Ad hoc committees are temporary groups created to resolve a specific complaint or develop a process. Project groups are similar to ad hoc committees and normally disband after the group completes the assigned task. Standing committees are more permanent than ad hoc committees and project groups. They maintain longer life spans by rotating members into the group.
Reference GroupsImportant groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform.
The necessary characteristics of a group are:
Two or more people
Who interact with one another, (The members of a group
occasionally meet, talk, and do things together.)
Share some common ideology, and (The member of a
group have something in common like common goals,
common threat, security concern, etc.)
See themselves as a group. (People who interact with
each other and who have a common ideology are attracted
to one another.)
Group dynamics refers to the attitudinal and
behavioral characteristics of a group.
Group dynamics concern how groups form,
their structure and process, and how they
Group dynamics are relevant in both formal
and informal groups of all types.
In an organizational setting, groups are a very
common organizational entity and the study
of groups and group dynamics is an important
area of study in organizational behavior.
Informa groups n sub clsses
Joining groups reduces insecurity of “standing alone”
Inclusion in a group viewed important by others provides recognition
and status to its members
Groups can provide people with feelings of self worth.
Groups fulfill social needs through regular interaction.
Group actions enable in achieving what one can’t individually.
Pooling talent, knowledge and power is needed to accomplish
The model of group development
was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman
He maintained that these phases are
all necessary and inevitable in order
the team to grow
to face up to challenges
to tackle problems
to find solutions
to plan work
and to deliver results.
The Five-Stage Model of Group
Development Consists of the following
1. Forming Stage
2. Storming Stage
3. Norming Stage
4. Performing Stage
5. Adjourning Stage
The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty.
In this, the team is formed and members meet. They learn what the team
opportunities and challenge will be.
Members will agree on goals and assign actions for work and ground rules or team
guidelines are established.
At the start, the team leader may be a member of the group, a supervisor, a
manager, or a consultant who will facilitate the team-building process. Leadership
will help the team to define their processes. At this stage, the leader needs to be
directive and understand the requirements for team training.
This stage is complete when the members have begun to think of themselves as a
part of a group.
The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict.
During the second stage, individual expression of ideas occurs and there is open
conflict between members. Members tend to focus on details rather than the issues
and compete for influence.
Low trust among team members is an evident indicator of this stage.
The team needs to select their desired leadership style and decision methodology.
The team leader can help by stressing tolerance and patience between members.
The leader should guide the team process towards clear goals, defined roles,
acceptable team behavior, and a mutual feedback process for team communication.
When this stage is complete, there will be a relatively clear hierarchy of leadership
within the group.
The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and
In the third stage, the team develops work habits that support group rules and
values. They use established tools and methods; exhibit good behaviors; mutual
trust, motivation, and open communication increase; positive teamwork and group
focus are apparent.
The team relationships grow and individual characteristics are understood and
appropriately utilized. The team leader continues to encourage participation and
professionalism among the team members.
This stage is complete when the group structure solidifies and the group has
assimilated a common set of expectations of what defines correct member behavior.
The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional.
The fourth stage shows high levels of loyalty, participation, motivation, and group
decision-making. Knowledge sharing, cross-training, and interdependence increases.
Team is self-directing in development of plans and strategy to meet their goals and
carry out work. Personal growth and sharing is encouraged throughout membership.
The leader becomes a facilitator aiding the team in communication processes and
helping if they revert to a prior stage.
Group energy has moved from getting to know and understand each other to
performing the task at hand.
Note: For permanent work groups, performing is the last stage in group
The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by
concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance.
For project teams, temporary committees, or task forces coming to an end, there will
be a finalizing stage as they celebrate and recognize group achievement. Then some
mourning over the dissolving of the team relationship and begin planning for the
change in individual work requirements.
During this stage, leadership needs to emphasize organization gratitude and both
team and individual recognition. For continuous work teams, there may be a higher
performance level as they develop and transform as individuals and reform into
revised teams. It is important to note that continuous work teams may revert to
prior stages when new people are added to the team.
FORMAL GROUP INFORMAL GROUP
A designated work
group defined by
A group that is neither
in response to the
need for social
In formal groups, the behavior that team members should engage in
are stipulated by and directed toward organizational goals.
The major purpose of formal groups is to perform specific tasks and
achieve specific objectives defined by the organization. The most
common type of formal work group consists of individuals
cooperating under the direction of a leader.
Examples of formal groups are departments, divisions, taskforce,
project groups, quality circles, committees, and boards of directors.
Characteristics of Formal Groups:
They are approved from some authority.
There is fixed division of labour
Individuals are assigned specific responsibilities.
There are personal interactions between the group members.
Group members are rewarded.
Formal groups can be further classified into:
A group composed of the individuals who report
directly to a given manager.
It is determined by the organization chart.
Membership in the group arises from each
employee’s position on the organizational chart.
Examples of a command group are: an academic
department chairman and the faculty members in
that department, or a director of postal audits and his
Task groups consist of people who work together to achieve a
Members are brought together to accomplish a narrow range of
goals within a specified time period.
A task group’s boundaries are not limited to its immediate
hierarchical superior, it can cross command relationships.
Task groups are also commonly referred to as task forces. The
organization appoints members and assigns the goals and tasks
to be accomplished.
All command groups are also task groups, but reverse need not
Examples of assigned tasks are the development of a new
product, the improvement of a production process, or the
proposal of a motivational contest. Other common task groups
are ad hoc committees, project groups, and standing
These groups are natural formations in the work environment that
appear in response to the need of social contact.
Group shift is basically a change in riskiness of a decision. This means that based on
your individual decision - your risk decision was A. But after reviewing the groups
decision which could be more toward conservatism or greater risk, you will
ultimately change your decision based on the majority.
What appears to happen in groups is that the discussion leads to a significant shift in
a position of members towards a more extreme position in the direction in which
they were already leaning before the discussion. So conservative types become
more cautious and the more aggressive types take on more risk. The group
discussion tends to exaggerate the initial position of the group.
Therefore moving from your original decision to that of the group decision even
though your final answer might be in fact different from your own beliefs, is known
as group shift.
When people are in groups, they make decision about risk differently from when
they are alone. In the group, they are likely to make riskier decisions, as the shared
risk makes the individual risk less.
What Is Group Shift?
Causes of Group Shift
Group diffuses responsibility: A diffusion of responsibility throughout the group
seems to give members of these groups a free rein to act as they see fit. The
emotional bonds that are created within the group serve to decrease anxiety within
the group and the actual risk of the situation seems less.
Social status in groups is often associated with risk-taking, leading people to avoid a
low risk position.
High risk-takers are more confident and hence may persuade others to take greater
As people pay attention to a possible action, they become more familiar and
comfortable with it and hence perceive less risk.
As groups get larger, trends in risk-taking are amplified.
Group Properties-Norms And Status
Norms are acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the
group’s member. These collectively held expectations of group functioning and
provide regularity and predictability to group functioning.
Norms are characterized by member’s evaluative nature; that is, they refer to
what should be done.
Classes of Norms:
• Performance norms
• Appearance norms
• Social arrangement norms
• Allocation of resources norms
Norms represent value
judgments about appropriate
behavior in social situations.
Adjusting one’s behavior to
align with the norms of the
group is known as
Status refers to a socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members
Status is an important factor in understanding human behavior because it is a
significant motivator and has major behavioral consequences.
Status has an effect on the power of norms and pressures to conform. For e.g. high-
status members of group are often given more freedom to deviate from norms than
are other group members