MOOCs; Equity & Inclusion


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Presentation to the ALT MOOCsig (special interest group) at UCL 26 June 2014. This discusses whether xMOOCS address equity & inclusion in light of what we have learnt from 20 years of developing e-learning systems & resources.

Published in: Education, Technology

MOOCs; Equity & Inclusion

  1. 1. Equity & Inclusion; #MOOCs @fredgarnett @altmoocsig
  2. 2. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion Happy in Romania  It might seem CRAZY! What I’m bout to say (CHANGE THE WORLD)
  3. 3. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion ALTMOOCSIC – UCL, London ISSUES 1. 3 Criteria for evaluating MOOCs 2. Some educational History 3. Technology Enhanced-learning 4. Equity & Inclusion
  4. 4. 3 Criteria @fredgarnett Equity & Inclusion
  5. 5. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion ALTMOOCSIC – UCL, London 3 Criteria – 2 developed when working at Becta; 1. e-enabling or transforming? 2. Is e-learning/TEL a subset or a superset of education? (distance learning vs learner-centred) 3. Learning doesn’t scale; learning is “owned” by the learner (LGC)
  6. 6. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion • Some History • 1984 Year of IT – Information Technology • George Osborne inspired by the BBC Micro • Basic Programming & Turtle Mindstorms • I was Inspired by BBC “Will Tomorrow Work?” • 5 programmes on the impact of computers on work at a time when we called the Knowledge Economy the “Information Society”
  7. 7. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion • 3 Inspirations for Social Impact of IT 1984 • Kondratieff who talked about meta-technology • Hazel Henderson, an “anti-economist” who said that “technology is the essence of politics” • Jonathan Gershuny (SPRU) who said “we need a two-way, broadband, interactive, multi-media, optical-fibre network connecting every home” • (what we would now call a platform)
  8. 8. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion Kondratieff “meta-technology” driven long-wave (50 yrs) socio-economic change
  9. 9. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion • Kondratieff who talked about meta-technology • And argued that social change was greatest as key “meta-technologies” created economic change over “long-wave” periods of 50 years • This holds true in the UK roughly since 1771 • The current meta-technology, the micro-chip was invented in Mountain View in 1971 • What might this mean for Education in 2021? Homi & The NeXT One – NSU Model of Change
  10. 10. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion • Education History • Change comes from the margins • Self-organised Communities of Scholars hired tutors; from which Medieval Unis emerged with books & a lectern (Oxford 30 books) • Mechanics Institutes began in 1821 (50 years) London Mechanics Institute now Birkbeck • “revolutionised access to education in science & technology for ordinary people” Mechanics Institutes
  11. 11. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion • Universities emerged as people in cities wanted access to revolutionary technology, books in Latin; as monotheistic religion ruled • Technical Education emerged as people wanted access to the underpinning scientific & technical knowledge of the socially transformative industrial revolution; as machines ruled • Society being transformed digitally requires access to NEW forms of organising learning The City in History – Lewis Mumford
  12. 12. Discussed in full @fredgarnett Before & After #MOOCs
  13. 13. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion Community Development Model of Learning •What is TEL / e-learning? •Diana “e-learning is the use of any tech in the service of learning” •In 2002 I was asked to develop a Digital Divide Content Strategy •I argued for a research-based process; •Metadata for Community Content
  14. 14. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion Community Development Model of Learning We found; 1. NO Content solves the Digital Divide 2. Interest-driven learning/Andragogy 3. Self-supported learning communities 4. Community-responsive curricula *Context is Queen* We needed; 1. Content–creation toolkits ( 2. Timely Interventions by trusted intermediaries…
  15. 15. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion Community Development Model of Learning Cybrarian project 2002 also developed a prototype Facebook for social & digitally inclusive learning Rejected because; a) Need new metaphor; social networks b) Government doesn’t want inclusion c) Formal education disables you from seeing new ideas
  16. 16. In 2002 the Web went participative What is Web 2.0?;
  17. 17. Learner-Generated Contexts Group Learner-Generated Contexts Shock of the Old 2008 LGC; a group looking at what learning would look like post-web 2.0! Participatory, learner-generated, web as a platform for social learning etc… “A coincidence of motivations leading to agile configurations” or Trust the learner and organise around what emerges…
  18. 18. Learner-Generated Contexts Group Smart Mobs – Howard Rheingold Everything is Miscellaneous – Dave Weinberger Here Comes Everybody – Clay Shirky OR Smart Mobs + Everything is Miscellaneous Means Here Comes Everybody
  19. 19. In 2007 OU launched Open Learn Open Learn; Open Context Model of Learning The Open University opened first Open Education Resource based project at a British University, based on its historic distance learning model (1964) Open-Context Model of Learning An Open multi-context post-Web 2.0 “Pedagogy” based on Pedagogy Andragogy Heutagogy Continuum… “The most exciting thing happening in England” – John Seeley Brown
  20. 20. P A H Teacher School Teacher/ Learner Learner Research Cognition Epistemic Cognition Meta- Cognition Adult
  21. 21. Pedagogy Andragogy Heutagogy From Andragogy to Heutagogy PAH Continuum Pedagogy the institutionalisation of learning around facts, resource scarcity, subject disciplines; education as a delivery system (cognition) Andragogy negotiated, collaborative, interest- driven learning brokered into ‘open’ spaces. At best the community is the curriculum (meta-cognition) Heutagogy self-determined learning where learner creativity enables innovation (epistemic cognition)
  22. 22. Pedagogies are not enough Learning is Emergent; Emergent Learning Model Learning is Emergent not institutionalised! We need to design for emergence and create tools to support that in a wiki-based collaborative world; “Fit for Context” Learning; Emergent Learning Model rethinks learning as i. Social Processes not classrooms ii. Content Creation or Curation not textbooks iii. Quality Assurance not high-stakes assessment We needed to build new learning exemplars of ‘non- linear dynamic systems’
  23. 23. Ambient Learning City Ambient Learning City; Aggregate then Curate Being Insanely Ambitious we decided to test emergent learning by turning Manchester into an Ambient Learning City Cities have many more learning contexts than a single classroom, so we decided to design for them; BUT We needed new Learning Metaphors Aggregate then Curate our new #socialmedia participation model Creating structured ways for people to inter-act with their city; even during riots (A History of Manchester in 100 objects)
  24. 24. Aggregate then Curate; Emergence Aggregate then Curate (Research in learning technologies)
  25. 25. Equity & Inclusion; @fredgarnett Before & After #MOOCs
  26. 26. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion We have discovered that; 1. People want to learn 2. Learning is social and informal 3. Collaboration and discussion enable learning 4. New Digital tools enable Search & evaluation, Collaboration & discussion AND curation & creation (or andragogy & heutagogy) in learning We need; New teaching skills participatory learning processes New metaphors / social platforms / learning literacies Else we are just e-enabling traditional education not transforming learning!
  27. 27. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion Building Democractic Learning 1. xMOOCs are pedagogically-driven course-based educational content-delivery systems. 2. Instructivist MOOCs reflect NOTHING that we have learnt about LEARNING based on the digital disruption of the last 20 years 3. xMOOCs Not even a “sage on the stage” but hierarchically-based; reflecting 1000 years of “Education under the Lecturn” 4. xMOOCs are about 19th Century institutions co- opting 21st C Technology-enhanced learning 5. xMOOCs are unheated digital libraries in the sky
  28. 28. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion 17th Century Republic of Letters 18th Century Encyclopédie cMOOCs & xMOOCs are like c) the 17th Century Republic of Letters x) the 18th Century Encyclopédie • Early attempts to codify communications & create a new Culture knowledge • TEL has not yet reached its Wikipedia moment; • The co-creation of relevant culture of knowledge for the socio-technical era in which we live • Universities are not capable of creating that change
  29. 29. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion 17th Century Republic of Letters 18th Century Encyclopédie Medieval Universities became standardised when cities realised that students were money & paid tutors in order to attract the wealth of the young nobility to the city. xMOOCs are the nation-states (USA) disruptive attempt to standardise digital education in order to attract the intellectual wealth of emerging nations & maintain an edge in the emerging knowledge economy.
  30. 30. Equity & Inclusion @fredgarnett
  31. 31. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion •Equity & Inclusion Learning doesn’t scale; Learners own their learning Universities are hierarchy & elitism O’Reilly’s Web 2.0 pointed the way to the new demand for access to social change; architectures of participation But as CAL11 researchers said “if you pay us we will research social justice”
  32. 32. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion •Equity & Inclusion •From Access to Content to Context •Are learning technologists designing Institution-centric, Student-centred or Learner-centric education systems? New educational systems have to be designed for a networked world not our one of hierarchies (Ben Hammersley - Internet of People). Towards an Internet of People – Ben Hammersley
  33. 33. SURPRISE!
  34. 34. Before & After #MOOCs Equity & Inclusion The University Project; WikiQuals workshop; 2011 The University Project was convened by Dougald Hine+ at Hub Westminster, over a long weekend in October 2011, to look at various alt.Uni projects. Community of Scholars was the common theme. The action point was “solve the problem… that annoys you most” (Philippa Young) Accreditation of learning annoyed us most WikiQuals was born
  35. 35. Accrediting Emergent Learning Co-creating Open Scholarship WikiQuals Project In WikiQuals we are looking at how you “accredit” the heutagogy of self-determined learning Trust the Sqolar Co-creating Open Scholarship Develop Personal Learning Networks Act in the real world (and document it) Participatory Democracy needs participatory learning We need to rethink the society we want and how we use learning networks and democracy to get there
  36. 36. For us participatory education means Participatory institutions
  37. 37. The 3 Levels of the Participatory Institution Level Responsibility Aim Strategic Planning Senior Managers Technical Infrastructure Enabling Platform Learning Management Course Team Learning Resources Learning Ecology Learner Behaviours Students Union New Technologies Resource Discovery An Institutional Development Framework Needing 3 Levels of Technology Stewards
  38. 38. MOOCs – Which way now? Making Learning – Fit for Context
  39. 39. Digital Learning for a Network Society Digital Practitioner; But education is about designing the society that we want to live in. It has to be “Fit for Context” I want; • Interest-driven learning • Trust in learners • Social Justice not Social Capital • Open Scholarship • Co-creating network Society • Participatory Democracy We need to co-create; “artfully-crafted, student-centred learning experiences” (Digital Practitioner report 2011)
  40. 40. Some Quotes The Internet is your learning environment South Bristol Learning Network 1994 “Solve the problem that annoys you most” Philippa Young MOOCs are a meme that might raise the level of debate about next-generation agile learning David Jennings Learning itself does not scale, because learners own their own learning Fred Garnett Social media in education is characterised by a) a set of social practices b) a learning environment c) digital tools Violeta Maria Serbu (CROS Bucharest) School pokes your eyes out, University teaches you Braille, Postgraduate Education teaches you speed-reading in Braille Fred Emery 1965
  41. 41. Digital Learning Resources Links ALTMOOCSIC – UCL, London 26 June 2014 Community Development Model of Learning Learner_Generated Contexts Open Context Model of Learning blog Craft of Teaching / PAH Continuum Emergent Learning Model Ambient Learning City Aggregate then Curate Digital Practitioner Open Learning and Network Democracy CROS Alternative University Contact @fredgarnett