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Essential Biology 03.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins


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Essential Biology 03.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins

  1. 1. Blog resource: Click4Biology: <br />Cite all sources using the CSE method (or ISO 690 Numerical in Word). The first example has been done for you. Highlight all objective 1 command terms in yellow and complete these before class. Highlight all objective 2 and 3 command terms in green – these will be part of the discussions in class. After class, go back and review them. <br />As there are so many diagrams, we will complete this EssBio on paper. <br /><ul><li>Define organic molecule.
  2. 2. “Organic compounds are based on carbon and are found in living things.” CITATION Joh10 l 1033 (1)
  3. 3. List three carbon-containing groups or molecules that are not organic.
  4. 4. </li></ul>There are many organic molecules in living things. The same (or very similar) molecules are used in many different living things for the same purpose. <br /><ul><li>Saccharides are sugars and carbohydrates. Sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) are used to build up carbohydrates (polysaccharides).
  5. 5. State what happens to the structure of monosaccharides when they are placed in water.
  6. 6. Draw the simplified (ring) structures of glucose and ribose. Number the carbon atoms correctly. Which sugar is a pentose? Which is a hexose? How are they named this way?
  7. 7. Draw a generalized hexose and pentose sugar on chemsketch and render it in 3D.
  8. 8. Stick the 3D ball-and-stick model below: ( </li></ul>Condensation of monosaccharides is a polymerization reaction. It can continue to create a longer chain of saccharides (a carbohydrate). These building reactions are anabolic metabolism. <br /><ul><li>Define polymer.
  9. 9. Annotate and complete diagram below to outline how two monosaccharides are converted into a disaccharide through condensation, producing a glycosidic bond. Include a word equation.
  10. 10. What else is needed to make the reaction occur?
  11. 11. -3429004445
  12. 12. Complete the table below: </li></ul>-saccharidesexamplesPlant or animal?Function/ usesMono-GlucoseanimalQuickly absorbed and used in respirationGalactoseplant Di-plantLactoseanimalDimer of glucose, broken down from starch. Poly-animalInsoluble storage of glucose in the liver, produced using insulin. StarchplantStructural unit in plant cell walls<br />Anabolic reactions are those which build organic molecules (such as condensation of saccharides). Catabolic reactions break them down (e.g. digestion). <br />Hydrolysis is the catabolic reaction which breaks down organic molecules. <br /><ul><li>State the function of hydrolase.
  13. 13. Outline this reaction using an example of a dimer of two pentose sugars. Explain the relevance of the name of the reaction. </li></ul>Remember: <br />Condensation makes bonds: Hydrolysis breaks bonds. <br /><ul><li>Fatty acids and glycerol are used in the production of triglycerides.
  14. 14. In the space below, draw the generalized structures of fatty acids and glycerol.
  15. 15. Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. (Nutrition revision). </li></ul>BondingShape of chain (draw)State at room tempSaturatedUnsaturated<br /><ul><li>Draw a generalized fatty acid or glycerol molecule on chemsketch and render it in 3D. Stick the 3D ball-and-stick model below: (
  16. 16. Outline the relevance of the following properties of lipids. </li></ul>Energy storage*Thermal insulation*ProtectionBuoyancyMembranesHormones<br />*Essential exam examples<br /><ul><li>Write a word equation for the formation of one triglyceride from fatty acids and glycerol.
  17. 17. Outline how condensation reactions produce one triglyceride molecule (including the name of the bonds produced):
  18. 18. Explain why condensation of fatty acids and glycerol to produce a triglyceride is not an example of polymerization.
  19. 19. Compare lipids and carbohydrates in terms of energy storage: </li></ul>carbohydrateslipidsStored as…?Long/short term storage?Ease of digestion/ release of energy?Energy per gram?Solubility in water?(and consequence)Use of oxygen in metabolism?(and consequence)<br /><ul><li>Proteins are the tertiary (or quaternary) structure of polypeptides, polymers of amino acids.
  20. 20. In the space below, draw the structure of a general amino acid. Include (and label) the amine group, carboxyl group and ‘R’ group.
  21. 21. There are ____ different amino acids, each coded for by a triplet of bases on DNA. The R-group is the region of variation between the amino acids and determines its properties.
  22. 22. Outline how the diversity of amino acids leads to infinite possibilities of polypeptides’
  23. 23. Polypeptide length:
  24. 24. Amino acid sequence:
  25. 25. Use a diagram to show condensation and hydrolysis of peptides. </li></ul>-417195125476000<br />Works Cited BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Burrell, John. 3.2 Monomers and polymers of organic molecules. Click4Biology. [Online] 2010. Allott, Andrew. IB Study Guide: Biology for the IB Diploma. s.l. : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-0-19-915143-1.3. Mindorff, D and Allott, A. Biology Course Companion. Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2007. 978-099151240.4. Clegg, CJ. Biology for the IB Diploma. London : Hodder Murray, 2007. 978-0340926529.5. Campbell N., Reece J., Taylor M., Simon. E. Biology Concepts and Connections. San Fransisco : Pearson Benjamin Cummings, 2006. 0-8053-7160-5.6. Taylor, Stephen. Science Video Resources. [Online] Wordpress, 2010. IBO. Biology Subject Guide. [Online] 2007.<br />Self Assessment:<br />Essential BiologyAssessmentCriterionComplete (2)Partially complete (1)SelfMrTPresentation & OrganisationNAComplete and neat. All command terms highlighted, tables and diagrams well presented. Academic HonestyNASources cited using the CSE (ISO 690 numerical) method, with Works Cited section complete and correct. Objective 1 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Define Draw Label List Measure StateObjective 2 understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Annotate Apply Calculate Describe Distinguish Estimate Identify OutlineObjective3understandingAll answers for the following command terms correct:Most answers for the following command terms correct:Analyse Comment Compare Construct Deduce Derive Design Determine DiscussEvaluate Explain Predict Show Solve Sketch SuggestLogic, notation, mathematical workingNAAnswers are presented in a logical and concise manner. SI units used most times, with correct unit symbols and definitions of terms. All mathematical working shown.Further researchNAEvidence is apparent of research and reading beyond the textbook and presentations to find correct answers to challenging questions. If any questions are unanswered, this criterion scores zero. Total (max 10):<br />