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Problem definition Lecture-6

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problem definition in research has the basic role in research, hence, this presentation pertaining to identification of problem by the use of different method

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Problem definition Lecture-6

  1. 1. MUHAMMAD SHAFIQ Lecture 5 Problem Definition and the Research Proposal
  2. 2. A TALE
  3. 3. Problem discovery Problem definition (statement of research objectives) Secondary (historical) data Experience survey Pilot study Case study Selection of exploratory research technique Selection of basic research method Experiment Survey Observation Secondary Data StudyLaboratory Field Interview Questionnaire Selection of exploratory research technique Sampling Probability Nonprobability Collection of data (fieldwork) Editing and coding data Data processing Interpretation of findings Report Data Gathering Data Processing and Analysis Conclusions and Report Research Design Problem Discovery and Definition
  4. 4. COMPLETELY CERTAIN ABSOLUTE AMBIGUITY CAUSAL OR DESCRIPTIVE EXPLORATORY UNCERTAINTY INFLUENCES THE TYPE OF RESEARCH
  5. 5. IMPORTANCE OF STARTING WITH A GOOD PROBLEM DEFINITION  Translating research situation into specific research objective  Res project proof useful---- how well the research objective  Chapter looks at translation of business situation into relevant actionable research  Good answer but bad question- coke others
  6. 6. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM  Translating a reseach situation into something that can be researched  Translation of something form one language to another.  Starts from statement of problem
  7. 7. STATEMENT OF PROBLEM  A written expression of the key question(s)that the researcher wishes to answer
  8. 8. PROBLEM DEFINITION  The indication of a specific business decision area that will be clarified by answering some research questions.
  9. 9. PROBLEM DEFINITION  The process of defining and developing a research statement and the steps involved in translating it into more precise research terminology, including a set of research objective  Process breaks-----research may be useless, irrelevant not assist decision making  Wrong prob definition: waste resources and poor direction
  10. 10. PROBLEM DEFINITION  Can’t say any step is more important than others but problem definition  it develop problem statement which guides towards actionable research Even, the best research procedure will not overcome poor problem definition
  11. 11. COMPLEXITY OF PROBLEM Harder Situation appear new Changes in situation subtle Symptoms scattered Symptoms ambiguous Easier Situation recurring dramatic change occur Symptoms are isolated Symptoms consistent
  12. 12. COMPLEXITY OF PROBLEM  Situation frequency  Cyclical: pricing problem in airline industry  Dramatic change  Easy look at the key factor changes and other  Subtle changes having long term effect  More difficult to identify, define the actual decision and research problem  Dif to deduct in beg n then dif to know whether trend is temporary or permanent
  13. 13. WIDESPREAD THE SYMPTOMS?  Scattered symptom  More difficult to put togather into some coherent problem statement  Sometime many symptoms but one specific area  E-g a auto co may exhibit symptoms such as increased complaints abt a car handling, increase warranty cost due to repair, higher labor cost due to ineffficency and lower perf rating by consumers etc ------problem in production
  14. 14. WIDESPREAD THE SYMPTOMS?  Symptoms scattered--- dif to develop useful research questions  If consumer complaints dealt with the handling and the appearance of the car, and these were accompanied by symptoms including consumer beliefs that the gas consumption high etc  Symptoms ambiguity– so many problems non have clear  Sales and traffic up but margin is down
  15. 15. PROBLEM MEANS GAP  Difference between the current conditions and more preferable set of condition  Bus perf is worse than expected bus perf  Actual bus perf is less than possible bus perf  Expected bus perf is grater than possible bus perf
  16. 16. THE PROBLEM-DEFINITION PROCESS STEP  Understand the situation- identify key symp  Identify key problem(s) from symptoms  Write problem statement-as per objectives  Determine the unit o analysis  Determine the relevant variables  Write research questions and /or research hypotheses
  17. 17. “THE FORMULATION OF THE PROBLEM IS OFTEN MORE ESSENTIAL THAN ITS SOLUTION.” Albert Einstein
  18. 18. Statement of Research Objectives Problem Definition Defining Problem Results in Clear Cut Research Objectives Exploratory Research (Optional) Analysis of the Situation Symptom Detection
  19. 19. The Process of Problem Definition Ascertain the decision maker’s objectives Understand background of the problem Isolate/identify the problem, not the symptoms Determine unit of analysis Determine relevant variables State research questions and objectives
  20. 20. ASCERTAIN THE DECISION MAKER’S OBJECTIVES  Decision makers’ objectives  Managerial goals expressed in measurable terms. 20
  21. 21. THE ICEBERG PRINCIPLE  he principle indicating that the dangerous part of many business problems is neither visible to nor understood by managers.
  22. 22. UNDERSTAND THE BACKGROUND OF THE PROBLEM  Exercising judgment  Situation analysis - The informal gathering of background information to familiarize researchers or managers with the decision area. 22
  23. 23. ISOLATE AND IDENTIFY THE PROBLEMS, NOT THE SYMPTOMS  Symptoms can be confusing 23
  24. 24. SYMPTOMS CAN BE CONFUSING Twenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association:  Membership has been declining for years.  New water park -residents prefer the expensive water park????  Demographic changes: Children have grown up
  25. 25. Problem Definition Organization Symptoms Based on Symptom True Problem Twenty-year-old neighborhood swimming association in a major city. Membership has been declining for years. New water park with wave pool and water slides moved into town a few years ago. Neighborhood residents prefer the expensive water park and have negative image of swimming pool. Demographic changes: Children in this 20- year-old neighborhood have grown up. Older residents no longer swim anywhere.
  26. 26. TOTI EMUL ESTO WHAT LANGUAGE IS WRITTEN ON THIS STONE FOUND BY ARCHAEOLOGISTS?
  27. 27. TOTI EMUL ESTO THE LANGUAGE IS ENGLISH: TO TIE MULES TO
  28. 28. DETERMINE THE UNIT OF ANALYSIS  Individuals, households, organizations, etc.  In many studies, the family rather than the individual is the appropriate unit of analysis. 28
  29. 29. DETERMINE THE RELEVANT VARIABLE  Anything that may assume different numerical values 29
  30. 30. TYPES OF VARIABLES  Categorical- (groups or color or gender)  Continuous (take on arage of vlues that corresponds to some quatitative amount –consumer attitude towards performance)  Dependent (y)  Independent (X)  Relevant and actionable variable rather than superfluous
  31. 31. HYPOTHESIS  An unproven proposition  A possible solution to a problem  Guess
  32. 32. STATE THE RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 32
  33. 33. RESEARCH QUESTION  Translation of the problem into specific inquiry  Can be too vague and general  Is advertising copy 1 is better than 2 Advertising effectiveness can be measured b sales, brand awareness, intention to buy…  Should provide input that can be used as a standard for selecting from among alternative solutions
  34. 34. RESEARCH QUESTIONS  It expresses the research objectives in terms of questions that can be addressed by research  Example are wages and long haul distance related to driver loyalty and retention  Research questions are more general than hypothesis  Dif between the two: hypotheses can generally speecigy the direction of the relationship
  35. 35. IF YOU DO NOT KNOW WHERE YOU ARE GOING, ANY ROAD WILL TAKE YOU THERE.
  36. 36. Statement of business problem Exploratory research (optional) Statement of business problem Broad research objectives Specific Objective 1 Specific Objective 2 Specific Objective 3 Research Design Results
  37. 37. The Process of Problem Definition Ascertain the decision maker’s objectives Understand background of the problem Isolate/identify the problem, not the symptoms Determine unit of analysis Determine relevant variables State research questions and objectives
  38. 38. RESEARCH PROPOSAL  A written statement of the research design that includes a statement explaining the purpose of the study  Detailed outline of procedures associated with a particular methodology
  39. 39. BASIC QUESTIONS - PROBLEM DEFINITION  What is the purpose of the study?  How much is already known?  Is additional background information necessary?  What is to be measured? How?  Can the data be made available?  Should research be conducted?  Can a hypothesis be formulated?
  40. 40. BASIC QUESTIONS - BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN  What types of questions need to be answered?  Are descriptive or causal findings required?  What is the source of the data?
  41. 41. BASIC QUESTIONS - BASIC RESEARCH DESIGN  Can objective answers be obtained by asking people?  How quickly is the information needed?  How should survey questions be worded?  How should experimental manipulations be made?
  42. 42. BASIC QUESTIONS - SELECTION OF SAMPLE  Who or what is the source of the data?  Can the target population be identified?  Is a sample necessary?  How accurate must the sample be?  Is a probability sample necessary?  Is a national sample necessary?  How large a sample is necessary?  How will the sample be selected?
  43. 43. BASIC QUESTIONS - DATA GATHERING  Who will gather the data?  How long will data gathering take?  How much supervision is needed?  What operational procedures need to be followed?
  44. 44. BASIC QUESTIONS - DATA ANALYSIS  Will standardized editing and coding procedures be used?  How will the data be categorized?  What statistical software will be used?  What is the nature of the data?  What questions need to be answered?  How many variables are to be investigated simultaneously?  Performance criteria for evaluation?
  45. 45. BASIC QUESTIONS - TYPE OF REPORT  Who will read the report?  Are managerial recommendations requested?  How many presentations are required?  What will be the format of the written report?
  46. 46. BASIC QUESTIONS - OVERALL EVALUATION  How much will the study cost?  Is the time frame acceptable?  Is outside help needed?  Will this research design attain the stated research objectives?  When should the research be scheduled to begin?
  47. 47. I DON’T KNOW WHAT IS KEY TO SUCCESS BUT THE KEY TO FAILURE IS TRYING TO PLEASE EVERYONE

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