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Group dynamics


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Published in: Business, Education

Group dynamics

  1. 1. Group Dynamics
  2. 2. What is a Group?
  3. 3. A group is defined as two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.
  4. 4. Characteristics of a Group
  5. 5. The necessary characteristics of a group are: Two or more people Who interact with one another, (The members of a group occasionally meet, talk, and do things together.) Share some common ideology, and (The member of a group have something in common like common goals, common threat, security concern, etc.) See themselves as a group. (People who interact with each other and who have a common ideology are attracted to one another.)
  6. 6. Group Dynamics
  7. 7. Group dynamics refers to the attitudinal and behavioral characteristics of a group. Group dynamics concern how groups form, their structure and process, and how they function. Group dynamics are relevant in both formal and informal groups of all types. In an organizational setting, groups are a very common organizational entity and the study of groups and group dynamics is an important area of study in organizational behavior.
  8. 8. Informa groups n sub clsses Group shift 5 stages
  9. 9. Why Do People Join Groups?
  10. 10. Security: Joining groups reduces insecurity of “standing alone” Status: Inclusion in a group viewed important by others provides recognition and status to its members Self-esteem: Groups can provide people with feelings of self worth. Affiliation: Groups fulfill social needs through regular interaction. Power: Group actions enable in achieving what one can’t individually. Goal Achievement: Pooling talent, knowledge and power is needed to accomplish particular tasks.
  11. 11. Stages of Group Development
  12. 12. The model of group development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965. He maintained that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for: the team to grow to face up to challenges to tackle problems to find solutions to plan work and to deliver results.
  13. 13. The Five-Stage Model of Group Development Consists of the following stages: 1. Forming Stage 2. Storming Stage 3. Norming Stage 4. Performing Stage 5. Adjourning Stage
  14. 14. FORMING STAGE The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. In this, the team is formed and members meet. They learn what the team opportunities and challenge will be. Members will agree on goals and assign actions for work and ground rules or team guidelines are established. At the start, the team leader may be a member of the group, a supervisor, a manager, or a consultant who will facilitate the team-building process. Leadership will help the team to define their processes. At this stage, the leader needs to be directive and understand the requirements for team training. This stage is complete when the members have begun to think of themselves as a part of a group.
  15. 15. STORMING STAGE The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. During the second stage, individual expression of ideas occurs and there is open conflict between members. Members tend to focus on details rather than the issues and compete for influence. Low trust among team members is an evident indicator of this stage. The team needs to select their desired leadership style and decision methodology. The team leader can help by stressing tolerance and patience between members. The leader should guide the team process towards clear goals, defined roles, acceptable team behavior, and a mutual feedback process for team communication. When this stage is complete, there will be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership within the group.
  16. 16. NORMING STAGE The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness. In the third stage, the team develops work habits that support group rules and values. They use established tools and methods; exhibit good behaviors; mutual trust, motivation, and open communication increase; positive teamwork and group focus are apparent. The team relationships grow and individual characteristics are understood and appropriately utilized. The team leader continues to encourage participation and professionalism among the team members. This stage is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has assimilated a common set of expectations of what defines correct member behavior.
  17. 17. PERFORMING STAGE The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. The fourth stage shows high levels of loyalty, participation, motivation, and group decision-making. Knowledge sharing, cross-training, and interdependence increases. Team is self-directing in development of plans and strategy to meet their goals and carry out work. Personal growth and sharing is encouraged throughout membership. The leader becomes a facilitator aiding the team in communication processes and helping if they revert to a prior stage. Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to performing the task at hand. Note: For permanent work groups, performing is the last stage in group development.
  18. 18. ADJOURNING STAGE The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance. For project teams, temporary committees, or task forces coming to an end, there will be a finalizing stage as they celebrate and recognize group achievement. Then some mourning over the dissolving of the team relationship and begin planning for the change in individual work requirements. During this stage, leadership needs to emphasize organization gratitude and both team and individual recognition. For continuous work teams, there may be a higher performance level as they develop and transform as individuals and reform into revised teams. It is important to note that continuous work teams may revert to prior stages when new people are added to the team.
  19. 19. Types of Groups
  20. 20. FORMAL GROUP INFORMAL GROUP A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure. A group that is neither formally structured now organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact.
  21. 21. FORMAL GROUPS In formal groups, the behavior that team members should engage in are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals. The major purpose of formal groups is to perform specific tasks and achieve specific objectives defined by the organization. The most common type of formal work group consists of individuals cooperating under the direction of a leader. Examples of formal groups are departments, divisions, taskforce, project groups, quality circles, committees, and boards of directors.
  22. 22. FORMAL GROUPS Characteristics of Formal Groups: They are approved from some authority. There is fixed division of labour Individuals are assigned specific responsibilities. There are personal interactions between the group members. Group members are rewarded. Formal groups can be further classified into: Command Groups Task Groups
  23. 23. Command Groups A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. It is determined by the organization chart. Membership in the group arises from each employee’s position on the organizational chart. Examples of a command group are: an academic department chairman and the faculty members in that department, or a director of postal audits and his five inspectors.
  24. 24. Task Groups Task groups consist of people who work together to achieve a common task. Members are brought together to accomplish a narrow range of goals within a specified time period. A task group’s boundaries are not limited to its immediate hierarchical superior, it can cross command relationships. Task groups are also commonly referred to as task forces. The organization appoints members and assigns the goals and tasks to be accomplished. All command groups are also task groups, but reverse need not be true. Examples of assigned tasks are the development of a new product, the improvement of a production process, or the proposal of a motivational contest. Other common task groups are ad hoc committees, project groups, and standing committees.
  25. 25. INFORMAL GROUPS These groups are natural formations in the work environment that appear in response to the need of social contact.
  27. 27. Interest Groups A group
  28. 28. Friendship Groups A group
  29. 29. Group Shift
  30. 30. Group shift is basically a change in riskiness of a decision. This means that based on your individual decision - your risk decision was A. But after reviewing the groups decision which could be more toward conservatism or greater risk, you will ultimately change your decision based on the majority. What appears to happen in groups is that the discussion leads to a significant shift in a position of members towards a more extreme position in the direction in which they were already leaning before the discussion. So conservative types become more cautious and the more aggressive types take on more risk. The group discussion tends to exaggerate the initial position of the group. Therefore moving from your original decision to that of the group decision even though your final answer might be in fact different from your own beliefs, is known as group shift. When people are in groups, they make decision about risk differently from when they are alone. In the group, they are likely to make riskier decisions, as the shared risk makes the individual risk less. What Is Group Shift?
  31. 31. Causes of Group Shift Group diffuses responsibility: A diffusion of responsibility throughout the group seems to give members of these groups a free rein to act as they see fit. The emotional bonds that are created within the group serve to decrease anxiety within the group and the actual risk of the situation seems less. Social status in groups is often associated with risk-taking, leading people to avoid a low risk position. High risk-takers are more confident and hence may persuade others to take greater risks. As people pay attention to a possible action, they become more familiar and comfortable with it and hence perceive less risk. As groups get larger, trends in risk-taking are amplified.
  32. 32. Group Properties-Norms And Status NORMS Norms are acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s member. These collectively held expectations of group functioning and provide regularity and predictability to group functioning. Norms are characterized by member’s evaluative nature; that is, they refer to what should be done. Classes of Norms: • Performance norms • Appearance norms • Social arrangement norms • Allocation of resources norms Norms represent value judgments about appropriate behavior in social situations. Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group is known as conformity.
  33. 33. Status Status refers to a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Status is an important factor in understanding human behavior because it is a significant motivator and has major behavioral consequences. Status has an effect on the power of norms and pressures to conform. For e.g. high- status members of group are often given more freedom to deviate from norms than are other group members Group Norms Status Equity Culture Group Member Status
  34. 34. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–36 Group Structure - Norms (cont’d) Deviant Workplace Behavior Antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate established norms and result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both.
  35. 35. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–37 Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior E X H I B I T 8–5 Category Examples Production Leaving early Intentionally working slowly Wasting resources Property Sabotage Lying about hours worked Stealing from the organization Political Showing favoritism Gossiping and spreading rumors Blaming coworkers Personal Aggression Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from coworkers Source: Adapted from S.L. Robinson, and R.J. Bennett. “A Typology of Deviant Workplace Behaviors: A Multidimensional Scaling Study,” Academy of Management Journal, April 1995, p. 565.
  36. 36. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–38 Group Structure - Status Group Norms Status Equity Culture Group Member Status Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others.
  37. 37. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–39 Group Structure - Size Group Size Performance Other conclusions: • Odd number groups do better than even. • Groups of 7 or 9 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups. Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually.
  38. 38. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–40 Group Structure - Cohesiveness Increasing group cohesiveness: 1. Make the group smaller. 2. Encourage agreement with group goals. 3. Increase time members spend together. 4. Increase group status and admission difficultly. 5. Stimulate competition with other groups. 6. Give rewards to the group, not individuals. 7. Physically isolate the group. Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group.
  39. 39. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–41 Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness, Performance Norms, and Productivity E X H I B I T 8–6
  40. 40. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–42 Group Decision Making (cont’d) Groupthink Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action. Groupshift A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decision that member within the group would make; can be either toward conservatism or greater risk.
  41. 41. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 8–43 Symptoms Of The Groupthink Phenomenon • Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made. • Members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts about shared views or who question the alternative favored by the majority. • Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings. • There appears to be an illusion of unanimity.