Botany anatomy jan 2012

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Botany anatomy jan 2012

  1. 1. Botany Basics John PunchesOregon State University
  2. 2. Botany is...The study of plants.
  3. 3. Plants in our EcosystemCapture sun’s energyFood sourceReplenish atmospheric oxygenParticipate in water cycleModerate world climateProvide shelterSource of numerous raw materials
  4. 4. Botany AppliedIdentify plantsGrow & propagate plantsInfluence flowering & fruit productionControl unwanted growthMaintain plant healthModify plant features
  5. 5. Reading Assignmentextension.oregonstate.edu/mg/botany/
  6. 6. Basic ClassificationsVascular vs. Non-vascularSeed vs. SeedlessFlowering vs. FlowerlessBig 2 Vascular Plant Divisions  Flowering Plants (Anthophyta)  Cone Bearing Plants (Coniferophyta)
  7. 7. Plant Life CyclesAnnuals - complete life cycle (seed to seed) in one yearBiennials - require all or part of 2 years to complete life cyclePerennials - live longer than 2 years  Herbaceous - soft stems that die back in winter  Woody - trees, shrubs, etc.
  8. 8. Monocots vs Dicots Structure Monocots Dicots Seed Leaves One TwoVascular System Xylem & phloem Xylem & phloem in in bundles, dispersed rings; xylem inner ring, in stem phloem outer ring Floral Parts Usually threes or Usually in multiples multiples of three of four or five Leaves Often parallel-veined Generally net-veined
  9. 9. Vascular Plant Structure Roots Stems Leaves FlowersFruit & Seeds
  10. 10. Roots
  11. 11. Root FunctionsAbsorb nutrientsAbsorb moistureAnchor plant in soilSupport stemStore foodPropagate vegetatively
  12. 12. Root Structure Lateral Root Zone ofPrimary Root Maturation Root Hairs Root Tip Zone of Elongation Meristematic Zone Root Cap
  13. 13. Zone of Elongation Meristematic Zone Root Tip Root Cap Photo: Source Unknown
  14. 14. Tap Root Fibrous Root
  15. 15. Root Anatomy Epidermis Cortex Endodermis Xylem PhloemPhoto: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  16. 16. Root TissuesXylem - conduct water & nutrientsPhloem - carry sugars & starchesEndodermis - contain vascular tissuesCortex - primary tissue surrounding vascular bundleEpidermis - outermost layer of plant tissues, protective layer
  17. 17. Stems
  18. 18. Stem FunctionsSupport budsSupport leavesSupport flowering/fruiting structuresCarry water & mineralsCarry food (photosynthates)
  19. 19. Terminal BudNode Axillary or Internode Lateral BudNode Bud Scale ScarNode Lenticel (breathing pore) Leaf Scar
  20. 20. Inside a BudApical Meristem Axillary Bud Node Internode Node Photo: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  21. 21. Stem Structure QuizPhotos: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  22. 22. Herbaceous Stem Anatomy Xylem Phloem Vascular BundlesIllustration: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  23. 23. Vascular Arrangements in StemsHerbaceous Monocot Herbaceous Dicot
  24. 24. Monocot Vascular Arrangement Air Space Xylem Phloem Support Cells
  25. 25. Dicot Vascular Arrangement Support Cells Phloem Vascular Cambium Xylem
  26. 26. Stem TissuesHerbaceous Monocot Herbaceous Dicot Vascular Bundle Epidermis Cortex Vascular Ground Tissue Cambium Pith
  27. 27. Woody Stem Growth
  28. 28. Woody Stem, Secondary Growth
  29. 29. Woody Stem AnatomyHeartwood -nonfunctional Outer Bark xylem Inner Bark (phloem)Sapwood -functional xylem Vascular Cambium
  30. 30. Woody Stem AnatomyAdapted from Panshin & DeZeeuw, 1980,Textbook of Wood Technology, 4th edition, p17.
  31. 31. Stem TissuesXylem - conduct water & mineralsPhloem - carry sugars & starchesEpidermis - Outermost layer of plant tissue, protective layerCortex - primary tissue surrounding vascular bundlesPith - thin-walled cells at center of stem
  32. 32. Specialized Above-Ground StemsCrowns - compressed stems with leaves and flowers on short internodesSpurs - short side stems arising from main stem, often bear fruit on treesStolons - fleshy or semiwoody, elongated, horizontal stems, often at soil surface
  33. 33. Specialized Underground StemsTuber - enlarged, short, fleshy underground stem tipRhizome - horizontal underground stem, may be compressed and fleshy or slender with elongated internodesBulb - short, compressed, underground stem with central bud at tip of stem, surrounded by fleshy scales (leaves)
  34. 34. Specialized Underground StemsCorm - solid, swollen underground stem with dry, scale-like leavesTuberous stem - short, flat, enlarged underground stem with buds and shoots at top and fibrous roots at bottom
  35. 35. Leaves
  36. 36. Leaf FunctionsPhotosynthesis - use sunlight to make foodRespiration - use food to make energyTranspiration - lose water (as vapor) to atmosphere
  37. 37. Leaf PartsLamina (blade) Petiole
  38. 38. Leaf Anatomy Cuticle Upper Epidermis Palisade Mesophyll Vascular Bundle Spongy Mesophyll Intercellular Chamber Lower epidermis CuticleGuard Cells Stoma
  39. 39. Leaf Model upperepidermis vascular palisade bundlemesophyll spongy xylemmesophyll phloem lowerepidermis stoma
  40. 40. Stoma & Guard Cell Stoma Guard Cell
  41. 41. Stomatal ControlOpen Closed
  42. 42. Leaf Surface
  43. 43. Leaf Forms
  44. 44. Types of LeavesScale leaves (cataphylls) - enclose and protect rhizomes and budsSeed leaves (cotyledons) - store food for seedlingsSpines & Tendrils - protect or help supportStorage leaves - found on bulbous plants & succulents, store foodBracts - modified, often brightly-colored leaves around flowers
  45. 45. http://www.free-pictures-photos.com/leaves/leafs-n7z.jpg
  46. 46. Flowers
  47. 47. Flower Functions Exchange pollen Achieve fertilization Produce seed
  48. 48. Flower Anatomy Stamen Anther Filament Stigma Pistil StylePetal Ovary Sepal
  49. 49. Filament AntherStyleStigma
  50. 50. PetalsSepals Photo: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  51. 51. Flower TypesComplete  all floral organs present (sepals, petals, stamens, pistil)Incomplete  flower lacks 1 or more of the 4 organs
  52. 52. Flower TypesPerfect - has both stamen (male organs) and pistil (female organ)Imperfect - having only one type of organ  Staminate - male organ present  Pistillate - female organ present
  53. 53. Imperfect Flowers Staminate PistillatePhotos: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  54. 54. Imperfect FlowersPistillate Flower Staminate Flower
  55. 55. Species with Imperfect FlowersMonoecious  both pistillate and staminate flowers occur on same plant • birch, pecan, squashDioecious  pistillate are on one plant, staminate on a different plant • ginkgo, holly, pistachio, kiwi
  56. 56. PollinationExchange of pollenNumerous mechanisms  insects, birds, bats, wind, rainFlowers are optimized for their pollination vector
  57. 57. http://www.flickr.com/photos/27872075@N02/3163971737/sizes/o/
  58. 58. Fertilization Pollen Grain Stigma Style Pollen Tube Ovary OvuleAfter: Botany for Gardeners, Capon
  59. 59. Fruit Petal Sepals Stigma Stamens Style OvarySepal Floral Tube Ovule (becomes seed)
  60. 60. Types of FruitSimple - develop from one ovary (may have multiple seeds)Aggregate - develop from a single flower with multiple ovariesMultiple - develop from a tight cluster of separate flowers
  61. 61. Seeds
  62. 62. Seed AnatomyEmbryo - miniature plant in an arrested state of developmentEndosperm - food supply (can be comprised of proteins, carbohydrates, fats)Seed coat - hard outer covering that protects from disease and insects; also repels water
  63. 63. GerminationActivation of embryo within seedPreceded by water penetrating seed coatOxygen, favorable temperature, and (in some species) light required
  64. 64. Germination of a Dicot
  65. 65. Germination of a Monocot
  66. 66. TheIncredible Vascular Plant

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