Motivation and emotion


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Motivation and emotion

  1. 1. Motivation and Emotion
  2. 3. Motivation <ul><li>Instinct Theory : we are motivated by our inborn automated behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>But instincts only explain why we do a small fraction of our behaviors. </li></ul>Click on the fish to watch it’s instinctual behavior.
  3. 4. Drive Reduction Theory <ul><li>Our behavior is motivated by BIOLOGICAL NEEDS . </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to maintain homeostasis. </li></ul><ul><li>When we are not, we have a need that creates a drive. </li></ul><ul><li>Primary versus Secondary drives </li></ul>
  4. 5. Arousal Theory <ul><li>We are motivated to seek an optimum level of arousal. </li></ul><ul><li>Yerkes-Dodson Law </li></ul>
  5. 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs <ul><li>Abraham Maslow said we are motivated by needs, and all needs are not created equal. </li></ul><ul><li>We are driven to satisfy the lower level needs first. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Motivation of HUNGER
  7. 8. Biological Basis of Hunger <ul><li>Hunger does NOT come from our stomach. </li></ul><ul><li>It comes from our… </li></ul><ul><li>Brain </li></ul><ul><li>What part of the brain? </li></ul><ul><li>The Hypothalamus </li></ul>
  8. 9. Hypothalamus <ul><li>Lateral Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>When stimulated it makes you hungry. </li></ul><ul><li>When lesioned (destroyed) you will never be hungry again. </li></ul><ul><li>Ventromedial Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><li>When stimulated you feel full. </li></ul><ul><li>When lesioned you will never feel full again. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Set Point Theory <ul><li>The hypothalamus acts like a thermostat. </li></ul><ul><li>Wants to maintain a stable weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Activate the lateral when you diet and activate the ventromedial when you start to gain weight. </li></ul><ul><li>Leptin theory </li></ul>
  10. 11. Body Chemistry <ul><li>Glucose </li></ul><ul><li>The hormone insulin converts glucose to fat. </li></ul><ul><li>When glucose levels drop- hunger increases. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Psychological Aspects of Hunger <ul><li>Internals versus Externals </li></ul><ul><li>The Garcia Effect </li></ul>
  12. 13. Culture and Hunger
  13. 14. Criadillas- bull testicles . Mice Wine Dog Fried Frog Legs
  14. 15. Eating Disorders <ul><li>Bulimia Nervosa </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by binging (eating large amounts of food) and purging (getting rid of the food). </li></ul>
  15. 16. Anorexia Nervosa <ul><li>Starve themselves to below 85% of their normal body weight. </li></ul><ul><li>See themselves as fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Vast majority are woman. </li></ul>Click on the woman to watch a case study of an anorexic.
  16. 17. Obesity <ul><li>Severely overweight to the point where it causes health issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly eating habits but some people are predisposed towards obesity. </li></ul>Click on the pictures to see some case studies on obesity.
  17. 18. Sexual Motivation <ul><li>Sex is natural. </li></ul><ul><li>Without sex, none of us would be here. </li></ul><ul><li>How do scientists (or you) find out about sex? </li></ul><ul><li>YOU ASK!!!!!! </li></ul>
  18. 19. Kinsey’s Studies <ul><li>Confidential interviews with 18,000 people (in early 1950’s). </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Behavior in the Human Male and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female </li></ul><ul><li>Scale of sexuality….0 to 6 where 0 is exclusively heterosexual and 6 homosexual and 7 is asexual. </li></ul>Click on Kinsey to see the movie trailer.
  19. 20. Masters and Johnson Study <ul><li>In the 1960’s William Masters and Virginia Johnson set out to explore the physiology of sex. </li></ul><ul><li>382 females and 312 males. </li></ul>After their research was done they ran an institute that claimed to turn gay people straight. Click on Masters and Johnson to see a more detailed explanation of their research.
  20. 21. Mapped out the Sexual Response Cycle <ul><li>Initial Excitement </li></ul><ul><li>Plateau Phase </li></ul><ul><li>Orgasm </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution Phase (with refractory period). </li></ul>
  21. 22. Psychological Factors in Sexual Motivation <ul><li>Only some people are externals when it comes to hunger- but we are all externals when it comes to sex. </li></ul><ul><li>Heiman 4 tape study. </li></ul><ul><li>People can find sexually explicit images either pleasing or disturbing- but they are none the less biologically arousing. </li></ul>
  22. 23. We have discussed the energizing of sexual motivation but have yet to discuss its direction: Sexual Orientation An enduring sexual attraction toward members of either one's own gender or the other gender. Percentage, brothers and cities
  23. 24. How is Sexual Orientation Determined <ul><li>There has been NO evidence that sexuality is socially determined. </li></ul><ul><li>Kids raised by gay parents are no more likely to be gay that if they were raised by hetero parents. </li></ul><ul><li>This it is likely biologically determined. </li></ul>
  24. 25. The Brain <ul><li>Simon LeVay discovered that there is a cluster of cells in the hypothalamus that is larger in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women or homosexual men. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Prenatal Environment <ul><li>Current research seems to point to the hormonal levels in the prenatal environment . </li></ul><ul><li>We have created homosexual male fruit flies and lesbian sheep!!! </li></ul>
  26. 27. Achievement Motivation What motivates us to work? (School, job, sports, video games, relationships etc..) <ul><li>Intrinsic Motivators </li></ul><ul><li>Rewards we get internally, such as enjoyment or satisfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Extrinsic Motivators </li></ul><ul><li>Reward that we get for accomplishments from outside ourselves (grades or money or etc..) </li></ul><ul><li>Work great in the short run. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Management Theory Management/Teaching styles relate closely to Intrinsic/Extrinsic Motivators. <ul><li>Theory X </li></ul><ul><li>Managers believes that employees will work only if rewarded with benefits or threatened with punishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Think employees are Extrinsically Motivated. </li></ul><ul><li>Only interested in Maslow’s lower needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory Y </li></ul><ul><li>Managers believe that employees are internally motivated to do good work and policies should encourage this internal motive. </li></ul><ul><li>Interested in Maslow’s higher needs. </li></ul>
  28. 29. When Motives Conflict <ul><li>approach-approach conflict </li></ul><ul><li>avoidance-avoidance conflict </li></ul><ul><li>approach-avoidance conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple approach-avoidance conflicts </li></ul>
  29. 30. Emotion <ul><li>Willam James and Carl Lange came up with the James-Lange Theory of Emotion . </li></ul><ul><li>We feel emotion because of biological changes caused by stress. </li></ul><ul><li>The body changes and our mind recognizes the feeling. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus  Arousal  Emotion </li></ul>
  30. 31. Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion <ul><li>Say James-Lange theory is full of crap. </li></ul><ul><li>How can that be true if similar physiological changes correspond with drastically different emotional states. </li></ul><ul><li>The physiological change and cognitive awareness must occur simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus  Arousal/Emotion </li></ul><ul><li>They believed it was the thalamus that helped this happen. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Two-Factor Theory of Emotion <ul><li>Stanley Schachter explains emotions more completely that the other two theories. </li></ul><ul><li>They happen at the same time but… </li></ul><ul><li>People who are already physiologically aroused experience more intense emotions than unaroused people when both groups are exposed to the same stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Biology and Cognition interact with each other to increase the experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus  Arousal+Cognitive Label  Emotion </li></ul>
  32. 33. Stress <ul><li>Social readjustment rating scale (SRRS) </li></ul><ul><li>Life Changing Units (LCUs)- marriage, change job, etc… </li></ul><ul><li>The more LCUs you have the higher your score is on the SRRS. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who score higher are more likely to have stress related disease. </li></ul>
  33. 34. Seyle’s General Adaptation Syndrome <ul><li>Describes our response to a stressful event. </li></ul><ul><li>Three stages </li></ul><ul><li>Alarm </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Exhaustion </li></ul>