Groups & teams


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Groups & teams

  1. 1. 14-1Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Groups andTeams14
  2. 2. 14-2Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Groups, Teams and EffectivenessGroup: two or more people who interact witheach other to accomplish a goal.Team: group who work intensively with eachother to achieve a specific common goal. All teams are groups, BUT, not all groups are teams.Teams often are difficult to form. Takes time for members to work together. Teams can improve organizational performance.
  3. 3. 14-3Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Groups & Teams Impact EffectivenessGroupsandTeamsCan...GroupsandTeamsCan...EnhancePerformanceEnhancePerformanceIncreaseResponsivenessto customerIncreaseResponsivenessto customerIncreaseInnovationIncreaseInnovationIncreaseMotivation& SatisfactionIncreaseMotivation& SatisfactionGaining aCompetitiveAdvantageGaining aCompetitiveAdvantageFigure 14.1
  4. 4. 14-4Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Competitive Advantage with Groups &Teams Performance Enhancement: Make use of synergyWorkers in a group have the opportunity to produce moreor better output than separate workers. Members correct other’s errors, bring new ideas tobear. Managers should build groups with members ofcomplimentary skills. Responsive to Customers: Difficult to achieve givenmany constraints.Safety issues, regulations, costs.Cross-functional teams provide the wide variety of skillsneeded. Teams consist of members of different departments.
  5. 5. 14-5Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Competitive Advantage, Cont. Innovation: individuals rarely possess the widevariety of skills needed.Team members also uncover flaws and developnew ideas.Managers should empower the team for the fullinnovation process. Motivation: members of groups, and particularlyteams, are often better motivated and satisfied thanindividuals.It is fun to work next to other motivated people.Team members see their contribution to the team. Teams also provide social interaction.
  6. 6. 14-6Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Types of Groups and TeamsCross-Cross-FunctionalFunctionalTeamsTeamsCross-Cross-FunctionalFunctionalTeamsTeamsInterestInterestGroupsGroupsInterestInterestGroupsGroupsGroups & TeamsGroups & TeamsGroups & TeamsGroups & TeamsFormal GroupsFormal Groupscreated by managerscreated by managersFormal GroupsFormal Groupscreated by managerscreated by managersCross-Cross-CulturalCulturalTeamsTeamsCross-Cross-CulturalCulturalTeamsTeamsTopTopMgmt.Mgmt.TeamsTeamsTopTopMgmt.Mgmt.TeamsTeamsR & DR & DTeamsTeamsR & DR & DTeamsTeamsSelf-Self-ManagedManagedTeamsTeamsSelf-Self-ManagedManagedTeamsTeamsCommandCommandGroupsGroupsCommandCommandGroupsGroupsTaskTaskForcesForcesTaskTaskForcesForcesInformal GroupsInformal Groupscreated by workerscreated by workersInformal GroupsInformal Groupscreated by workerscreated by workersFriendshipFriendshipGroupsGroupsFriendshipFriendshipGroupsGroupsFigure 14.2
  7. 7. 14-7Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Formal Groups & TeamsCreated by manager to meet the firm’s goals.Cross-functional: members of different departments.Cross-cultural: members of different cultures.Research and Development Teams: Create new products.Top Management team: help develop firm’s direction. Important to have diversity in it to avoid groupthink.Command Groups: members report to same manager.Task Force: created to meet a given objective. Standing committees are permanent task forces.Self-Managed Teams: members are empowered tocomplete some given work. Team decides how to do the task.
  8. 8. 14-8Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Self-Managed Work Teams Keys to effective self managed teams:Give the team enough responsibility and autonomy to beself-managing.The team’s task should be complex enough to includemany different steps.Select members carefully. Look for diversity, skills, andenthusiasm.Manager should guide and coach, not supervise.Determine training needs and be sure it is provided. Teams may have trouble with performance reviews ofmembers.
  9. 9. 14-9Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Informal Groups and TeamsCreated by the workers to meet their needs. Friendship group: made up of employees who enjoyeach other’s company.Satisfy the need for human interaction and socialsupport. Interest Groups: Workers seek to achieve a commongoal based on their membership in the organization.Managers should observe interest groups to learn whatemployees see as important.
  10. 10. 14-10Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Group DynamicsDynamics affect how a group or teamfunctions. Group size: affects how a group performs.Normally, keep group small (2 to 9 members). Small groups interact better and tend to be moremotivated.Use large groups when more resources are needed. Division of labor is possible with large group. Group Tasks: impacts how a group interacts.Task interdependence shows how work of one memberimpacts another. As interdependence rises, members work closertogether.
  11. 11. 14-11Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Group Dynamics Task interdependence types:Pooled Task Interdependence: members makeseparate, independent contributions to group. Group performance is the sum of membercontributions.Sequential Task Interdependence: membersperform tasks in a sequential order. Hard to determine individual performance since onemember depends on another.Reciprocal Task Interdependence: work performedby a member is dependent on work by others. Members share information and work closely together.
  12. 12. 14-12Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Group tasksSequential Task InterdependenceMemberMember MemberMemberMemberMember MemberMemberGroupGroupPerformancePerformanceMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberGroupGroupPerformancePerformancePooled TaskInterdependenceMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberMemberGroupGroupPerformancePerformanceReciprocal TaskInterdependenceFigure 14.3
  13. 13. 14-13Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Group Roles Role: set of behaviors a group member is expected toperform because of their position in the group.In cross-functional teams, members perform roles intheir specialty.Managers need to clearly describe expected roles togroup members when they are assigned to the group. Role-making occurs as workers take on more roles asgroup members.Self-managed teams may assign the roles to membersthemselves.
  14. 14. 14-14Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Stages of Group Development1) Forming: members get to know each other and reachcommon goals.2) Storming: members disagree on direction andleadership. Managers need to be sure conflict stays focused.3) Norming: close ties and consensus begin to developbetween members.4) Performing: group does its real work.5) Adjourning: only for task forces that are temporary. Note that these steps take time!
  15. 15. 14-15Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Stages of Group DevelopmentPerformingPerformingPerformingPerformingAdjourningAdjourningAdjourningAdjourningNormingNormingNormingNormingStormingStormingStormingStormingFormingFormingFormingFormingFigure 14.4
  16. 16. 14-16Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Group Dynamics Group Norms: shared rules that members follow.Groups may set working hours, behavior rules, etc. Conformity & Deviance: members conform to norms to:Obtain rewards, imitate respected members, and becausethey feel the behavior is right.When a member deviates, other members will try tomake them conform, expel the member, or change thegroup norms to accommodate them. Conformity and deviance must be balanced for highperformance from the group.Deviance allows for new ideas in the group.
  17. 17. 14-17Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Balancing Conformity and DevianceFigure 14.5LevelofgroupPerformanceLowHighLow ConformityHigh deviationMed. ConformityMed. deviationHigh ConformityLow deviation
  18. 18. 14-18Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Group Cohesiveness Group cohesiveness: measures the loyalty to the groupby its members.Level of Participation: as cohesiveness rises, so willparticipation. Participation helps get members actively involved, buttoo much can waste time.Level of Conformity: as conformity rises, so doescohesiveness. With too much conformity, performance can suffer.Level of Group Goal Accomplishment: ascohesiveness rises, the emphasis on groupaccomplishment will rise. High levels of cohesiveness can cause the group to focusmore on itself than the firm.
  19. 19. 14-19Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Group CohesivenessGroupSizeGroupSizeManagedDiversityManagedDiversityGroupIdentityGroupIdentitySuccessSuccessGroupCohesivenessGroupCohesivenessLevel ofConformity tonormsLevel ofConformity tonormsLevel ofParticipationin groupLevel ofParticipationin groupEmphasison goalsaccomplishedEmphasison goalsaccomplishedFigure 14.6
  20. 20. 14-20Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Cohesiveness Determinates of cohesiveness: can be altered to changecohesiveness levels in a group.Group Size: small groups allow high cohesiveness. Low cohesiveness groups with many members canbenefit from splitting into two groups.Managed Diversity: Diverse groups often come upwith better solutions.Group Identity: When cohesiveness is low, encouragea group to adopt a unique identity and engage in healthycompetition with others.Success: cohesiveness increases with success. Look for a way for a group to find some small success.
  21. 21. 14-21Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Reducing Social LoafingMake individualcontributionsidentifiableMake individualcontributionsidentifiableEmphasize valuableindividualcontributionsEmphasize valuableindividualcontributionsKeep group sizeat an appropriatelevelKeep group sizeat an appropriatelevelREDUCEREDUCEREDUCEREDUCE SocialSocialLoafingLoafingSocialSocialLoafingLoafingFigure 14.7
  22. 22. 14-22Irwin/McGraw-Hill ©The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000Managing for PerformanceMotivate groups to achieve goals: Members should benefit when the group performswell. Rewards can be monetary or in other forms.Reduce social loafing: human tendency to putforth less effort in a group than individually. Toeliminate: Make individual efforts identifiable and evaluated. Emphasize individual efforts to show they count. Keep group size at a small number.Help groups manage conflict. All groups will have conflict, managers should seekways to direct it to the goals.