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  • The correct answer is “A” - Intrinsically Motivated Behavior. See next slide
  • Managers must determine what needs a worker wants satisfied and ensure that a person receives the outcomes when performing well.
  • The correct answer is “D” – punishment. See slide 13-39
  • Mca.motivation

    1. 1. Motivation• Motivation – The psychological forces that determine the direction of a person’s behavior in an organization, a person’s level of effort, and a person’s level of persistence – Explains why people behave the way they do in organizations 13-1
    2. 2. The Nature of Motivation• Motivation is a psychological process through which unsatisfied wants or needs lead to drives that are aimed at goals or incentives. 13-2
    3. 3. The Nature of Motivation• Direction - possible behaviors the individual could engage in• Effort - how hard the individual will work• Persistence - whether the individual will keep trying or give up 13-3
    4. 4. Question?What behavior is performed for its own sake?A. Intrinsically Motivated BehaviorB. Extrinsically Motivated Behavior 13-4
    5. 5. The Nature of Motivation• Intrinsically Motivated Behavior – Behavior that is performed for its own sake. • The source of the motivation that comes from actually performing the behavior. • The sense of accomplishment and achievement derived from doing the work itself 13-5
    6. 6. The Nature of Motivation• Extrinsically Motivated Behavior – Behavior that is performed to acquire material or social rewards or to avoid punishment. • The source of the motivation is the consequences of the behavior and not the behavior itself. 13-6
    7. 7. Outcomes and Inputs• Outcome – Anything a person gets from a job or an organization • Pay, job security, autonomy, accomplishment• Input – Anything a person contributes to his or her job or organization • Time, effort, skills, knowledge, work behaviors 13-7
    8. 8. The Motivation EquationFigure 13.1 13-8
    9. 9. 16.1 A Simple Model of MotivationCopyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13-9 9
    10. 10. Motivation• Earlier Theories of Motivation1. Scientific Management2. Human relation models Contemporary theories1. Content theories2. Process theories 13-10
    11. 11. Content theories• Maslow theory• Herzberg theory• ERG theory• Achievement motivation theory 13-11
    12. 12. Process theories• Goal setting theory• Vroom ‘s expectancy theory• Adam’s equity theory• Porter’s performance model 13-12
    13. 13. Content Theories of Motivation Emphasize the needs that motivate people Hierarchy of Needs Theory  ERG Theory  Two-Factor Theory  Acquired Needs Theory 13-13
    14. 14. Need Theories• Need • Need Theories – A requirement or – People are necessity for motivated to survival and well- obtain outcomes being. at work that will satisfy their needs 13-14
    15. 15. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs by Abraham Harold Maslow Needs Description ExamplesHighest-level Self- Self- Realize one’s Realize one’s Use abilities Use abilities needs actualization actualization full potential full potential to the fullest to the fullest Feel good Feel good Promotions Promotions Esteem Esteem about oneself about oneself and recognition and recognition Social Social Interpersonal Interpersonal Belongingness Belongingness interaction, love interaction, love relations, parties relations, parties Job security, Job security, Safety Safety Security, stability Security, stability health insurance health insuranceLowest-level Food, water, Food, water, Basic pay level Basic pay level Physiological Physiological needs shelter shelter to buy items to buy items Lower-level needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs are addressed. Table 13.1 13-15
    16. 16. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory by Frederik Herzberg• Focuses on outcomes that lead to higher motivation and job satisfaction, and those outcomes that can prevent dissatisfaction.• Unsatisfied hygiene needs create dissatisfaction; satisfaction of hygiene needs does not lead to motivation or job satisfaction. 13-16
    17. 17. 16.4 Herzberg’s Two-Factor TheoryCopyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13-17 17
    18. 18. Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory• Motivator needs relate to the nature of the work itself—autonomy, responsibility, interesting work.• Hygiene needs are related to the physical and psychological context of the work—comfortable work environment, pay, job security. 13-18
    19. 19. Maslow Vs. HerzbergMaslow’s hierarchy Herzberg’s two-factor theory MotivatorsSelf-actualization Achievement Recognition ResponsibilityEsteem Advancement - training The work itselfSocial Hygiene Factors SalarySafety Technical supervision Company policies Interpersonal relationsPhysiological Working conditions 13-19
    20. 20. Alderfer’s ERG Theory Needs Description ExamplesHighest-level needs Self-development, Self-development, Continually Continually Growth Growth creative work improve skills creative work improve skills Interpersonal Interpersonal Good relations, Good relations, Relatedness Relatedness relations, feelings accurate feedback relations, feelings accurate feedback Food, water, Food, water, Adequate pay Adequate payLowest-level Existence Existence clothing, and shelter for necessities clothing, and shelter for necessities needs After lower level needs satisfied, person seeks higher needs. When unable to satisfy higher needs, lower needs motivation is raised. Table 13.2 13-20
    21. 21. Alderfer’s ERG Theory• As lower level needs become satisfied, a person seeks to satisfy higher-level needs• A person can be motivated by needs at more than one level at the same time• When people experience need frustration they will focus on satisfying the needs at the next-lowest level 13-21
    22. 22. McClelland’s Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power• Need for Achievement – A strong need to perform challenging tasks well and meet personal standards for excellence 13-22
    23. 23. McClelland’s Needs for Achievement, Affiliation, and Power• Need for Affiliation – Concerned about establishing and maintaining good interpersonal relations, being liked, and having the people around him get along with each other• Need for Power – A desire to control or influence others 13-23
    24. 24. Equity Theory• Equity Theory – Focuses on people’s perceptions of the fairness (or lack of fairness) of their work outcomes in proportion to their work inputs. 13-24
    25. 25. Equity Theory• A relative outcome to input ratio comparison to oneself or to another person (referent) perceived as similar to oneself.• Equity exists when a person perceives that their outcome/input ratio to be equal to the referent’s ratio. – If the referent receives more outcomes, they should also give more inputs to achieve equity. 13-25
    26. 26. Equity Theory Condition Person Referent Example Worker contributes Worker contributes Outcomes == Outcomes Outcomes Outcomes more inputs but also more inputs but also Equity Equity Inputs Inputs gets more outputs Inputs Inputs gets more outputs than referent than referent Worker contributes Worker contributesUnderpayment Underpayment Outcomes << Outcomes Outcomes Outcomes more inputs but also more inputs but also Equity Inputs Inputs Inputs Inputs gets the same outputs gets the same outputs Equity as referent as referent Worker contributes Worker contributesOverpaymentOverpayment Outcomes >> Outcomes Outcomes Outcomes same inputs but also same inputs but also Equity Inputs Inputs Inputs Inputs gets more outputs gets more outputs Equity than referent than referentTable 13.3 13-26
    27. 27. Equity Theory• Inequity exists when worker’s outcome/input ratio is not equal to referent. – Underpayment inequity: ratio is less than the referent. • Workers feel they are not getting the outcomes they should for their inputs. – Overpayment inequity: ratio is higher than the referent. • Workers feel they are getting more outcomes than they should for their inputs. 13-27
    28. 28. Equity Theory• Restoring Equity: Inequity creates tension in workers causing them to attempt to restore equity. – In underpayment, workers may reduce input levels to correct (rebalance) the ratio or seek a raise. – In overpayment, workers may change the referent person and readjust their ratio perception. – If inequity persists, workers will often choose to leave the organization. 13-28
    29. 29. Expectancy TheoryMotivation will be high when workers believe: – High levels of effort will lead to high performance. – High performance will lead to the attainment of desired outcomes. 13-29
    30. 30. Expectancy Theory• Motivation depends on individuals’ expectations about their ability to perform tasks and receive desired rewards• E – P: putting effort into a given task will lead to high performance• P – O: successful performance of a task will lead to the desired outcome• Valence – the value or attraction an individual has for an outcomeCopyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13-30 30
    31. 31. Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence Figure 13.2 13-31
    32. 32. Expectancy TheoryFigure 13.3 13-32
    33. 33. Goal Setting Theory• Focuses on motivating workers to contribute their inputs to their jobs and organizations• Considers how managers can ensure that workers focus their inputs in the direction of high performance and the achievement of organizational goals. 13-33
    34. 34. Goal Setting Theory• Goal – What a person is trying to accomplish through his efforts and behaviors – Must be specific and difficult• Goals point out what is important to the firm. – Workers should be encouraged to develop action plans to attain goals. 13-34
    35. 35. Goal Setting Theory • Goals motivate people to contribute more inputs to their jobs • Goals help people focus their inputs in the right direction 13-35
    36. 36. Learning Theories• Managers can increase employee motivation and performance by the ways they link the outcomes that employees receive to the performance of desired behaviors in an organization and the attainment of goals 13-36
    37. 37. Learning Theories• Learning – A relatively permanent change in person’s knowledge or behavior that results from practice or experience. 13-37
    38. 38. Social Learning TheoryIndividual’s motivation can result from thoughts,beliefs, and observations – Vicarious learning – observational learning from seeing others’ behaviors and rewards – Self-reinforcement – motivating yourself by reaching goals and providing positive reinforcement for yourself – Self-efficacy – belief about your own ability to accomplish tasks Copyright ©2012 by South-Western, a division of Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13-38 38
    39. 39. Operant Conditioning Theory• Operant Conditioning – People learn to perform behaviors that lead to desired consequences and learn not to perform behaviors that lead to undesired consequences. – Linking specific behaviors to the attainment of specific outcomes can motivate high performance and prevent behaviors that detract from organizational effectiveness. 13-39
    40. 40. Question?Which operant conditioning tool administers an undesired consequence to immediately stop a dysfunctional behavior?A. Positive reinforcementB. Negative reinforcementC. ExtinctionD. Punishment 13-40
    41. 41. Operant Conditioning Tools• Positive Reinforcement – Gives people outcomes they desire when they perform organizationally functionally behaviors • Positive reinforcers: Pay, praises, or promotions 13-41
    42. 42. Operant Conditioning Tools• Negative Reinforcement – Eliminating undesired outcomes once the functional behavior occurs • Negative reinforcers: criticisms, pay cuts, suspension 13-42
    43. 43. Operant Conditioning Tools• Extinction – Curtailing the performance of a dysfunctional behavior by eliminating whatever is reinforcing it.• Punishment – Administering an undesired/negative consequence to immediately stop a dysfunctional behavior. • Manager administers an undesired consequence to worker (verbal reprimand, demotion, pay cut). 13-43
    44. 44. Avoiding Side Effects of Punishment• Downplay the emotional element involved• Try to punish dysfunctional behaviors as soon as they occur• Try to avoid punishing someone in front of others 13-44
    45. 45. Organizational Behavior Modification • Organizational Behavior Modification – Managers systematically apply operant conditioning techniques to promote the performance of organizationally functional behaviors and discourage the performance of dysfunctional behaviors 13-45
    46. 46. Organizational Behavior Modification • Used to improve productivity, efficiency, attendance, punctuality, safe work practices, and customer service • Sometimes questioned because of lack of relevance to certain work behaviors • To critics it is overly controlling and robs workers of their dignity, individuality, freedom of choice and creativity 13-46
    47. 47. Steps inOrganizationalBehaviorModification Figure 13.4 13-47
    48. 48. Social Learning Theory• Social Learning Theory – Proposes that motivation results not only from direct experience of rewards and punishments but also from a person’s thoughts and beliefs 13-48
    49. 49. Social Learning Theory• Vicarious Learning (Observational Learning) – Occurs when a person becomes motivated to perform a behavior by watching another person perform the behavior and be positively reinforced for doing so 13-49
    50. 50. Social Learning Theory• Self-Reinforcement – Any desired or attractive outcome or award that a person can give himself or herself for good performance.• Self-efficacy – A person’s belief about his or her ability to perform a behavior successfully. 13-50
    51. 51. Empowering People to Meet Higher Needs Four Empowering Elements Information - Employees receive information about company performance Knowledge - Employees have knowledge and skills to contribute to company goals Power - Employees have the power to make substantive decisions Rewards - Employees are rewarded 13-51
    52. 52. A Continuum of Empowerment Exhibit 19.11 Sources: Based on Robert C. Ford and Myron D. Fottler, “Empowerment: A Matter of Degree,” Academy of Management Executive 9, no. 3 (1995), 21-31; Lawrence Holpp, “Applied Empowerment,” Training (February 1994), 39-44; and David P. McCaffrey, Sue R. Faerman, and David W. Hart, “”The Appeal and Difficulties of Participative Systems,” Organization Science 6, no. 6 (November-December 1995), 603-627. 13-52
    53. 53. Giving Meaning to Work• To meet higher-level motivational needs and help people get intrinsic rewards from their work is to instill a sense of importance and meaningfulness 13-53