develop from social interactionsThey develop from social interactions.. In many societies they becameIn many societies they became predominant motives because survivalpredominant motives because survival motives aremotives are satisfied readily and easilysatisfied readily and easily..
  8. 8. Types of Motives Need for dominanceNeed for dominance Need for AffiliationNeed for Affiliation Need for AchievementNeed for Achievement
  9. 9. Motivation and Leadership )Effective leaders have the ability to consistently move themselves and others to action because they understand the" invisible forces" that shape us(
  10. 10. Theories of MotivationTheories of Motivation BiologicalBiological theories of motivation focus ontheories of motivation focus on the importance of biological processes inthe importance of biological processes in determining motivated behaviordetermining motivated behavior.. InstinctsInstincts are unlearned, species-specificare unlearned, species-specific behaviors that are more complex thanbehaviors that are more complex than reflexes and triggered by environmentalreflexes and triggered by environmental events called releasing stimulievents called releasing stimuli..
  11. 11. The Psychoanalytical ViewThe Psychoanalytical View For Freud ,For Freud , sexualitysexuality andand aggressionaggression areare the ultimate wellsprings of humanthe ultimate wellsprings of human motivationmotivation.. A - Sexuality and all otherA - Sexuality and all other life instinctslife instincts.. B - Aggression and all otherB - Aggression and all other deathdeath instinctsinstincts..
  12. 12. The Humanistic ViewThe Humanistic View Carl Rogers writesCarl Rogers writes:: There is an inherent tendency of theThere is an inherent tendency of the organism to develop all its capacity inorganism to develop all its capacity in ways which serves to maintain or enhanceways which serves to maintain or enhance the personthe person.. PeoplePeople need to be loved for their veryneed to be loved for their very existence as personsexistence as persons..
  13. 13. The Humanistic ViewThe Humanistic View Love and acceptanceLove and acceptance are oftenare often conditionalconditional : We are praised, rewarded: We are praised, rewarded ,,liked, admired and blessed for particularliked, admired and blessed for particular things that we do ,say ,think ,and feelthings that we do ,say ,think ,and feel.. Such conditional positive regards fromSuch conditional positive regards from others leads toothers leads to apprehensionapprehension ofof conditionsconditions of worthof worth..
  14. 14. Social Learning TheorySocial Learning Theory Suggests thatSuggests that previous learningprevious learning is a majoris a major source of motivation. The success orsource of motivation. The success or failure of particular responses leads to anfailure of particular responses leads to an understanding of what will produceunderstanding of what will produce positive or negativepositive or negative consequences andconsequences and desire to repeat successful behaviorsdesire to repeat successful behaviors..
  15. 15. Social Learning TheorySocial Learning Theory Observing another personObserving another person succeed or failsucceed or fail may be sufficient to produce motivemay be sufficient to produce motive conditionsconditions..
  16. 16. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Intrinsic Motivation and Self- Determination TheoryDetermination Theory Research onResearch on intrinsic motivationintrinsic motivation suggestssuggests that providingthat providing rewards and incentivesrewards and incentives forfor intrinsicallyintrinsically enjoyableenjoyable behaviours maybehaviours may work not to reinforce but rather towork not to reinforce but rather to undermineundermine these behavioursthese behaviours..
  17. 17. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Intrinsic Motivation and Self- Determination TheoryDetermination Theory Deci & Ryan argue that self -determinedDeci & Ryan argue that self -determined behaviours stem from three basic psychologicalbehaviours stem from three basic psychological needsneeds:: FirstFirst :the need for the:the need for the competencecompetence encompasses the person's strivings toencompasses the person's strivings to control the outcomes of eventscontrol the outcomes of events and toand to experience a sense of mastery andexperience a sense of mastery and effectiveness in dealing with theeffectiveness in dealing with the environmentenvironment..
  18. 18. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Intrinsic Motivation and Self- Determination TheoryDetermination Theory  SecondSecond :The need for autonomy involves:The need for autonomy involves the desire to feel that one isthe desire to feel that one is independentindependent of external pressuresof external pressures and able to relate toand able to relate to the world as an origin rather than pawnthe world as an origin rather than pawn..
  19. 19. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Intrinsic Motivation and Self- Determination TheoryDetermination Theory ThirdThird : The need for: The need for relatednessrelatedness encompasses a person's strivings to careencompasses a person's strivings to care for others ,to feel that others are relatingfor others ,to feel that others are relating to self in authentic and mutually supportiveto self in authentic and mutually supportive ways ,and to feel satisfying and coherentways ,and to feel satisfying and coherent involvement with the social world moreinvolvement with the social world more generallygenerally..
  20. 20. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Intrinsic Motivation and Self- Determination TheoryDetermination Theory Some studies have shown that as peopleSome studies have shown that as people make significant progress in themake significant progress in the attainment of goals that contribute to theattainment of goals that contribute to the needs forneeds for autonomyautonomy ,,competencecompetence ,and,and interpersonal relatednessinterpersonal relatedness ,they experience,they experience higher level ofhigher level of mental healthmental health ,self-actualization,self-actualization ,,and psychological-well-beingand psychological-well-being..
  21. 21. Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Intrinsic Motivation and Self- Determination TheoryDetermination Theory  FirstFirst: the social environment may offer: the social environment may offer autonomy supportautonomy support.. SecondSecond : the social environment may: the social environment may provideprovide structure for behaviourstructure for behaviour.. ThirdThird : The social environment may: The social environment may offeroffer interpersonal involvementinterpersonal involvement..  
  22. 22. Four Basic NeedsFour Basic Needs Constructive Thinking –Constructive Thinking – Seymour Epstein, 1998Seymour Epstein, 1998.. 11––To maximizeTo maximize pleasurepleasure and minimizeand minimize painpain.. 22––To maintain a coherent ,realistic set of beliefs thatTo maintain a coherent ,realistic set of beliefs that allows one toallows one to operate effectively in the worldoperate effectively in the world.. ToTo make sensemake sense out of your experienceout of your experience.. 33––To have closeTo have close emotional (satisfying)emotional (satisfying) relationshipsrelationships with otherswith others.. 44––To haveTo have high self-esteemhigh self-esteem ( to( to think well of yourself ).-think well of yourself ).- self-esteem is apparently a need that can overrideself-esteem is apparently a need that can override the need to avoid pain and even to preserve one's lifethe need to avoid pain and even to preserve one's life.. 
  23. 23. Emotion and MotivationEmotion and Motivation The highest incidence ofThe highest incidence of heart attack in America isheart attack in America is on Monday mooringon Monday mooring..
  24. 24. Forgive me
  25. 25. EmotionEmotion  All three of these wordsAll three of these words–– emotionemotion ,,movemove ,, motivatemotivate – share the– share the Latin rootLatin root emovareemovare ,which means to,which means to movemove..
  26. 26. The What of EmotionThe What of Emotion Emotion is the awareness of a feelingEmotion is the awareness of a feeling elicited in response to an environmentalelicited in response to an environmental stimulus, accompanied by physiologicalstimulus, accompanied by physiological changes overt behaviors such as facialchanges overt behaviors such as facial expressionsexpressions..
  27. 27. The What of EmotionThe What of Emotion Emotions are reactions to matters thatEmotions are reactions to matters that seem to be very important to ourseem to be very important to our welfare.. Emotions often begin so quickly that weEmotions often begin so quickly that we areare not aware of he processesnot aware of he processes in our mindin our mind That set them offThat set them off..
  28. 28. Theories of EmotionTheories of Emotion The commonsense view of emotionsThe commonsense view of emotions states the sequence of events instates the sequence of events in emotional responding asemotional responding as::  emotional stimulusemotional stimulus  emotionemotion  physiological changesphysiological changes..
  29. 29. Theories of EmotionTheories of Emotion The James-Lange theoryThe James-Lange theory states thatstates that physiological changes precede andphysiological changes precede and actually create emotionsactually create emotions.. The sequence of events in emotionalThe sequence of events in emotional responding isresponding is::  EEmotionalmotional SStimulustimulus  PPhysiological changeshysiological changes  EEmotionmotion..
  30. 30. Theories of EmotionTheories of Emotion The Cannon-Bard theoryThe Cannon-Bard theory stresses the rolestresses the role of the thalamus inof the thalamus in simultaneouslysimultaneously relayingrelaying emotional input to the cortex andemotional input to the cortex and sympathetic nervous systemsympathetic nervous system..
  31. 31. Theories of EmotionTheories of Emotion Different emotions are mediated byDifferent emotions are mediated by differentdifferent brain networksbrain networks ,different,different modules, andmodules, and evolutionary changesevolutionary changes in ain a particular network don`t necessarilyparticular network don`t necessarily affect the others directlyaffect the others directly.. 
  32. 32. The Physiological ComponentsThe Physiological Components There are some physiological differences among theThere are some physiological differences among the emotions such as increased heart rate in angeremotions such as increased heart rate in anger..
  33. 33. The Basic EmotionsThe Basic Emotions There are believed to eight basic emotionsThere are believed to eight basic emotions:: 11--AngerAnger 22--SorrowSorrow 33––JoyJoy 44––SurpriseSurprise 55--FearFear 66--DisgustDisgust 77––GuiltshameGuiltshame 88--InterestInterest
  34. 34. The Expressive ComponentsThe Expressive Components Nonverbal communication involvesNonverbal communication involves communication through body languagecommunication through body language,, movements, and gesturesmovements, and gestures..
  35. 35. The Expressive ComponentsThe Expressive Components Paralanguage involves communicationParalanguage involves communication through tone of voice, rate of speechthrough tone of voice, rate of speech,, pauses, sighs, and loudnesspauses, sighs, and loudness..
  36. 36. The Expressive ComponentsThe Expressive Components Compared with men, women report moreCompared with men, women report more emotional experiences and greateremotional experiences and greater comfort with emotionscomfort with emotions.. One possible explanation is that women'sOne possible explanation is that women's roles and occupations tend to requireroles and occupations tend to require greatergreater sensitivitysensitivity to the emotionalto the emotional expressions inexpressions in othersothers..
  37. 37. Social component The separation of reason and emotion ,at its extreme ,is the hallmark of the psychopath. But a society that worships reason is concerned only with the excesses of emotion ,not those of so – called rationality. )Miriam Greenspan,2003.(
  38. 38. Social component The Bad Listening to Pain: Ignoring , stopping ,and shaming or punishing emotion are the three parenting styles that most often results in emotional illiteracy in children. In an emotion phobic culture ,most of us don't know how to listen very well to emotional pain for the simple reason that we have never been taught that doing so is a good thing , or how to do it.
  39. 39. The Cognitive ComponentsThe Cognitive Components Appraisal theories of emotion propose thatAppraisal theories of emotion propose that how we makehow we make judgmentsjudgments about eventsabout events leads to emotional reactionsleads to emotional reactions.. Cultural valuesCultural values can influence people'scan influence people's emotionsemotions..
  40. 40. Positive Emotion  Why do positive emotion exist? 1-Broadens a person's mindset. 2-Making novel responses more likely. 3-Undo lingering negative emotions. 4-Build resilience for confronting challenges in the future. )Isen,2000,Fredrickson,2006
  41. 41. Positive Emotion People should cultivate positive emotions in themselves and in those around them not just as end – states in themselves ,but also as means to achieving psychological growth and improved psychological and physical well-being overtime.
  42. 42. Emotions Regulation Present feelings must be integrated with awareness of future consequences and informed by past learning.
  43. 43. Emotions Regulation People can regulate their emotions by: A – Managing the situation to which they expose themselves. B – Transforming their responses by reviewing the situation. C – Suppressing or intensifying their responses.
  44. 44. Emotional IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence  Definition :Definition : The ability to perceive emotions ,toThe ability to perceive emotions ,to access and generate emotions so as toaccess and generate emotions so as to assist thought ,to understand emotionsassist thought ,to understand emotions and emotional knowledge ,and toand emotional knowledge ,and to reflectively regulate emotions so as toreflectively regulate emotions so as to promotepromote emotional and intellectual growthemotional and intellectual growth..

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