Assessment in Open Spaces


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Keynote presentation for eAssessment Scotland conference #easc13, University of Dundee, 23rd August 2013 (Related blog post:

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  • THANK YOU… I am so honoured to be here. I thank David for the invitation, and to you all for being here.I’ve followed eAssessment Scotland with interest over the past couple of years, and am so happy to final be able to participate.. Such a gathering of educators is an engine of creativity and inspiration, so it’s an honour to speak today.
  • For those here who are tweeting… here’s my Twitter name & my slides are here!There has been a great Twitter presence of the conference for the past few months – with tweets of all registrants. If you are new (or new-ish) to Twitter, tweeting at a conference is the best place to start – we are speaking and sharing here, but others can follow the conversations. Not just via video link & EDUtalk radio, but via our tweets. So you can tweet to summarise points that interest you, but also to share with otheres…. I encourage you to tweet away!
  • I work at NUI Galway…I know that many of you are active in open online spaces as well, and many more are thinking about using more open practices.Not an expert, but a peer.
  • Not just at conferences, but throughout the year… through Twitter & other channels.These are Twitter hashtags…
  • “Networked Individualism”CONTEXT = 3 Revolutions:SOCIAL NETWORKS – (more than FB!) existed for a long time… fluid changing networks, not groups, sometimes communitiesINTERNET… baked-in ethic of OPENNESS, freedom & innovationMOBILE… affects our sense of Time and Place… Presence… Social Connectedness… “hyperconnectivity”We (people & institutions) exist now in Information & Communication Ecologies that are strikingly different from the ones that existed just a generation ago.We live in a different media landscape than the one we lived in and were educated in. (learn anything, anywhere, any time)
  • David Wiley has said that OPENNESS is the fundamental value underlying significant changes in society.But what does OPENNESS mean for us as educators?I’ll ask you the first Q: please talk with the person next to you (in 2s or 3s):But what does OPENNESS mean for us as educators, for our students?And would you consider yourself an Open Educator?Many definitions – it’s complicated
  • TOOLS – software, OS, apps Linux, Moodle, WordPress, Mozilla Firefox, AndroidAdd: COMMUNITY!….. to improve access to and quality of Learning
  • I read this quote by Joi Ito in an article in the NYT in December 2011 & created this slide (using a CC-licensed photograph) I have probably shared it in every presentation I’ve given since. I think it says so much about where learning is already going… and where education has the potential to go.Not connected/limited by geography, space, time... but connected by our own ideas, passion, commitment via open practices & social media. This is one of the best definitions I’ve seen of Open Education… and its future possibilities.
  • ADULTS:72% of all online adults (Pew, 2013)67% of online adults use Facebook 18% of online adults use Twitter 13% of online adultsuse Instagram
  • Diagram created by Alec Couros…. 2006 (when uptake of SM was much lower & mobile not as widespread).
  • Created by Silvia Rosenthal Tolisano… based on Alec Couros’ diagram (one of many versions, in many languages!)
  • 81% of online teens use social networking sites (Pew, 2013)94% of those use Facebook 24% of online teens use Twitter 11% of online teens use InstagramI dropped my daughter off to a friend’s a few days ago (she’s 20), just a 5-minute journey. While we were driving she was texting and then held her phone up to film out the windscreen. I said “are you SnapChatting?” and she said “Yeah, I’m SnapChatting, WhatsApping, Facebooking and texting.”
  • So what happens when Networked Educators meet Networked Students?
  • What are the affordances of these different spaces?Classrooms & Bounded Online Spaces are safe and creative spaces for learners to develop & to share their work -- with their teacher, and sometimes with one another.But… they are PRIVATE! No role for our networked connections.MESSAGE: School/Education is separate from Life; Formal learning divorced from rather than integrated with Informal learning.
  • David Wiley & John Hilton have called this the Daily Divide.The well-known phrase “digital divide” describes the gulf between individuals who have access to information technology and individuals who do not.Also a Daily Divide…Connected students may, of course, choose to “go rogue” outside of class and usetechnologies and their skills outside of class, but this only serves to reinforce the feeling of disconnection and disorientation on in-class exams.
  • We can share our networks!! This doesn’t mean all learning moves here, many of us teach in Classrooms & VLEs… but if we experiment with activity in the open, the potential benefits are enormous.Kris Gutiérrez-“Third Spaces” of Learning. Informal learning spaces, Formal learning spaces, and a combined space.Although the research by Gutiérrez et al relates to children learning across languages & cultures, concept of “third space” is helpful in thinking about the possibilities of open online spaces for students and staff. Not limited by rigid identities in Open Online Spaces, or third spaces…
  • CLASSROOM  Teacher / Student (architecture, history, etc.)Bounded Online Space  Teacher / Student (LMS = grades/admin)Open Online Space  Students *and* Teachers as LEARNERS; potential to be “social peers”Students develop their own voice, their own identity/identities
  • Danahboyd defined NETWORKED PUBLICS… networked, open, online spaces (a new kind of public space)Global networks, different audiences… data is PERSISTENT _ REPLICABLE _ SCALABLE _ SEARCHABLE The audience is unknown… Context Collapse.
  • DI = online persona  very useful to help students to understand and discuss this, and to experiment! (they are doing it anyway)This photos captures some of the ambivalence that many of us feel about our digital identities. Students are creating and experessing their DI’s every day… using SM such as FB, Tw, Instagram, SnapChat… etc. etc.Many students already have a confidence social digital identity, but developing an identitiy as a learner, a writer, a scholar, a citizen…. these are the essential tasks of us as educators. In the classroom and online, together.
  • In open online spaces, we have to give up some control… and we have to embrace play!Moodle/BB = students are themselvesTwitter / SN’s = anything they want to be  value here, but we must be willing to accept & engage.Web *IS* a place for play & experimentation... pseudonyms, avatars, different IDs in different placesWe *ALL* do this to a certain extent!We must allow our students to do the same.
  • PERFORMATIVE – constituted through practicesQUANTIFIED – clicks, follows, @s, likes, Klout, etc…. Like it or not!PARTICIPATORY – merging of production and consumptionASYNCHRONOUS – beautiful thing of creating your own moment, your own space to respond to othersENMESHED – atoms and bits, Nathan JurgensonNEOLIBERAL – ME, Inc. to what extent are we a BRAND?
  • People talk about Digital Citizenship, but I agree with people like Alec Couros, Keri Facer and Anne Collier who point out that DC is just Citizenship.Being a good citizen in this time, is to be an active, empowered participant in Networked Publics. Emerging Networked Publics constitute a new site for citizenship (KF), i.e. developing social & civic identities. As educators we must nurture and model democratic practices in online spaces, particularly Open Online Spaces –and-Support our students to improve the quality of public conversations about THEIR FUTURE. (KF)Help young people move from Participants  Critical Readers  Active Agents (KF)ALEC COUROS: How do we develop kind & caring citizens, those with integrity in both online and offline spaces?”
  • How to use social media intelligently, humanely, and mindfully. Network Literacies - essential literacies for a world of mobile, social, and always-on media: attention, filtering, participation, collaboration, and network know-how. The effects of these literacies can both empower the individuals… improve the quality of the digital culture commons.
  • So how do these ideas around innovation, openness and sharing affect Assessment Practices? Some great examples of initiatives at all levels of education… Effective assessment can contribute to learner’s understanding of the curriculum, their own meaning-making (if you like),as well, of course, as determining their ability to progress – though it is the latter which we often focus on within education systems.Can also be used to obtain feedback from studentsthat improves your teaching strategies, provide students with more experiential learning opportunities, and teach students to self- evaluate thereby increasing their independent learning skills. Opportunities for that FEEDBACK DIALOGUE are excellent in open online spaces.
  • Early 1990s... educators and social critics (like Kozol) noted exclusion of student voices from conversations about Learning, Teaching & Schooling – in educational research and reform.US, Canada, UK, Australia... Challenging dominant images of students as silent, passive recipients of what Others define as Education. Late 1990s/early 21C... Many educational research & reform efforts encompass Student Voice. But what do they mean?Student voice = SOUNDS, PRESENCE, POWER, AGENCY
  • The following examples are of teachers and students, at all levels, who are working in open online spaces – how this has changed feedback, assessment and learning. They use a variety of social media: Twitter, blogs, image-sharing, video, etc.
  • Class of 32 5th class students (P7)One year ago, put into computer lab… knew nothing about social media, etc. I work closely with schools and had facilitated a workshop at the school the previous spring, on social media and learning, so Maire decided to embrace the change.She set up on Twitter during the summer, connected with other teachers using the #edchatie hashtag, and created individual blogs for her children using KidBlog.
  • KidBlog  100WC 2,250 posts4,250 comments159,000+ views
  • MEANING, ENJOYMENT, CONNECTIONFeedback from around the world! Could be parents, could be teachers, could be other children – fantastic to have authentic, timely feedback on writing!
  • The experimental project which I began last September – to work online as much as possible – grew and developed in ways I never thought possible. It allowed my class to access the curriculum in new and exciting ways which really engaged them and made their learning more meaningful for them. The studentsparticipated in 34 weeks of the 100 Word Challenge for which they received comments from all over the world. Writing for an audience other than the teacher was a great motivation to improve in all areas. Online learning also contributed significantly to the development of a number of children’s self-esteem as they became more confident in their abilities to learn online and to present their work online via their class blog. I began to see huge improvements in individual children’s confidence. The whole learning experience was transformed and children were active agents in their own learning with one child commenting “I learned how to learn”. Maire knows students writing has improved, on state exams. She has met inspectors who do not want to hear about Twitter or blogging, but she has made the decision based on what she learned… Maire is taking on the Daily Divide – rather than her students!
  • Ciaran Cannon – Minister of State for Training and Skills
  • 5 universities running courses in Social Media & Mobile Media Making… Salford (Helen Keegan), Ilona Buchem (Berlin), Mar Camacho (Barcelona), Thom Cochrane & Averill Gordon (New Zealand) & me (Galway)Students ever more independent, more choice.My students created presentations – Helen & Averill’s students looked at those presentations for ideas – gave feedback & used those pres to create their own ideas.** Social Media breaking through the artificial boundaries of modules, term times, geography, time differences, culture & more! ** Their own digital identities, their own media, their own choice of tools, etc.
  • This is not a MOOC.This is not an open programme.This is a typical BSc programme, UG, mostly school leavers
  • We agreed to use Twitter as a tool throughout the course… class Twitter account and hashtag. In a study of US undergraduates, Steven Thorne found that email was considered a tool for communication between power levels and generations… not a good tool for relationship-building & social interaction.Invokes digital identity immediately! Must discuss and explore first... privacy, identity in online spaces, etc. Who am I on Google? Who am I here? In this class? Who is the audience?
  • #cel263 Academic Staff – learning technologies moduleThrough activities like these, I encourage students to begin creating their own Personal Learning Networks (use SM in a new way)… so that they leave with this! (education, degree, friends, memories & PLN!)
  • ASSESSMENT: Students in this module assessed on their presentations and their digital media project. I did not assess how many posts they made, tweets, etc.Many of the SM activities were not assessed… but students developed skills for using in later projects. However, we created the rubrics together for these assignments, students owned the criteria, and those who made use of the feedback they received DID WELL.Hashtag use enabled students to share their work with a wider audience (e.g. #edchatie)
  • How we improve access to and quality of LearningWHO? WHAT? HOW?
  • Learning is social & connected.Blast out of the classroom – move into open online spaces (small scale, with a purpose, in your own comfort level).When people who use Twitter or Google+ enthuse about using these tools, it’s not the tools themselves… it is the connection with PEOPLE, the CONVERSATIONS, the RELATIONSHIPS we build.We must provide opportunities *in educational settings* for our students to do this. Not only as “Student” but with the identities they choose, and the identities they are becoming.Build our own PLNs – Share our PLNs – Help students build their PLNs
  • Let go of control!It’s like the layers of an onion… Use as many opportunities as possible for students to CREATE & CHOOSE: e.g. topics, tools, media, teams, assessment, rubrics, etc.
  • HRH: “We’re richer if we teach each other.”David Wiley: “There’s no education without sharing.”
  • Where and when appropriate… choose OPEN (you can decide based on your students age, and with your students)Use Open Educational Resources, use Open images, open music…Create Open resources (writing, images, music, etc.)SHARE openly!
  • We are living through a moment of great change in education. EDUCATORS and STUDENTS must become involved in creating more flexible, networked & open educ systems & educ technology.This is the time, and we are the educators. WE ARE HERE!!!Is it risky? It sure is. But the most important things in life often are.As Stephen Heppell says: “Learning prepares you to deal with suprises. Education often prepares you to deal with certainty. There is no certainty.” Schools, colleges & universities will become inc’ly IRRELEVANT if we don’t embrace the possibilities or participatory culture & social media.INSTITUTIONS can be more open, in a number of ways.INDIVIDUAL EDUCATORS can also choose to be more open without waiting for insitutional programmes or changes.We need to move towards our students. Colum McCann (Irish author): “We have to build our half of the bridge… no matter who or where we happen to be.”
  • Assessment in Open Spaces

    1. 1. Assessment in Open Spaces Catherine Cronin eAssessment Scotland, University of Dundee 23 August 2013
    2. 2. @catherinecronin #easc13
    3. 3. CC image: Laenulfean Lecturer (sic), Academic coordinator Open and networked educator
    4. 4. #edchatIE #edchatUK #ScotEdChat #teachmeet #CESImeet Images:CCBYPamMoran;IrishTypepad;cicronin,Highways
    5. 5. assessment in open spaces open networks identity
    6. 6. assessment in open spaces open networks identity
    7. 7. Social Networks Internet Mobile
    8. 8. Image: CC BY 2.0 dlofink
    9. 9. OPEN tools licensing resources practices knowledge
    10. 10. At its best openness is an ethos not a license. It's an approach to teaching and learning that builds a community of learners online and off. Jim Groom
    11. 11. “I don’t think education is about centralized instruction anymore; rather, it is the process [of] establishing oneself as a node in a broad network of distributed creativity.” – Joi Ito @joi Quote: Joi Ito Image: CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 yo
    12. 12. 2005 2013 Source: Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project, 2005-2013
    13. 13. Image CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Alec Couros Networked Teacher or Connected Educator
    14. 14. Image CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Silvia Rosenthal Tolisano based on CC image by Alec Couros
    15. 15.
    16. 16. Networked Students too… Student Based on image CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Alec Couros
    17. 17. Networked Educators Networked Students
    18. 18. Networked Educators Networked Students Classroom Bounded Online Spaces Open Online Spaces
    19. 19. Individuals with abundant access to ICTs who have habits of effective use of these technologies in information-seeking and problem-solving activities are unable to make effective use of these technologies in [higher] education settings. David Wiley & John Hilton III The Daily Divide
    20. 20. Networked Educators Networked Students Classroom Bounded Online Spaces Open Online Spaces
    21. 21. Flickr CC images: cdessums, infidelic, sholeh!
    22. 22. Image: CC BY-NC 2.0 Roo Reynolds networked publics danah boyd @zephoria space constructed through networked technologies the imagined collective which emerges (people + tech + practice)
    23. 23. digital identity privacy authenticity ImageCCBY-NC-ND2.0FredericPoirot
    24. 24. Identity construction involves identity play! Image CC BY-NC 2.0 maria clara de melo
    25. 25. Image: digital identities Bonnie Stewart @bonstewart 6 Key Selves of Networked Publics: • Performative Self • Quantified Self • Participatory Self • Asynchronous Self • Enmeshed Self • Neoliberal Self
    26. 26. Image: CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Jenny Levine (Digital) Citizenship
    27. 27. Image: CC BY 2.0 joi Howard Rheingold @hrheingold Network Literacies
    28. 28. assessment in open spaces open networks identity
    29. 29. The voices of children have been missing from the whole discussion. Jonathan Kozol (1992) Savage Inequalities Image CC BY-SA 2.0 maureen_sill
    30. 30. meaning enjoyment connection
    31. 31. Primary school: @msokeefesclass
    32. 32. Primary school: @msokeefesclass
    33. 33. Primary school: @msokeefesclass “The aim of setting up a class blog was to find a place where the children could do their classwork such as Irish, English, History and Geography. However, I quickly realised that not only were the children doing great work in all subject areas on the blog (probably because of the novelty of not working in copybooks plus having an audience other than the teacher) but they were also becoming very adept in other skills as a result of working online. Typing, inserting images, tagging, online safety, commenting, blogging, using Twitter, hashtags, and much more…” Maire O’Keeffe
    34. 34. Primary school: @msokeefesclass
    35. 35. “I learned how to learn.” - student (age 11)
    36. 36. Secondary school: #CCCMedia @jamesmichie
    37. 37. Secondary school: #CCCMedia @jamesmichie
    38. 38. Photo by ictedulit All Rights Reserved, used with permission. Conference @ictedu: Students interview @ciarancannon
    39. 39. Third level: #icollab
    40. 40. 1-student-showcase Third level: #ct231 @CT231
    41. 41. Third level: #ct231 @CT231
    42. 42. Third level: #ct231 @CT231
    43. 43. Third level: #ct231 @CT231
    44. 44. Third level: #ct231 @CT231
    45. 45. Third level: #ct231 @CT231
    46. 46. Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed it is the only thing that ever has. – Margaret Mead
    47. 47. Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed it is the only thing that ever has. – Margaret Mead students
    48. 48. meaning enjoyment connection
    49. 49. 4 contributions to the dialogue
    50. 50. #1Connect. Build networks. Learning is social and connected. @marloft @pamelaaobrien @catherinecronin @saorog @gravesle ImageCCBY-NC-SA2.0ScottWolf46137
    51. 51. Image CC BY 2.0 vramek #2 Enable student voice & choice.
    52. 52. #3 Share. Image: CC BY-NC 2.0 youngdoo
    53. 53. #4 Choose open. Image: CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Drriss & Marrionn
    54. 54. Image: CC BY-NC-SA 2.0 Tim Haynes “We have to build our half of the bridge…” Colum McCann
    55. 55. Thank you! Catherine Cronin @catherinecronin Image CC BY 2.0 visualpanic