Lab 6 - Angiosperms

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Lab 6 - Angiosperms

  1. 1. 400mya<br />Angiosperms and plant anatomy<br />Million years of evolution: <br />Cooksonia<br />Practical # 3<br />Mid-term evaluations (lab 6 of 10)<br />Lecture<br />Scavenger Hunt<br />Turn in cladistics worksheet p 123-4<br />Next week:<br />Last lab practical<br />Angiosperm<br />
  2. 2. http://www.johnkyrk.com/evolution.html<br />
  3. 3. Paleo plant and insect interactions<br />
  4. 4. Insects and plants evolved together<br />Older<br />Younger<br />
  5. 5. time<br />Rapid origin<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. The unique character of angiosperms is that the ovules are completely enclosed in a carpel<br />1. gametophytes only a few cells<br />2. immotile sperm- carried to ovule by pollen tube<br />3. No “spores” because reduced gametophyte<br />
  8. 8. Extinct<br />http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/flower/anat-flash.html<br />Controversy about its floral morphology interpretation <br />http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/flower/<br />
  9. 9. Knowing the flower anatomy…let’s review the fossil record of earliest angiosperms<br />keep in mind:<br /><ul><li> To date, the origin of the angiosperms remains controversial
  10. 10. No consensus about the ancestral relative
  11. 11. Molecular evidence suggest a Jurassic origin (>150 Ma), but the oldest fossils is early Cretaceous (~125 Ma)</li></ul>MORE INFO: http://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/welcome.html<br />
  12. 12. UF grad student found this one!<br />
  13. 13. Extinct<br />
  14. 14. Many early flowers are<br />related to living <br />Angiosperms families<br />
  15. 15. Pollination of ‘primitive’ flowers<br />
  16. 16. Flowers adapted for pollination by &quot;smart&quot; insects<br />
  17. 17. Insects can see uv light<br />
  18. 18. Insects can see uv light<br />
  19. 19. What pollinates these?<br />
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
  24. 24. Wind-pollinated flowerssecondarily derived in Angiosperms<br />-- flowers are green, small, and often lack petals. <br /> Wind pollinated flowers of deciduous trees species open in early spring – why?<br />
  25. 25. Pick the Pollinator<br />http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/flower/pollinator.html<br />
  26. 26. Plant parts<br />Take a look…<br />
  27. 27. Primitive vs Derived characters<br />http://botany.csdl.tamu.edu/FLORA/tfplab/primder.htm<br />
  28. 28. Fruit and seed dispersal<br />
  29. 29.
  30. 30. Don’t forget…<br />Also: ichthyochory<br />
  31. 31. ?<br />
  32. 32. What disperses these?<br />
  33. 33. Pleistocene extinction<br />Gomphothere<br />Late Pleistocene Extinctions – 13,000 years ago, N & S America<br />
  34. 34. “Re-wilding of N. America?”<br />
  35. 35. Angiosperms often used for medicine – why?<br />Preparing ayahuasca<br />
  36. 36. 3 clades<br />A. Monocotyledones (monocots) <br />B. Magnoliids<br />C. Eudicotyledones (dicots)<br />
  37. 37. ANGIOSPERMS<br />
  38. 38. Generalized distinguishing characteristics:<br />
  39. 39. A comparison of monocots and dicots -- know this for lab practical<br />Lab exercise – can you tell them apart?<br />
  40. 40.
  41. 41. MONOCOTS<br />All flesh is grass” -- Isaiah<br />Grasses evolved directly with mammals<br />
  42. 42. Bamboo<br />
  43. 43. Banana<br />Pineapple<br />Onion<br />
  44. 44. Palms!<br />‘ivory palm’<br />Coconuts<br />Harvesting palm hearts<br />
  45. 45. Bactris gasipaes‘peach palm’<br />
  46. 46. One apical bud!!<br />
  47. 47. phloem<br />xylem<br />Monocot stem -- vascular bundles<br />
  48. 48. Dicot stem<br />Xylem and phloem in rings<br />Dicots have secondary growth<br />
  49. 49. Which tree has a better chance to live?<br />Dicot<br />Monocot (palm)<br />
  50. 50. Dicot stems<br />Illegal mahagony logging<br />Annual growth rings?<br />
  51. 51. We eat many, many dicot fruits<br />Examples?<br />Theobroma cacao<br />
  52. 52.
  53. 53. In common?<br />Kale<br />Califlower<br />Kohlrabi<br />Chinese kale<br />cabbage<br />Broccoli<br />Collard greens<br />Brussel sprouts<br />
  54. 54. Brassica oleracea<br />Kale<br />Califlower<br />Kohlrabi<br />Chinese kale<br />cabbage<br />Broccoli<br />Collard greens<br />Brussel sprouts<br />‘wild mustard’<br />
  55. 55. Brassica oleracea<br />‘wild mustard’<br />
  56. 56. Vavilov Centersof origin for crop plants<br />http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/history/lecture05/lec05.html<br />
  57. 57.
  58. 58. Anatomy study slides<br />
  59. 59. The life cycle of an angiosperm<br />
  60. 60. Angiosperm life cycle<br />
  61. 61. Plant morphology/anatomy<br />Primary vs. secondary growth<br />A. Apical meristems - primary growth<br />B. Cambium (vascular or cork) - secondary growth<br />C. In lab -. Apical meristems<br />1. Coleus - stem tip (no. 3) - herbaceous dicot<br />2. Zea - root longitudinal section (no. 4) - monocot<br />
  62. 62. Seed anatomy Scan<br />
  63. 63. Stems<br />A. Anatomy<br />1. parenchyma (pith) 6. xylem<br />2. sclerenchyma 7. phloem<br />3. epidermis 8. vascular cambium<br />4. cork & cork cambium 9. meristem<br />5. cortex 10. node<br />B. In lab:<br />1. Helianthus - stem (no. 5) - herbaceous dicot<br />2. Tilia - stem cross sections (no. 6) - woody dicot<br />3. Zea - stem cross section (no. 7)<br />
  64. 64. Morphology of a flowering plant<br />
  65. 65. Morphology of a winter twig<br />
  66. 66. Anatomy of a tree trunk<br />
  67. 67. Organization of primary tissues in young stems<br />
  68. 68. Leaves<br />A. Anatomy<br />1. palisade mesophyll 5. stomata<br />2. spongy mesophyll 6. xylem<br />3. epidermis 7. phloem<br />4. cuticle<br />B. In lab:<br />1. Ligustrum - leaf section (no. 8)<br />
  69. 69. Leaf anatomy<br />
  70. 70. Simple versus compound leaves<br />a. Simple<br />b. Compound<br />i. palmate<br />ii. pinnate<br />
  71. 71. Roots<br />A. Anatomy<br />1. epidermis 5. casparian strip<br />2. cortex 6. pericycle<br />3. stele 7. xylem<br />4. endodermis 8. phloem<br />B. In lab:<br />1. Ranunculus - root (no. 9)<br />2. Salix - branch root (no. 10)<br />3. radish root hairs<br />4. sweet potato demo - storage root<br />5. carrot - root stores sugars<br />
  72. 72. Primary growth of a root<br />
  73. 73. Organization of primary tissues in young roots<br />
  74. 74.
  75. 75. The formation of lateral roots<br />
  76. 76. Root hairs of a radish seedling<br />
  77. 77. Storage organs<br />A. white potato demo - modified stem<br />B. green onion demo - leaves modified for storage<br />C. celery - leaf petiole modified<br />D. sweet potato demo - storage root<br />E. carrot - root stores sugars<br />
  78. 78. Principal Biological Concepts this lab:<br />A. Angiosperms as dominant plant taxon.<br />B. Ovules enclosed within two integuments and a carpel wall.<br />C. Structure and function of flowers, and importance of pollinators.<br />D. Carpel wall may ripen as pericarp = fruit.<br />E. Monocots versus dicots<br />F. Double fertilization.<br />G. Plant tissues.<br />H. Primary and secondary growth.<br />I. Structure and function of shoots, roots, and leaves.<br />
  79. 79. To study for next lab practical<br />Moncots vs dicots<br />Flower parts<br />Leaf structures<br />Stem structures, xylem vs phloem, monocots vs dicot vasculature<br />Root tissues & functions<br />Xylem vs phloem <br />
  80. 80. Complete Plant Cladistic Exercise<br />A. Follow directions in Plant Cladistics data sheet (pp. 123-124).<br />B. Complete the cladogram and hand in before you leave.<br />

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