Cohesion general overview

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Cohesion general overview

  1. 1. COHESION
  2. 2. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>
  3. 3. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Parallelism Paraphrase Recurrence Partial recurrence
  4. 4. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Personal reference Demonstrative reference Comparative reference
  5. 5. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Personal reference Demonstrative reference Comparative reference Personal pronouns Possesive pronouns Possesive determiners
  6. 6. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Personal reference Demonstrative reference Comparative reference participant circumstance this that these those here there now then
  7. 7. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Personal reference Demonstrative reference Comparative reference Comparison that is simply in terms of likeness and unlikeness: two things may be the same, similar or different e.g. same, likewise, other, more, better …
  8. 8. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Personal reference Demonstrative reference Comparative reference Is the referent inside the text? Is the referent outside the text?
  9. 9. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Personal reference Demonstrative reference Comparative reference Is the referent inside the text? Is the referent outside the text? Exophoric ref
  10. 10. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Personal reference Demonstrative reference Comparative reference Is the referent inside the text? Is the referent outside the text? Exophoric ref Eg. “That must have cost a lot of money”
  11. 11. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Personal reference Demonstrative reference Comparative reference Is the referent inside the text? Is the referent outside the text? Endophoric ref Exophoric ref Anaphoric ref Cataphoric ref
  12. 12. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Personal reference Demonstrative reference Comparative reference Is the referent inside the text? Is the referent outside the text? Endophoric ref Exophoric ref Anaphoric ref Cataphoric ref The data show is repared. That must have cost a lot of money
  13. 13. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Personal reference Demonstrative reference Comparative reference Is the referent inside the text? Is the referent outside the text? Endophoric ref Exophoric ref Anaphoric ref Cataphoric ref The data show is repared. That must have cost a lot of money He who hesitates is lost
  14. 14. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Nominal substitution Verbal substitution Clausal substitution
  15. 15. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Nominal substitution Verbal substitution Clausal substitution I’ve heard some strange stories in my time. But this one was perhaps the strangest one of all
  16. 16. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Nominal substitution Verbal substitution Clausal substitution John is smoking more now than he used to do
  17. 17. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Nominal substitution Verbal substitution Clausal substitution Is there going to be an earthquake? –It says so
  18. 18. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Nominal ellipsis Verbal ellipsis Clausal ellipsis Four other oysters followed them, and yet another four
  19. 19. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Nominal ellipsis Verbal ellipsis Clausal ellipsis Have you been swimming? Yes, I have
  20. 20. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Nominal ellipsis Verbal ellipsis Clausal ellipsis What were they doing? Holding hands
  21. 21. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Additive Adversative Causal Temporal
  22. 22. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Additive Adversative Causal Temporal ’ to be able to see nobody! And at that distance, too!’
  23. 23. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Additive Adversative Causal Temporal ’ All the figures were correct; they’d been checked. Yet the total came out wrong’
  24. 24. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Additive Adversative Causal Temporal ’ you aren’t leaving, are you? Because I’ve got something to say to you’
  25. 25. TYPES OF COHESION (Halliday & Hasan, 1976) <ul><li>Lexical cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Reference </li></ul><ul><li>Substitution </li></ul><ul><li>Ellipsis </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunction </li></ul>Additive Adversative Causal Temporal The weather cleared just as the party approached the summit. Until then they had seen nothing of the panorama around them

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