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Reproduction (Core)


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For the IB Biology course. Core content, with added slides at the end to bring AHL content that often pops up in student questions.

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Reproduction (Core)

  1. 1. Reproduction (Core) Stephen Taylor Image: Ovum, from Gray’s Anatomy
  2. 2. Assessment Statements Obj. 6.6.1 Draw and label diagrams of the male & female reproductive systems. 1 Outline the role of hormones in the female menstrual cycle, including FSH (follicle 6.6.2 2 stimulating hormone), LH (luteinising hormone), estrogen and progesterone. Annotate a graph showing hormone levels in the menstrual cycle, illustrating the 6.6.3 changing hormone levels and menstruation, thickening of the endometrium and 2 menstruation. 6.6.4 List three roles of testosterone in males. 1 6.6.5 Outline the process of IVF (in-vitro fertilization). 2 6.6.6 Discuss the ethical issues associated with IVF. 3 What connections can you make with other topics? ReproductionCommand terms: Assessment statements from: Online IB Biology Subject Guide
  3. 3. Ovum and Spermatozoa Gametes are haploid sex cells that fuse through fertilization in sexual reproduction to form a diploid zygote. Although only one ovum is (usually) matured and released per menstrual cycle, a billion or more sperm cells can be 100 μm released in a single ejaculation. Only one is required (and able) to fertilize the ovum.Image: Ovum, from Gray’s Anatomy sperm cell from the BBC
  4. 4. Male Reproductive SystemClick on the interactive above to label the malereproductive system: Image: sperm and egg
  5. 5. ABCDEFGH
  6. 6. A B C D E I F GH
  7. 7. An oocyte is the precursor to anEgg cells develop in follicles. egg cell. All oocytes have been inThis micrograph shows an oocyte developing into a place since before birth. At themature ovum, inside a follicle in an ovary. onset of puberty, they start to be matured and released on a cycle.Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) triggers thedevelopment of the follicle and oocyte.
  8. 8. Click on the animation above to go to watch the graph form (APBI
  9. 9. menstruation menstruation D A B C
  10. 10. More Menstrual Cycle Animations Video and doctors’ advice from NHS UK: Simple animation, no graphs: How the contraceptive pill work?  this site has a good comparison of the regular menstrual cycle and the cycle with the influence of contraceptive pills.
  11. 11. Beyond the syllabusChallenge questions or health-class topics
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  13. 13. The Contraceptive Pill.By taking a supplement of hormones, the menstrual cyclecan be manipulated to prevent pregnancy.Explain how it works. day1 Take the red* pill • it is a placebo (no hormones) • it is an iron supplement 21 7 Take the blue* pill • every day at the same time for 21 days • it is made with estrogen and progestin (synthetic progesterone) 14 (*They’re not really red and blue) Morpheus image fromOther contraceptive pills work in other ways.
  14. 14. Challenge Questions.Deduce the answers to these questions, based on what you know about menstrual cyclehormones. Check your answers using reliable sources.1. If a woman misses taking her pill for a few days in a row, should she: a. Continue where she left off, taking the hormone pills? b. Skip that number of days and keep taking the pills? c. Skip ahead to the iron/placebo pills and scrap the rest?2. What is the ‘morning after’ pill and how does it work (up to 120 hours after intercourse)?3. What other methods of contraception are there and what are their relative pros and cons regarding: • prevention of pregnancy? • protection from STI’s? • ease of use?The only guaranteed way to avoid pregnancy and STI’s is to abstain from sexual intercourse.Be informed, make healthy choices and seek guidance if you need it.Remember it is your body and your choice. Stay in control. If you have more questions, or need-to-knows, ask the school nurses or visit
  15. 15. XKCD: Please consider a donation to charity via Biology4Good. Click here for more information about Biology4Good charity donations. This is a Creative Commons presentation. It may be linked and embedded but not sold or re-hosted.