Plant Anatomy An Overview

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  • Identification and classification
    Those who use plants for medicine, food, furniture and building material must be able to identify their source of materials
    If there is insufficient evidence to place a particular species or genus to a family
    Proper authentication of crude drug material
    Importers anaatomical features more important
    contains digitoxin and digitalin
    Sambong (Blumea balsamifera L.) diuretic that helps in the excretion of urinary stones.
  • The mature embryo has a limited number of parts—
    frequently only a stem-like axis bearing one or more
    leaf-like appendages, the cotyledons (Fig. 1.8). Because
    of its location below the cotyledon(s), the stem-like axis
    is called hypocotyl. At its lower end (the root pole),
    the hypocotyl bears the incipient root, at its upper end
    (the shoot pole) the incipient shoot. The root may be
    represented by its meristem (apical meristem of the
    root) or by a primordial root, the radicle. Similarly the
    apical meristem of the shoot located at the shoot pole
    may or may not have initiated the development of a
    shoot. If a primordial shoot is present, it is called
    plumule
  • Plant Anatomy An Overview

    1. 1. Plant Anatomy: An Overview Simpson, MG (2006). Plant Systematics Eames and McDaniels (1953). Introduction to Plant Anatomy
    2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Plant anatomy –the study of the internal structure of various parts of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of plant anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Taxonomic application </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. problem plants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proper authentication of crude drug material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For safety and quality to be maintained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morphology and anatomy of drug source is published in British and English pharmacopoeias </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>Applications of plant anatomy </li></ul><ul><li>Avoids food adulterants and contaminants </li></ul>Sambong (Blumea balsamifera L) Mango (Mangifera indica L)
    4. 4. <ul><li>FORENSIC APPLICATIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Forensic botany refers to the use of plant materials to help solve crimes or resolve other legal problems.  </li></ul>The first botanical testimony to be heard in a North American court concerned the analysis of the wood grain of the ladder used in the kidnapping of Charles Lindbergh Jr., and led to the conviction of Bruno Hauptmann for the crime in 1935. Xylotomist Arthur Koehler of the United States Forest Service undertook a meticulous examination of the ladder and when the case finally came to trial four years later, offered the first botanical testimony ever to be heard and accepted in American courts.
    5. 9. <ul><ul><li>The five-kingdom system prevailed in biology for over 20 years. </li></ul></ul>LIVING ORGANISMS Prokaryotes Kingdom Monera Eukaryotes Unicell/simple multicellular organisms Kingdom Protista Multicellular organisms Autotroph Kingdom Plantae Heterotroph Saprophytes Kingdom Fungi Ingestion of other organisms Kingdom Animalia
    6. 10. LIVING ORGANISMS <ul><li>During the last three decades, systematists applying cladistic analysis, including the construction of cladograms based on molecular data, have been identifying problems with the five-kingdom system. </li></ul>
    7. 13. The Land Plants =Embryophyta (embryophytes) <ul><li>The first colonization of plants on land during the Silurian period, ca. 400 million years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>Land Plants now dominate the earth. </li></ul>
    8. 21. <ul><li>Marchantia (liverwort) </li></ul>Mnium (moss) antheridium antheridium sperm cells
    9. 23. <ul><li>Marchantia (liverwort) </li></ul>archegonium egg cell neck
    10. 24. “ Bryophytes” <ul><li>Liverworts </li></ul>Hornworts Mosses
    11. 27. <ul><li>Vascular plants/ Tracheophytes </li></ul><ul><li>- Xylem tissue, true roots, stems & leaves. </li></ul><ul><li>Fern and allies/ cryptogams: Spores but no seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Division Psilophyta ( Psilotum or whisk fern) </li></ul><ul><li>Division Lycophyta (club mosses) </li></ul><ul><li>Division Sphenophyta (horsetails). </li></ul><ul><li>Division Pterophyta (ferns). </li></ul><ul><li>Spermatophytes/ phanerogams: Seed Plants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gymnosperms--Naked Seeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>5. Division Cycadophyta (cycads) </li></ul><ul><li>6. Division Ginkgophyta (maidenhair tree). </li></ul><ul><li>7. Division Gnetophyta (mormon tea & Welwitschia). </li></ul><ul><li>8. Division Coniferophyta (conifers) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Angiosperms--Seeds Enclosed In A Fruit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>9. Division Anthophyta (flowering plants) </li></ul>
    12. 29. Selaginella Lycopodiella cernua Equisetum Psilotum
    13. 30. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF HIGHER PLANTS
    14. 31. Shoot system leaf blade axillary bud petiole node vascular tissue vascular tissue shoot apical meristem terminal bud internode vascular tissue root tip Lateral roots root cap root apical meristem Root system dermal tissue ground tissue vascular tissue
    15. 33. Stelar types eustele atactostele
    16. 34. Pericycle
    17. 36. Plant Tissues & Cell Types <ul><li>Tissue : </li></ul><ul><li>= group of cells with common function or structure. </li></ul><ul><li>Three broad tissue types : </li></ul><ul><li>1) Dermal - outside layer(s) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Vascular - conduction </li></ul><ul><li>3) Ground - between dermal and vascular </li></ul><ul><li>Simple vs. Complex Tissue : </li></ul><ul><li>1 versus 2 or more cell types </li></ul>
    18. 37. Ground Tissue <ul><li>Parenchyma: Gen. metabol. </li></ul><ul><li>1) Isodiametric to elongate </li></ul><ul><li>2) Primary cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>3) Living </li></ul>Collenchyma: support 1) Elongate 2) Primary cell wall thick, uneven, rich in pectins 3) Living
    19. 38. Ground Tissue <ul><li>Sclerenchyma </li></ul><ul><li>1) Secondary cell wall (+ primary) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Dead at maturity (usually) </li></ul>Fibers Elongate, sharply tapering
    20. 39. Ground Tissue <ul><li>Sclerenchyma </li></ul><ul><li>1) Secondary cell wall (+ primary) </li></ul><ul><li>2) Dead at maturity (usually) </li></ul>Sclereids Isodiametric to irregular
    21. 40. 3 recognized vegetative organs <ul><li>ROOT </li></ul><ul><li>STEM </li></ul><ul><li>LEAF </li></ul><ul><li>- Distinguished by the relative distribution of the vascular and ground tissues </li></ul>
    22. 41. ROOT vs Stem
    23. 42. ROOTS vs STEM
    24. 43. Leaves Vascular Bundles of similar dimensions. have a large central Vascular Bundle called a Midrib
    25. 45. DEVELOPMENT OF THE PLANT BODY
    26. 48. <ul><li>Carpels and stamens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contain the sporangia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sporangium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains the spores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chambers where male and female gametophytes develop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Male gametophyte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm-containing pollen grain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Female gametophyte </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg-containing structures called embryo sacs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryo sac develop within the ovules </li></ul></ul>
    27. 50. <ul><li>Development of male gametophyte (Pollen) </li></ul><ul><li>Development of female gametophyte (Embryo sac) </li></ul><ul><li>Pollination </li></ul>
    28. 53. integument funiculus micropyle
    29. 54. POLLINATION
    30. 56. Embryogenesis
    31. 57. <ul><li>Transversie and Asymmetric division </li></ul><ul><li>---Establishment of polarity </li></ul><ul><li>Terminal cell– embryo </li></ul><ul><li>Balsal– suspensor </li></ul><ul><li>2. Organizaation of Tissue system </li></ul>
    32. 58. During the early stages of embryogenesis, cell division takes place throughout the young sporophyte. As the embryo develops, however, the addition of new cells gradually becomes restricted to opposite ends of the axis, the apical meristems of future root and shoot
    33. 59. Seed Germination Seed Dormancy

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