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  1. 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 57 USES OF MEMS ACCELEROMETER IN SEISMOLOGY Sanjib Kalita Final Year Student (Master of Engineering-VLSI & Embedded System Design), Dept of Electronics & Telecommunication, Godavari College of Engineering, Jalgaon, Maharashtra. ABSTRACT Life and property has been damaged due to the large magnitude earthquake in the world. It is necessary to develop some system to predict the time of the earthquake using some modern technology. MEMS Accelerometer is one of the modern technologies used for detecting the early information of earthquake. In this paper, the review of current trend of uses of MEMS Accelerometer for detecting and predicting of earthquake has been discussed. KEY WORDS: Earthquake, MEMS Accelerometer, Line Graph. 1.0. INTRODUCTION Earthquake is occurred within the earth’s crust by the sudden release of large amount of energy. This energy produces some destructive waves which are called as the seismic wave. It has been found that the seismic wave includes shear-wave, longitudinal wave and surface wave. Longitudinal wave’s vibration direction and of the forward motion are found to be same whose speed is 5.5-7 km/s and the destructive force is small. However, shear wave’s vibration is perpendicular to the forward direction whose speed is 3.2-4 km/s and the destructive force is high. The surface wave is the slowest wave and the most destructive. Due to the urbanization, the earthquake offers serious threat to lives and properties. Earthquake Early Warning(EEW) can be very useful tools for reducing life risks happens due to earthquakes [1] Different types EEW design have been focused in different parts of the world by various author [2-7]. It has been reported that various types instrument have been used for different types of scientific experiments. One of the emerging instruments is MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical System) Accelerometer, which can be used for measuring proper acceleration. However, it can measure vibration, shock etc. Recently, it has been found that MEMS Accelerometers are used for many mobile applications [8]. Holland, A. used MEMS Accelerometer for recording the earthquake data in 2003[9]. Again a few application of MEMS Accelerometer relating to land seismic INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH IN ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET) ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print) ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October 2013, pp. 57-61 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJARET © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 58 acquisition was focused by Farine, M. et al. in 2004[10]. Many research works are still going on for the earthquake early warning system using MEMS Accelerometer. So, the MEMS Accelerometers will play a vital role in future to detect the earthquake and it can save many lives. 1.1. GLOBAL SEISMIC ZONE Due to the modern technological development it is possible to familiar the seismic zones of the world. There are various resources found from many research level articles regarding the seismic zonal area in the world. The most important and familiar global seismic zone has been found from Global Seismic Hazard Map [11]. Major and minor seismic zone are also found from this map. Besides, it shows the 10% probability of ground motion during next 50 years. Some of the major seismic zones which are found from Global Seismic Hazard Map are Japan, Philippines, Indonesia, Himalayan Ranges, Iran, Western part of North America & South America etc. 1.2. MEMS ACCELEROMETER Let us remind an important device used for various experiments, called MEMS accelerometer. It is known that an accelerometer is a device which measures acceleration force. Many types of accelerometer have been developed. But these accelerometers are bulky. Hence it is necessary to develop some smaller accelerometer which can be used in many fields of applications. It has been found that 1st Micro Machined Accelerometer was designed in 1979 [12]. Many electrical devices namely gyroscope, pressure sensors, inkjet printer etc have been used in MEMS technology. Further, in 1990 car airbags are modernized by using MEMS Accelerometer. More recently, it has been used in smart phones, washing machines etc [13]. Now many leading companies such as Analog Devices, ST Microelectronics, Freescale etc. have produced MEMS accelerometer of different sensitivity level. MEMS Accelerometers can be divided in various type, such as capacitive, electromagnetic, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, optical etc [14]. Out of these, capacitive MEMS accelerometer is most successful type. Many specification of MEMS Accelerometer are bandwidth, noise, cross-axis, sensitivity, drift, linearity, dynamic range, shock survivability and power consumption, which have to consider when choosing an accelerometer. 1.3. SEISMOLOGY AND MEMS ACCELEROMETER In 2003 Chung et al. developed MEMS-type accelerometer which can monitor vibration of large-scale structures. In addition to that the same author used MEMS Accelerometer for real time seismic monitoring of bridges [15]. This system has been installed at the pedestrian bridge in the Peltason Street on the University of California, Irvine campus. Again for seismic data acquisition C. P. Singh uses MEMS Digital Geophone. This geophone is based on the MEMS Accelerometer and onboard sigma delta modulator which is very useful for exploration in the oil fields [14]. Further Takao Aizawa et al. [16] performed some field experiment using MEMS Accelerometer for seismic survey. In this survey the authors use conventional geophone, C-brand 1- C, C-brand 3-C and S-brand 3-C MEMS. It has been reported that the property of MEMS Accelerometers which were used in the experiment were similar and they are found to be more sensitive than conventional geophone for seismic survey. Adam Pascale in 2009 explained some advantages of MEMS Accelerometer for earthquake monitoring [17]. Recently, the Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) is used to minimize the gap between the traditional seismic stations. MEMS Accelerometer sensors have been used in Quake-Catcher
  3. 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 59 Network (QCN) to detect the vibration of local seismic waves (0.1-20 Hz). In addition to that distributed computing plays a vital role in QCN [18]. The use of QCN for recording earthquake also explains the behavior of P- and S-wave [19]. Huayin Zeng et al. [20] recently designed a wireless earthquake alarm system using MEMS Accelerometer. The MEMS Accelerometer used in the system detects the longitudinal wave which travels faster than the other wave. If the acceleration is higher than the threshold value then the system alert the people by playing the alarm to leave the building as soon as possible, since the destructive share wave is followed by the longitudinal wave. MMA7260Q MEMS Accelerometer of Freescale was used in this design. This is a 3-axis accelerometer with very low power consumption. Besides, CC1100 and C8051F330 were used for the wireless transmission and signal processing respectively. According to the author, this system will play very important role in near future since its cost will be low. Tu R. et al. also do some field experiments using MEMS Accelerometer with Single- frequency GPS for monitoring ground motion generated due to earthquake, landslides and volcanic activity in 2013 [21]. 1.4. TREND OF RESEARCH IN SEISMOLOGY AND THE USES MEMS ACCELEROMETER The current trend of research in seismology and the uses of MEMS Accelerometer in it are not satisfied as compared to the other branches science and technology for detecting early information of earth quake. In the present’s day context, the data available in the form of research articles and research letters relating to seismology, gives an over view of application of MEMS Accelerometer in seismology. The following graph [Figure-1] is an approximate idea of research done in seismology during the year 2003 to 2013, only where the application of MEMS Accelerometer have been found. Here the x-axis represents the years and the y-axis represents the published research works. Figure-1: Line Graph of Approximate idea of research in seismology using MEMS Accelerometer
  4. 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 60 1.5. CONCLUSION Through the above article, an idea of the direction of research regarding to the uses of MEMS Accelerometer in detecting the early information of earth quake are studied only during the year 2003 to 2013. This study shows that, the instantaneous research on MEMS Accelerometer in earthquake prediction compared to others is found to be less. It needs further research on this line. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I am grateful to the project guide Mrs. J.N.Borole, Assistant Professor and Dr. K.P. Rane, HOD, Department of Electronics & Telecommunication, Godavari College of Engineering, Jalgaon (Maharashtra) for encouraging to prepare this paper. I am also thankful to Dr. Bichitra kalita, HOD, Department of Computer Application, Assam Engineering College, Guwahati (Assam) for valuable suggestions for completing the paper. REFERENCES 1. Yih-Min Wu; Kanamori, H. “Development of an Earthquake Early Warning System Using Real –Time Strong Motion Signals” Sensors 8, pp1-9, 2008. 2. Espinosa-Aranda, J.; Jiménez, A.; Ibarrola, G.; Alcantar, F.; Aguilar, A.; Inostroza, M.; Maldonado, S. “Mexico City seismic alert system”. Seism. Res. Lett. 66, pp 42-53, 1995. 3. Hauksson, E.; Small, P.; Hafner, K.; Busby, R.; Clayton, R.; Goltz, J.; Heaton, T.; Hutton, K.; Kanamori, H.; Polet, J.; Given, D.; Jones, L. M.; Wald, D. “Southern California Seismic Network: Caltech/USGS element of TriNet 1997-2001”. Seism. Res. Lett. 72, pp 690-704. 2001. 4. Horiuchi, S.; Negishi, H.; Abe, K.; Kamimura, A.; Fujinawa, Y. “An automatic processing system for broadcasting earthquake alarms”. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 95, pp 708-718, 2005. 5. Kanamori, H. “Real-time seismology and earthquake damage mitigation”. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences, 33, pp195-214, doi: 10.1146/annurev.earth.33.092203.122626, 2005. 6. Nakamura, Y. “On the urgent earthquake detection and alarm system (UrEDAS)”. Proceeding of 9th world conference on earthquake engineering, Tokyo-Kyoto, Japan, 1998. 7. Odaka, T.; Ashiya, K.; Tsukada, S.; Sato, S.; Ohtake, K.; Nozaka, D. “A new method of quickly estimating epicentral distance and magnitude from a single seismic record”. Bull. Seism. Soc. Am, 93, pp 526-532, 2003. 8. Maxim Grankin, Elizaveta Khavkina, Alexander Ometov; “ Research of MEMS Accelerometers Features in Mobile Phone” 12th conference of Fruct Association; ISSN 2305- 7254; 2012. 9. Holland, A. “Earthquake Data Recorded by the MEMS Accelerometer”. Seism. Res. Lett. 74, pp20-26. 2003. 10. D. Giardini, G. Grunthal, K. Shedlock and P. Zhang; “ Global Seismic Hazard Map”; Produced by the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Program(GSHAP), A demonstration project of the UN/International Decade of Natural Disaster Reduction, conducted by the International Lithosphere Program, 1999. 11. Farine, M., N.Thorburn, and D. Mougenot. “General application of MEMS sensors for land seismic acquisition- is it time?”, The Leading Edge, 23, pp246-250. 2004. 12. I. Lee, G. H. Yoon, J. Park, S. Seok, K. Chun, K. Lee, “Development and analysis of the vertical capacitive accelerometer”, Sensors and Actuators ,A 119 , pp8-18, 2005.
  5. 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN 0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 6, September – October (2013), © IAEME 61 13. F. Chollet, H. Liu, “A (not so) short introduction to MEMS”, version 5.0, <http://memscyclopedia.org/introMEMS.html>. ISBN: 978-2-9542015-0-4, 2012. 14. C.P.Singh ; “MEMS Based Digital Geophones with Onboard Sigma Delta Modulator” 6th Exploration Conference & Exposition on Petroleum Geophysics, Kolkata; pp163-169; 2006. 15. Hung-Chi Chang, Tomoyuki Enomotol, Masanobu Shinozuka, Pai Chou, Chulsung Park, Isam Yokoi and Shin Morishita; “Real Time Visualization of Structural Response With Wireless MEMS Sensors”; 13th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering, Canada, Paper no- 121, pp1-10, 2004. 16. Takao Aizawa, Toshinori Kimura, Toshifumi Matsuoka, Tetsuya Takeda, Youichi Asano; “Application of MEMS accelerometer to geophysics”; International Journal of the JCRM ; Japanese committee for Rock Mechanics; Volume 4, number 2 , pp 1-4, 2008. 17. Adam Pascale, “Using Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems(MEMS) accelerometers for earthquake monitoring”; Environmental Systems & Services; Engineering solutions for monitoring the environment; ACN: 007 536 807; 2009. 18. Elizabeth S. Cochran, Jesse F. Lawrence, Carl Christensen, and Ravi S. Jakka; “The Quake- Catcher Network : Citizen Science Expanding Seismic Horizons” Seismological Research Letters; Volume 80; doi:10.1785/gssrl.80.1.26; 2009. 19. Elizabeth Cochran, Jesse Lawrence, Carl Christensen and Angela Chung; “A Novel Strong- Motion Seismic Network for Community Participation in Earthquake Monitoring”; IEEE Instrumentation & Measurement Magazine; December; 2009. 20. Huayin Zheng, Gengehen Shi, Tao Zeng and Bo Li; “Wireless Earthquake Alarm Design Based on MEMS Accelerometer”; International conference on Consumer Electronics, Communications & Networks (CECNet); ISBN- 978-1-61284-458-9, pp5481-5484, IEEE doi: 10.1109/CECNET.2011.5768502; 2011. 21. Tu, R.; Wang, R.; Ge, M.; Walter, T. R.; Ramatschi, M., Milkereit, C.; Bindi, D.; Dahm, T.; “Cost effective monitoring of ground motion related to earthquakes, landslides or volcanic activity by joint use of a single-frequency GPS and a MEMS accelerometer ”; Geophysical Research Letters; 40; pp1-5, doi: 10.1002/grl.50653; 2013. 22. H. Chung, T. Enomoto and M. Shinozuka; “MEMS-type accelerometers and wireless communication for structural monitoring” Second MIT Conferences on Fluid and Solid Mechanics, Cambridge, MA, June 17-20; http://shino8.eng.uci.edu/MEMS_ppt; 2003. 23. Speller, E. K. and Yu, D.; “a low-noice MEMS accelerometer for unattended ground sensor applications”; Proc. SPICE Int. Opt. Eng. Vol.5417, p.63; 2004. 24. Aizawa, T; Ito, S; Kimura, T; Onishi, K; Matsuoka, T; “ Development of MEMS sensors for seismic survey”, SEGJ expanded abstract of 116th meeting, pp79-82; 2007. 25. Aizawa, T; Ito, S; Kimura, T; Takeda, T; Onishi, K; Matsuoka, T; “ Characteristic of MEMS 3-C accelerometer”, SEGJ expanded abstract of 117th meeting, pp155-156; 2007. 26. Yih-Min Wu and Hiroo Kanamori; “Development of an Earthquake Early Warning System Using Real-Time Strong Motion Signals”; Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220; 2008. 27. Anesh K Sharma, Ashu K Gautam, CG Balaji, Asudeb Dutta and SG Singh, “Shunt Rf Mems Switch with Low Potential and Low Losson Quartz for Reconfigurable Circuit Applications”, International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 497 - 510, ISSN Print: 0976- 6464, ISSN Online: 0976 –6472. 28. R. Devasaran, Pankaj Roy and Dr.Arvind Kumar Singh, “Implementation of Fuzzy Logic using Mems Accelerometer for Controlling BLDC Motor Speed”, International Journal of Electrical Engineering & Technology (IJEET), Volume 4, Issue 2, 2013, pp. 65 - 70, ISSN Print : 0976-6545, ISSN Online: 0976-6553.