Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

The Operation Of Space Shuttle

2,860 views

Published on

Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft ,Operated by NASA.

Published in: Engineering
  • DOWNLOAD FULL eBOOK INTO AVAILABLE FORMAT ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. PDF eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. EPUB eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... 1.DOWNLOAD FULL. doc eBook here { https://tinyurl.com/y3nhqquc } ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................... .............. Browse by Genre Available eBooks ......................................................................................................................... Art, Biography, Business, Chick Lit, Children's, Christian, Classics, Comics, Contemporary, CookeBOOK Crime, eeBOOK Fantasy, Fiction, Graphic Novels, Historical Fiction, History, Horror, Humor And Comedy, Manga, Memoir, Music, Mystery, Non Fiction, Paranormal, Philosophy, Poetry, Psychology, Religion, Romance, Science, Science Fiction, Self Help, Suspense, Spirituality, Sports, Thriller, Travel, Young Adult,
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

The Operation Of Space Shuttle

  1. 1. Presented by Gokul Lakshmanan
  2. 2. Introduction • Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft • Operated by NASA. • The Space Shuttle was the most complex space vehicle design of its time. • Launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. • Its official program name was Space Transportation System (STS).
  3. 3. History • Total of 135 missions from 1981 to 2011. • Launched numerous satellites, interplanetary probes, and the Hubble Space Telescope, also participated in construction and servicing of the International Space Station. • Total flight duration: 1322 days, 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds. • Total 6 orbiters: Enterprise, Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, Atlantis and Endeavour. • Challenger and Columbia were destroyed in mission accidents in 1986 and 2003.
  4. 4. Space Shuttle Orbiters
  5. 5. Specifications SIZE • Height 56.1 m • Diameter 8.7 m • Mass 2030 tones CAPACITY • Crew 7 (max) • Payload to LEO 24 400 kg • Payload to GTO 3810 kg • Payload to Polar orbit 12 700 kg • Payload to Landing 14 400 kg
  6. 6. Space Shuttle Launch Configuration
  7. 7. • ORBITER • The orbiter resembles a conventional aircraft. • Carries Astronauts and payloads • Space Shuttle Main Engines are mounted on the orbiter. • Made from Aluminum alloy. • Length: 37.237 m • Height: 17.25 m • Empty weight: 78 000 kg • Maximum payload capacity : 25 000 kg • Operational altitude: 190 to 960 km • Average Speed: 7.743 km/s
  8. 8. Space shuttle orbiter
  9. 9. • ENGINES • Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME): • Provides thrust for Liftoff • Engines: 3 • Thrust : 5.255 MN • Burn time: 480 sec • Made from Titanium alloy. • Fuel: LH & LOX • Orbital Maneuvering Engine: • Provides thrust for orbital insertion • Engines: 2 • Thrust: 53.4 kN (combined thrust) • Typical burn time: 150–250 sec • Deorbit burn time: 1250 sec • Fuel: N2O4
  10. 10. Space Shuttle Main Engine
  11. 11. • EXTERNAL TANK • One External Tank • The main function of the external tank was to supply the LOX and LH fuel to the main engines • The external tank was the only part of the Shuttle system that was not reused • The External Tank contains two internal tanks—one for the storage of LOX and the other for the storage of LH • Length: 46.9 m • Diameter: 8.4 m • Propellant volume: 2025 m3
  12. 12. . A Space Shuttle External Tank (ET)on its way to the Vehicle Assembly Building
  13. 13. • SOLID ROCKET BOOSTERS (SRB) • 2 Solid Rocket Boosters • Length: 45.46 m • Diameter: 3.71 m • Empty weight (each): 68 000 kg • Thrust (by each): 12.5 MN • Burn time: 124 s • Provide 83% of the total thrust at liftoff. • Fuel: Solid Fuel(Ammonium perchlorate propellant)
  14. 14. Solid Rocket Boosters
  15. 15. Mission profile • A typical shuttle mission lasts seven to eight days, but can extend to as much as 14 days depending upon the objectives of the mission. • A typical shuttle mission is as follows: • 1. Getting into orbit o 1.1 Launch o 1.2 Ascent. o 1.3 Orbital maneuvering burn. • 2. Orbital life in space. • 3. Re-entry. • 4. Landing.
  16. 16. • GETTING INTO ORBIT (Launch Sequence) • Launched from Kennedy Space Center • T minus 31sec: Onboard computers take over the launch sequence • T minus16 sec: Sound suppression water system activates • T minus 6.6 sec: The shuttle's main engines ignites
  17. 17. • T minus 3 sec: Shuttle main engines are in liftoff position. • T minus 0 sec: SRBs are ignited and the shuttle lifts offs. • T plus 20 sec: The shuttle begin a combined roll, pitch and yaw maneuver to oriented the vehicle to correct orbit • T plus 60 sec: Shuttle engines are at maximum throttle.
  18. 18. • T plus 2 min: SRBs separate from the orbiter at an altitude of 45 km. Parachutes deploy from the SRBs. SRBs will land in the ocean • T plus 8.5 min: Main engines shut down. • T plus 9 min: ET separates from the orbiter. The ET will burn up upon reentry. • T plus 10.5 min: OMS engines fire to place orbiter in orbit.
  19. 19. • ORBITAL LIFE IN SPACE • Shuttle usually flew at an altitude of 320 kilometers • During 1980s and 1990s, many flights targeted on missions to the NASA/ESA Spacelab • During1990s and 2000s the focus shifted more in building the space station and satellite launches. • From 2001 to 2011 missions were intended to launch astronaut to ISS and to service them.
  20. 20. RE-ENTRY AND LANDING • Usually Performed under computer control. • However, the re-entry could be flown entirely manually if an emergency arose. • Begin re-entry by firing its OMS engines. • Orbiter flies in the opposite direction to orbital motion for approximately three minutes
  21. 21. • This will lower shuttles orbit down into the upper atmosphere. • Vehicle enters upper atmosphere at around Mach 25 at a 40-degree nose-up attitude, producing high drag • Atmospheric friction produce a temperature of about 1650 °C during re-entry • This high temperature will heat up the orbiter
  22. 22. • The Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System protect the shuttle from this high temperature • The heat shield is made mainly from Silica
  23. 23. • By the end of the flight the orbiter reaches lower atmosphere • The shuttle now glide through the atmosphere like a glider • The vehicle level its wings, lower its nose and began its approach to the landing site • Approach and landing phase begin when the orbiter was at about 3000 m altitude and 12 km from the runway
  24. 24. • The pilots apply aerodynamic braking to help slow down the vehicle. • Orbiter's speed is reduced from 682 to 346 km/h • The landing gears were deployed while the Orbiter is flying at 430 km/h •
  25. 25. • To assist the speed brake a 12 m drag chute is deployed. • The chute was jettisoned once the orbiter slowed to 110 km/h • Finally the orbiter comes to a Stop.
  26. 26. Mission Summary
  27. 27. Conclusion • Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft • Commissioned and operated by NASA from 1981 to 2011 • It was the most complex machine built at its time • There were a total of 6 Orbital Vehicles build by NASA • A total of 14 astronauts were lost in space due to space shuttle disaster including Indian astronaut Kalpana Chawla
  28. 28. Reference [1]Space Shuttle - A future Space Transportation System Robert.F.Thompson [2] Kyle, Ed. "STS Data Sheet". spacelaunchreport.com. Retrieved July 2014. [3] Space Shuttle Propulsion Systems, p. 153. NASA, June 26, 1990. [4] Jenkins, Dennis R. (2006). Space Shuttle: The History of the National Space Transportation System. Voyageur Press. ISBN 0- 9633974-5-1. [5] "INTRODUCTION TO FUTURE LAUNCH VEHICLE PLANS [1963–2001] Updated 6/15/2001, by Marcus Lindroos". Pmview.com. June 15, 2001. Retrieved 2012-04-17.

×