Cohesion development


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Cohesion development

  1. 1. Cohesion and Development Chapter 2
  2. 2. Group Cohesion   The concept of cohesion has been an important factor in the study of group behavior and its significance is often a source of motivation for group leaders. Cliches such as "Together We Stand, Divided We Fall", "There is No I in Team", or "Players Play, Teams Win" are often used to show individuals the importance of team cohesion.
  3. 3. Definitions of Group Cohesion  “a dynamic process that is reflected in the tendency of a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member needs”
  4. 4. What is Group Cohesion?  Group cohesion has been conceptualized in many ways  Cohesion = Attraction: (Festinger) Members of cohesive groups tend to like their fellow members  Hogg: social attraction (depersonalized liking for others in our group) vs. personal attraction (liking for specific individuals)
  5. 5. Cohesion = Attraction, Liking Attraction between members Attraction Attraction to the group-asa-whole Cohesion
  6. 6.   1. 2. 3. 4. Cohesion Carron’s general conceptual model of cohesion offered four general antecedents of cohesion Environmental Personal Leadership Team Factors
  7. 7.     Cohesion = Unity Cohesive groups stick together as members “cohere” to one another &the group The group is unified; solidarity is high in the group. Members report feeling a sense of belonging to the group
  8. 8.  Cohesion = Unity Group Unity Unity Belonging (part of the group) Cohesion
  9. 9. Cohesion = Teamwork    The combined activities of two of more individuals who coordinate their efforts to achieve goals Collective efficacy: a high level of confidence about success at the tasks the group accepts Esprit de corps: feeling of unity commitment, confidence, and enthusiasm for the group shared by most of all of the members
  10. 10. Cohesion = Teamwork Task Collective Efficacy Teamwork Motivation Group morale, Cohesio n
  11. 11. Does Cohesion Develop Over Time?  Cohesion develops over time in a relatively predictable pattern  Tuckman's five-stage model of group development      Orientation (forming) stage Conflict (storming) stage Structure development (norming) stage Work (performing) stage Dissolution (adjourning) stage (planned and unplanned)
  12. 12. Performing Task Norming Storming Adjourning Forming
  13. 13. Forming    First moments of a newly formed group’s life Often marked by tension, guarded interchanges, and low levels of interaction People monitor their behaviour and are tentative when expression opinions
  14. 14. Storming    Tension increases in the storming phase – over goals, procedures, authority etc. Conflict often causes fight or flight responses Conflict is a required element for creating team cohesion
  15. 15. Norming     Group becomes more unified and organized Mutual trust and support increases Rules, roles, and goals are established Communication increases
  16. 16. Performing    Productivity is usually not instantaneous, thus productivity must wait until the group matures Many groups get sidetracked by the storming or norming phases More mature groups spend less time socializing, less time in conflict and need less guidance than less mature teams
  17. 17. Adjourning    Either planned or spontaneous Can be stressful for team members If dissolution is unplanned, the final group sessions may be filled with animosity and apathy
  18. 18. What are the Consequences of Cohesion?  Cohesion tends to lead to:  Increased member satisfaction  Decreased employee turnover and stress  Cohesive groups can intensify emotional and social processes. Such groups can:  Be more emotionally demanding (e.g, the old sergeant syndrome)  Exert more conformity pressure on members  Suffer from groupthink  Respond with more hostility
  19. 19. Positive & Negative Consequences (cont’d)  The cohesion-performance relationship is bi-directional: success increases a group’s cohesion and cohesive groups tend to outperform less cohesive groups. o The cohesion-performance relationship is strongest when members are committed to the group's tasks.
  20. 20. Does Cohesion Develop Over Time?  Types of group development models  Successive-stage theories
  21. 21. Should Organizations Rely on Teams to Enhance Productivity?  What is a team? A specialized, relatively organized, task focused group Features (same as any group):  Interaction  Interdependence  Structure  Goals  Cohesion
  22. 22. Goal Setting   In order for employees to achieve their true potential they must set themselves targets These targets are called “goals”
  23. 23. SMARTER GOALS…        S – specific to the event or the skill M – measurable targets to aid comparison A – attainable R – realistic, challenging but possible T – timed E – exciting to ensure interest in the target R - recorded “ink it, don’t just think it”