Improving Competitiveness ----- A study of the Uppsala Biotech Cluster and  Uppsala BIO – the Life Science Initiative Dr. ...
<ul><ul><li>Overview of the Uppsala Biotech Cluster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of Uppsala BIO </li></ul></ul>...
Strong innovation performance in the Stockholm-Uppsala region Source: 2006 European Regional Innovation Scoreboard, Jan 2007
Sweden’s leading life science region
Life Science subsectors Source: VINNOVA, 2007 Sweden Uppsala N=4 400 N=36 500
Long tradition of scientific achievement Century Scientist Achievement  Nobel prize 18th  O. Rudbeck The lymphatic system ...
Uppsala – A biotech hotbed One of the world’s most biotech-concentrated cities? <ul><li>Tools for diagnostics </li></ul><u...
IgE Phadia 230 MUSD Dextran <ul><li>Pharmacia Biotech </li></ul><ul><li>Amersham Biosciences </li></ul><ul><li>GE Healthca...
Uppsala’s secret sauce? Attitudes Skills Resources UPPSALA’S
<ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Serial entrepreneurs  with many years experience  </li></ul><ul><li>Clear insight  into h...
Dag Hammarskjölds Road Linnæus Center for Bioinformatics Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ångström  Laboratory   Mater...
But significant challenges loom on the horizon <ul><li>Difficulty in achieving commercial growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How...
<ul><li>To support the development of research results into prototypes, products, and sustainable companies </li></ul><ul>...
County Admin.  2 people Swedish Univ. of Agriculture 2 people Chamber of Comm.  2 people County Council 2 people Uppsala  ...
Uppsala BIO - owners <ul><li>ALMI Företagspartner Uppsala </li></ul><ul><li>AlphaHelix AB </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Medic...
The Action Plan Uppsala BIO:  A  facilitator,  not an operator  ! <ul><li>Support market-oriented research </li></ul><ul><...
GROWTH Scouting <ul><li>Support for </li></ul><ul><li>Existing Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Further Education </li></ul><ul...
1. Market-oriented research – Uppsala BIO-X Basic research Publication Explorative research Product development Academia I...
Uppsala BIO-X –  from Research to Prototype Uppsala BIO-X Scientific breakthroughs Prototypes Industrial mindset Capital C...
Some results from Uppsala BIO-X <ul><li>2 companies  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9 employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turnover...
Nanoporous bioceramics for safe drug release - for safe, slow release of potent drugs  <ul><li>Partners: </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Partners: </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular tools, Uppsala university </li></ul><ul><li>Dept. of Oncology, Uppsala unive...
Micro dosing with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, AMS -  For long term drug development studies <ul><li>Partners: </li></ul...
Earlier projects in Uppsala BIO-X  <ul><li>MICPROF - Microbial Profiling  </li></ul><ul><li>- developing a tool for finger...
2. Innovation support  – together with Uppsala Innovation Centre <ul><li>Conducts scouting for spin-offs at universities a...
3. Long-term supply of competence <ul><li>Offers coaching and leadership   programs for life science management </li></ul>...
4. New resources through marketing <ul><li>Ensures international perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes region’s  commer...
Stockholm-Uppsala shall be recognized as one of the top 5 life science regions globally. A region where successful compani...
Uppsala Strängnäs Flemingsberg Solna Stockholm City Södertälje Arlanda Airport <ul><li>MISSION </li></ul><ul><li>Promote  ...
Uppsala BIO – A modest budget  <ul><li>Yearly budget of around SEK 20 million </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEK 14 million SEK in ...
Results to date for Uppsala BIO <ul><li>Uppsala BIO-X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22 new a...
Uppsala’s Life Science industry development 2003 - 2006 <ul><li>Number of companies  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>174  (+ 22%) </...
Interactive research with CIND <ul><li>CiND participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anders Malmberg & Per Lundequist, Uppsala U...
<ul><li>Development of the Uppsala Biotech Cluster </li></ul>Measuring and evaluating through biannual surveys (2004, 2006...
Results from the Uppsala Biotech Cluster Survey in 2006 Total number of respondents 283 * IFC is institute for collaborati...
Uppsala fulfills the conditions for cluster competitiveness to a medium degree <ul><li>Medium fulfillment of conditions fo...
Perceptions of competitiveness differ significantly among cluster actors Teigland & Lindqvist 2007
<ul><li>Development of the Uppsala Biotech Cluster </li></ul>Measuring and evaluating through biannual surveys (2004, 2006...
Uppsala BIO’s vision appears to be clear, but the business sector is less sure Strongly disagree Strongly agree Neutral
Most see Uppsala BIO as a good use of resources while business is less positive Big waste of resources In general, what is...
Strong primary level impact, yet weak secondary level impact Strongly disagree Strongly agree Neutral In general, during t...
Uppsala BIO has made an impact in its four focus areas <ul><li>To promote  cross-disciplinary biotech research   </li></ul...
However, Government rates UB as having more impact than Academia and Business In general, during the past two years Uppsal...
All Uppsala BIO activities are seen as valuable  Extremely unvaluable Extremely valuable Neutral
However, the relative  value  of activities varies greatly by sector and involvement in UB +++ 1st valuable,  ++ 2nd valua...
Respondents view insufficient financing and potential company exits as biggest threats What are the biggest threats to Upp...
Selected comment <ul><li>“ Promoting inflow of venture capital is by far the most important activity for the long term sur...
Adapted from Kotter 1996 2. Build a powerful guiding coalition 1. Establish a sense of urgency 3. Create and communicate a...
Despite the underlying challenging situation <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>To improve public services </li></ul><ul...
Building bridges between the different worlds “ I have been to several meetings organized by Uppsala BIO, but as a univers...
Facilitating interaction Government is quite distant from all commercial actors
Can Uppsala BIO make a difference? <ul><li>Government  in general  more positive  towards UB while industry much less so <...
Questions to ponder….. <ul><li>What is competitiveness? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real figures, statistics vs. perceptions by ...
Interested in learning more? <ul><li>Robin Teigland, Stockholm School of Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] <...
Appendix <ul><li>Participation  in UB activities by respondents  involved directly or indirectly  through their organizati...
Participation  in UB activities by respondents  involved directly or indirectly  through their organization in UB Never he...
Participation  in UB activities by respondents whose organization is  not involved  in UB N=60 Never heard of  Very freque...
Value  of UB activities by respondents  involved directly or indirectly  through their organization in UB  N=99 Extremely ...
Value of UB activities by respondents whose organization is  not involved  in UB Extremely unvaluable  Extremely valuable ...
Today’s presentation <ul><li>Cluster background and theory </li></ul><ul><li>Uppsala BIO – the Life Science Initiative </l...
Today’s presentation <ul><li>Cluster background and theory </li></ul><ul><li>Uppsala BIO – the Life Science Initiative </l...
Netpact project <ul><li>Project consortium funded by European Commission, DG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan Maier, Luc  Strijbo...
Building RTD networks across Europe
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Improving Regional Competitiveness: The Vinnväxt Program and Uppsala BIO – the Life Science Initiative

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This presentation describes the Vinnväxt Program in Sweden, which is designed to promote regional competitiveness. It presents a case study of one biotech cluster initiative, Uppsala BIO - the Life Science Initiative.

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  • Improving Regional Competitiveness: The Vinnväxt Program and Uppsala BIO – the Life Science Initiative

    1. 1. Improving Competitiveness ----- A study of the Uppsala Biotech Cluster and Uppsala BIO – the Life Science Initiative Dr. Robin Teigland Stockholm School of Economics [email_address] www.knowledgenetworking.org June 2008
    2. 2. <ul><ul><li>Overview of the Uppsala Biotech Cluster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of Uppsala BIO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Uppsala BIO make a difference? </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Strong innovation performance in the Stockholm-Uppsala region Source: 2006 European Regional Innovation Scoreboard, Jan 2007
    4. 4. Sweden’s leading life science region
    5. 5. Life Science subsectors Source: VINNOVA, 2007 Sweden Uppsala N=4 400 N=36 500
    6. 6. Long tradition of scientific achievement Century Scientist Achievement Nobel prize 18th O. Rudbeck The lymphatic system 18th C. Linnæus Systema Naturæ classification 18th A. Celcius Thermometric scale (°C) 18th J.J. Berzelius Chemical elements (Se, Th, Si, Ti, Z) 19th A. J. Ångström Modern spectroscopy (Å unit) 19-20th M. Siegbahn X-ray spectroscopy 19-20th T. Svedberg Ultracentrifuge 20th A. Tiselius Electrophoresis 20th K. Siegbahn Electron spectroscopy 20th J.Porath, P. Flodin Gel filtration 20th G. Johansson, Immunoglobulin E H. Bennich, L. Wide C. Linnæus T. Svedberg A. Tiselius
    7. 7. Uppsala – A biotech hotbed One of the world’s most biotech-concentrated cities? <ul><li>Tools for diagnostics </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for effective pharmaceutical development & production </li></ul>Expertise areas
    8. 8. IgE Phadia 230 MUSD Dextran <ul><li>Pharmacia Biotech </li></ul><ul><li>Amersham Biosciences </li></ul><ul><li>GE Healthcare </li></ul><ul><li>825 MUSD </li></ul>Solvay Pharma (NeoPharma), 3 MUSD Electrophoresis Function of Hyaluronic acid 2000 Duodopa 1960 1940 Personal Chemistry Microwave synthesis Pyrosequencing Pyrosequencing SPR Biosensors Biacore (Part of GE Healthcare) Q-Med 147 MUSD Biotage 33 MUSD 1980 Turnover for 2006 AMO Uppsala 77 MUSD Heparin Fragmin™ Padlock Probes Olink 1,5 MUSD Neuropeptides effect on ocular blood flow Xalatan ™ 1,3 BUSD An impressive record of research turned into innovations and growth <ul><li>World-class research attracts industry </li></ul><ul><li>Close academia/industry collaboration creates success </li></ul>
    9. 9. Uppsala’s secret sauce? Attitudes Skills Resources UPPSALA’S
    10. 10. <ul><li>Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Serial entrepreneurs with many years experience </li></ul><ul><li>Clear insight into how to turn innovative ideas into commercial successes </li></ul><ul><li>Broad industrial expertise and business know-how in international markets (Pharmacia) </li></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Strong culture of openness and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Long term commitment – loyalty to region </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial spirit – willingness to take risks </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Steady supply of young scientists (many with MBAs) and ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Uppsala – Stockholm region center of Swedish venture capital </li></ul><ul><li>Uppsala Innovation Centre, one of Sweden’s leading business incubators </li></ul><ul><li>Leading center for clinical research and trials </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Teacher’s exemption ’ - researchers retain commercial rights to their discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>Strong networks and close personal ties ( old Pharmacia network ) </li></ul>UPPSALA’S
    11. 11. Dag Hammarskjölds Road Linnæus Center for Bioinformatics Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research Ångström Laboratory Material sciences, physics, energy, MEMS Center for Mathematics and Information Technology Uppsala Genetics Center Plant biology and forest genetics Veterinary Medicine Center University Hospital clinical research, clinical trials Uppsala Clinical Research Center Uppsala BIO SVA National Veterinary Institute M edical Products Agency Biomedical Centre Chemistry, pharmacology, surface biotechnology, bioinformatics Uppsala’s physical layout supports collaboration and knowledge flows Rudbeck Laboratory molecular genetics and medicine
    12. 12. But significant challenges loom on the horizon <ul><li>Difficulty in achieving commercial growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to secure venture capital for growing companies, ensure profitability, and get them to stay in Uppsala </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Declining long-term supply of competence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to awaken young persons’ interest in science and secure management skills </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unstable pipeline of new ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to establish research fields plus technology transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relatively dated infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to secure transition from university town to a modern international city </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. <ul><li>To support the development of research results into prototypes, products, and sustainable companies </li></ul><ul><li>Vision: To establish the Uppsala-Stockholm region as one of the world’s five leading biotechnology regions </li></ul>A local initiative from life science industry, universities, and regional development bodies www.uppsalabio.com Uppsala BIO – the life science initiative
    14. 14. County Admin. 2 people Swedish Univ. of Agriculture 2 people Chamber of Comm. 2 people County Council 2 people Uppsala Municipality 2 people STUNS CEO Vinnova Swedish Univ of Agric 2 people Uppsala Municipality 1 person Industry 4 people Uppsala BIO Steering Committee Visibility Innovation Competence Uppsala BIO-X Uppsala Univ 2 people CIND 3 people Uppsala University 2 people Uppsala BIO Management 3 people Uppsala BIO - A complex project organization University Hospital 1 person Scientific Advisory Board Uppsala University Coordinating Committee 10 people
    15. 15. Uppsala BIO - owners <ul><li>ALMI Företagspartner Uppsala </li></ul><ul><li>AlphaHelix AB </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Medical Optics AB </li></ul><ul><li>AroCell AB </li></ul><ul><li>Biotage AB </li></ul><ul><li>Connect Uppsala </li></ul><ul><li>Denator AB </li></ul><ul><li>Doxa AB </li></ul><ul><li>GE Healthcare Bio Sciences AB </li></ul><ul><li>Chamber of Commerce </li></ul><ul><li>Innovationsbron i Uppsala </li></ul><ul><li>MikroKemi AB </li></ul><ul><li>Olink AB </li></ul><ul><li>Orexo AB </li></ul><ul><li>Pharma Consulting Group AB </li></ul><ul><li>Phadia AB </li></ul><ul><li>Q-Med AB </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Development Council </li></ul><ul><li>Semcon AB </li></ul><ul><li>Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Solvay Pharma AB </li></ul><ul><li>Statisticon AB </li></ul><ul><li>Svanova Biotech AB </li></ul><ul><li>City of Uppsala </li></ul><ul><li>Uppsala University </li></ul><ul><li>Uppsala University Hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Uppsala universitet Holding AB </li></ul><ul><li>Åmic AB </li></ul>
    16. 16. The Action Plan Uppsala BIO: A facilitator, not an operator ! <ul><li>Support market-oriented research </li></ul><ul><li>Provide innovation support </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure long-term supply of competence </li></ul><ul><li>Attract new resources through marketing </li></ul>
    17. 17. GROWTH Scouting <ul><li>Support for </li></ul><ul><li>Existing Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Further Education </li></ul><ul><li>Regional Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Partnering </li></ul>Red = Innovation System Green = Uppsala BIO-X Blue = Competence Black = Marketing <ul><li>Seminar Series </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific Conference </li></ul>From idea to sustainable growth? ? $ Business BIO-X <ul><li>Academia </li></ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul>Competence Chain Universities Schools Entrepreneurs Innovators Company Employees Value Marketing of Biotech in Uppsala <ul><li>Innovation System </li></ul><ul><li>Incubator </li></ul><ul><li>Business Lab </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurs Program </li></ul>
    18. 18. 1. Market-oriented research – Uppsala BIO-X Basic research Publication Explorative research Product development Academia Industry Uppsala BIO-X <ul><li>Funds cross-disciplinary , cutting-edge research in life science </li></ul><ul><li>Bridges first research commercialization gap </li></ul><ul><li>Offers new opportunities to industry </li></ul><ul><li>Engages international Scientific Advisory Board – industry & academia </li></ul><ul><li>Brings industrial mindset into an academic setting </li></ul>RESOURCE GAP
    19. 19. Uppsala BIO-X – from Research to Prototype Uppsala BIO-X Scientific breakthroughs Prototypes Industrial mindset Capital Competence Contacts
    20. 20. Some results from Uppsala BIO-X <ul><li>2 companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9 employees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turnover SEK 11 mln (EUR 1.2 mln) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5 projects </li></ul><ul><li>22 applications </li></ul><ul><li>> 20 senior researchers involved </li></ul><ul><li>Clear change in mind set </li></ul>
    21. 21. Nanoporous bioceramics for safe drug release - for safe, slow release of potent drugs <ul><li>Partners: </li></ul><ul><li>Orexo AB </li></ul><ul><li>Doxa AB </li></ul><ul><li>Dept. of Nano Technology and Functional Materials, Uppsala University </li></ul><ul><li>Project coordinator: Dr. Susanne Bredenberg, Orexo </li></ul>
    22. 22. <ul><li>Partners: </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular tools, Uppsala university </li></ul><ul><li>Dept. of Oncology, Uppsala university Hospital </li></ul><ul><li>Olink AB </li></ul><ul><li>Human Proteome Atlas </li></ul><ul><li>Project coordinator: Dr. Anders Alderborn, Uppsala university </li></ul>CAMDIA - cancer marker diagnostics - high precision technique for ultra-sensitive identification of tumor leakage biomarkers in blood
    23. 23. Micro dosing with Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, AMS - For long term drug development studies <ul><li>Partners: </li></ul><ul><li>Tandem Laboratory, Dept. of Ion physics Uppsala university </li></ul><ul><li>Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, Uppsala university </li></ul><ul><li>Pharma industry </li></ul><ul><li>Project coordinator: Dr. Mehran Salehpour, Dept. of Ion physics, Uppsala university </li></ul>
    24. 24. Earlier projects in Uppsala BIO-X <ul><li>MICPROF - Microbial Profiling </li></ul><ul><li>- developing a tool for fingerprinting complex microbial communities in food, in the human gut or in environmental samples. </li></ul><ul><li>Lab on a Chip – Point of Care </li></ul><ul><li>- development of a polymer micro chip for point of care patient testing. </li></ul>
    25. 25. 2. Innovation support – together with Uppsala Innovation Centre <ul><li>Conducts scouting for spin-offs at universities and industry </li></ul><ul><li>Supports incubator focused on commercialization, financing, and future viability </li></ul><ul><li>Provides access to broad external network of business advisors and financers </li></ul><ul><li>Supports entrepreneurship and alumni programs </li></ul>
    26. 26. 3. Long-term supply of competence <ul><li>Offers coaching and leadership programs for life science management </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages frequent contacts between academia and industry </li></ul><ul><li>Helps tailor university courses to labor market needs </li></ul><ul><li>Matches job seeking academics to jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Awakens future interests in science </li></ul>
    27. 27. 4. New resources through marketing <ul><li>Ensures international perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasizes region’s commercial competencies </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes cooperation with Stockholm-Uppsala Bioregion </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes networking through BIO-Pubs and seminars </li></ul><ul><li>Develops local feeling for biotechnology </li></ul>
    28. 28. Stockholm-Uppsala shall be recognized as one of the top 5 life science regions globally. A region where successful companies, together with world-class research, create new business opportunities and growth.
    29. 29. Uppsala Strängnäs Flemingsberg Solna Stockholm City Södertälje Arlanda Airport <ul><li>MISSION </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the life science sector in the region </li></ul><ul><li>Position and market the Stockholm-Uppsala region as a leading life science region </li></ul>
    30. 30. Uppsala BIO – A modest budget <ul><li>Yearly budget of around SEK 20 million </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEK 14 million SEK in cash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SEK 6 million in kind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Financers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>VINNOVA - The Swedish Agency for Innovation Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Universities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local and regional development bodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Results to date for Uppsala BIO <ul><li>Uppsala BIO-X </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5 projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22 new applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 20 senior researchers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 companies kick-started </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial drive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear change in mind-set </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uppsala well profiled </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internationally recognized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stockholm-Uppsala Bioregion founded </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovation support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Coordinated and coherent system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>>15 new companies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C:a 30 new jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ROPI 170 % </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Long-term competence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Project leader coaching program </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation on university program boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representation in County labor board biotech council </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Science and magic </li></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Uppsala’s Life Science industry development 2003 - 2006 <ul><li>Number of companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>174 (+ 22%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4 320 (+ 6%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Turnover* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SEK 13.2 bln (+ 38%) </li></ul></ul>* Only companies with their headquarters in Uppsala
    33. 33. Interactive research with CIND <ul><li>CiND participants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anders Malmberg & Per Lundequist, Uppsala Univ. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robin Teigland, Stockholm School of Economics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daniel Hallencreutz, Intersecta </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Main activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Participate in Uppsala BIO’s process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support Uppsala BIO with specific tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure cluster development and UB’s impact through surveys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support spin-off activities, e.g., cooperation with SSE MBA, UU masters students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critically evaluate Uppsala BIO and develop interactive research as a method and cluster related theories </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. <ul><li>Development of the Uppsala Biotech Cluster </li></ul>Measuring and evaluating through biannual surveys (2004, 2006, 2008) Impact of Uppsala BIO on the Cluster’s development Local rivalry Demand conditions Factor conditions Related industries
    35. 35. Results from the Uppsala Biotech Cluster Survey in 2006 Total number of respondents 283 * IFC is institute for collaboration, e.g., Uppsala BIO, STUNS, etc., and consists of all three sectors. These respondents are not included in the survey results presented here.
    36. 36. Uppsala fulfills the conditions for cluster competitiveness to a medium degree <ul><li>Medium fulfillment of conditions for cluster competitiveness* </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative cluster weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative poor availability of local and foreign capital and foreign skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low local rivalry despite low barriers to entry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ineffective government organizations/policies furthering cluster competitiveness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative cluster strengths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Strong local supply of skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Local demand and supply seen as moderate strengths </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High level of innovativeness in ”Discovery methods/tools” and in ”Diagnostics” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Tightly knit regional innovation system </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate to high degree of labor mobility and cross-disciplinary research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate to high degree of formal and informal cooperation between actors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate to high degree of openness, information flow, and reciprocity </li></ul></ul></ul>* From Diamond Model, Porter 1990
    37. 37. Perceptions of competitiveness differ significantly among cluster actors Teigland & Lindqvist 2007
    38. 38. <ul><li>Development of the Uppsala Biotech Cluster </li></ul>Measuring and evaluating through biannual surveys (2004, 2006, 2008) Impact of Uppsala BIO on the Cluster’s development Local rivalry Demand conditions Factor conditions Related industries
    39. 39. Uppsala BIO’s vision appears to be clear, but the business sector is less sure Strongly disagree Strongly agree Neutral
    40. 40. Most see Uppsala BIO as a good use of resources while business is less positive Big waste of resources In general, what is your opinion of Uppsala BIO? Average Neutral Excellent use of resources
    41. 41. Strong primary level impact, yet weak secondary level impact Strongly disagree Strongly agree Neutral In general, during the past two years Uppsala BIO has contributed to an increase in ... UB’s primary objectives Secondary effects
    42. 42. Uppsala BIO has made an impact in its four focus areas <ul><li>To promote cross-disciplinary biotech research </li></ul><ul><li>To strengthen the region’s innovation system through activities such as an incubator </li></ul><ul><li>To ensure a long-term supply of relevant competence to the region </li></ul><ul><li>To improve the region’s international and national visibility in order to attract investment and competence </li></ul>Yes Yes Yes Yes
    43. 43. However, Government rates UB as having more impact than Academia and Business In general, during the past two years Uppsala BIO has contributed to an increase in ... Strongly disagree Strongly agree Neutral
    44. 44. All Uppsala BIO activities are seen as valuable Extremely unvaluable Extremely valuable Neutral
    45. 45. However, the relative value of activities varies greatly by sector and involvement in UB +++ 1st valuable, ++ 2nd valuable, + 3rd valuable, – Least valuable Some columns have several activities with same value ranking due to equal values Academia Business Government   Activity Pers inv Inv org Uninv org Pers inv Inv org Uninv org Pers inv Inv org Uninv org Bio-Pubs     – ++ +++ ++     – Uppsala BIO website +   +++   – + ++     Uppsala BIO newsletter   – ++     +++     + BIO-X projects   +++   ++       ++ –   UIC programs + ++ +++     +++ ++ – Advice on patent/IP ++ +++   + ++   ++   +++ Career Days – ++   – – – +   External visitors’ activities     ++     +   ++ +++ ++
    46. 46. Respondents view insufficient financing and potential company exits as biggest threats What are the biggest threats to Uppsala Biotech Cluster within the next 5 years? (% responses) Total responses = 241
    47. 47. Selected comment <ul><li>“ Promoting inflow of venture capital is by far the most important activity for the long term survival of a cluster like Uppsala. Without money no new companies can emerge, it is that simple!! All other activities are just frosting on the cake!!” </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporated in Uppsala BIO’s action plan </li></ul>
    48. 48. Adapted from Kotter 1996 2. Build a powerful guiding coalition 1. Establish a sense of urgency 3. Create and communicate a compelling vision 8. Consolidate improvements and produce more change 4. Develop an effective activity plan 5. Choose a change specialist as a process leader 6. Plan for and create short-term wins 7. Ensure commitment and empower others Uppsala BIO: Elements of a successful change effort*
    49. 49. Despite the underlying challenging situation <ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>To improve public services </li></ul><ul><li>Greater public good </li></ul><ul><li>Electorate </li></ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul><ul><li>To realize profits </li></ul><ul><li>Market opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Shareholders </li></ul><ul><li>University </li></ul><ul><li>“ To publish or perish” </li></ul><ul><li>Quest for knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Global academic community </li></ul><ul><li>Uppsala BIO </li></ul><ul><li>Develop goals </li></ul><ul><li>Secure and allocate resources </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct tasks </li></ul>
    50. 50. Building bridges between the different worlds “ I have been to several meetings organized by Uppsala BIO, but as a university professor, I feel really out of place among all those young businessmen in suits. As a natural scientist, who am I supposed to speak with?” Survey 2006 respondent comment
    51. 51. Facilitating interaction Government is quite distant from all commercial actors
    52. 52. Can Uppsala BIO make a difference? <ul><li>Government in general more positive towards UB while industry much less so </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult challenge due to stakeholders from different sectors and their extremely diverse interests </li></ul><ul><li>Conducting project as an organizational change effort leads to initial successful results </li></ul><ul><li>But long-term transformation (changes in attitudes and behaviors) takes time and is difficult to measure (focus of 2008 survey) </li></ul>
    53. 53. Questions to ponder….. <ul><li>What is competitiveness? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real figures, statistics vs. perceptions by actors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do perceptions by outside actors of a cluster’s competitiveness differ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry, government, academia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How do perceptions by outside actors of a cluster’s competitiveness affect a cluster’s attractiveness, e.g., labor, investments, new firms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capital is global…so what is important when companies make decisions regarding in which locations to invest - real figures or perceptions of competitiveness? </li></ul></ul>
    54. 54. Interested in learning more? <ul><li>Robin Teigland, Stockholm School of Economics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>www.slideshare.net/eteigland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Madeleine Neil, Uppsala BIO, Communications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Publications and reports on Uppsala BIO and the Uppsala Biotech Cluster </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uppsala BIO – the Life Science Initiative: Experiences of and Reflections on Starting a Regional Competitiveness Initiative. In R. MacGregor (Ed.) Small Business Clustering Technologies: Applications in Marketing, Management, IT and Economics, London: Idea Group Inc., 2006. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeing eye-to-eye: How do public and private sector views of a biotech cluster and its cluster initiative differ? European Planning Studies (forthcoming). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is Local and What is Global in Biotech Innovation: The Case of the Biotech Cluster in Uppsala, Sweden. Paper presented at DRUID, 2005. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Investigating the Uppsala Biotech Cluster. Research Paper 2004:1, Uppsala University, CIND. </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Appendix <ul><li>Participation in UB activities by respondents involved directly or indirectly through their organization in UB </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in UB activities by respondents whose organization is not involved in UB </li></ul><ul><li>Value of UB activities by respondents involved directly or indirectly through their organization in UB </li></ul><ul><li>Value of UB activities by respondents whose organization is not involved in UB </li></ul>
    56. 56. Participation in UB activities by respondents involved directly or indirectly through their organization in UB Never heard of Very frequently
    57. 57. Participation in UB activities by respondents whose organization is not involved in UB N=60 Never heard of Very frequently
    58. 58. Value of UB activities by respondents involved directly or indirectly through their organization in UB N=99 Extremely valuable Extremely unvaluable
    59. 59. Value of UB activities by respondents whose organization is not involved in UB Extremely unvaluable Extremely valuable N=49
    60. 60. Today’s presentation <ul><li>Cluster background and theory </li></ul><ul><li>Uppsala BIO – the Life Science Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>The Cluster Observatory </li></ul><ul><li>Looking forward </li></ul>
    61. 61. Today’s presentation <ul><li>Cluster background and theory </li></ul><ul><li>Uppsala BIO – the Life Science Initiative </li></ul><ul><li>The Cluster Observatory </li></ul><ul><li>Looking forward </li></ul>
    62. 62. Netpact project <ul><li>Project consortium funded by European Commission, DG </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jan Maier, Luc Strijbosch, Jackie Thun at Avedas AG </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ed Noyons and Clara Clarero at CWTS Leiden University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harald Katzmair and Christian Gulas at FAS.research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Robin Teigland and Andrew Schenkel at SSE </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose: To assess impact of FP6 on European competitiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To investigate impact on European R&D networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To map RTD networks of collaboratio n in five selected thematic areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To investigate impact on initiating and facilitating networking activities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To investigate embeddedness of major actors in European networks and in the global context of RTD and innovation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To determine impact of EU research policy on cross-sector collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To investigate impact on performance of research and industry actors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To determine rationale for engaging in research collaboration from actor’s viewpoint </li></ul></ul>
    63. 63. Building RTD networks across Europe

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