Sensory Presentation7 2009 3


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Sensory Presentation7 2009 3

  1. 1. Linda Gilles-Zirbes, OTR/L Occupational Therapist Palatine, IL The Sensory Systems, Processing and Strategies
  2. 2. The Sensory Systems <ul><li>Work together </li></ul><ul><li>Give us accurate picture of the world and our place in it </li></ul><ul><li>The brain uses sensory info in an organized way </li></ul>
  3. 3. Sensory Processing <ul><li>Is the receiving and perceiving of sensory info </li></ul><ul><li>Usually integration of sensory info is done without effort </li></ul><ul><li>Function of sensation is to aid in perception, the control of movement, and maintenance of arousal </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sensory Processing <ul><li>Components of Sensory Processing </li></ul><ul><li>1. Sensory modulation </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sensory discrimination </li></ul><ul><li>3. Praxis </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sensory Processing Processes <ul><li>1. Registration </li></ul><ul><li>2. Orientation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>4. Organization of a response </li></ul><ul><li>5. Execution of a response </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sensory Processing Problems <ul><li>Possible causes and theories : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not adequately receive or process information from these sensory systems as different wiring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetics: quirkiness within the family tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prematurity: immature/ disorganized nervous system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth trauma, medical procedures, medically fragile all put one more at risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deprivation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Problems coexisting with other conditions </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Sensory Systems 1. Tactile System <ul><li>Largest and first system to develop </li></ul><ul><li>Tactile receptors throughout the body </li></ul><ul><li>This is the primary map of ME (homunculus) </li></ul><ul><li>Touch is important as an embryo and after birth </li></ul><ul><li>Touch gives us info and puts the boundaries in ME </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Sensory Systems 1. Tactile System cont. <ul><li>Types of Touch: </li></ul><ul><li>Light touch </li></ul><ul><li>Pressure touch </li></ul><ul><li>Vibration </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Pain Sensations </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Sensory Systems 1. Tactile System cont. <ul><li>Primary function of the tactile system is to help one feel comfortable with self and environment </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminative </li></ul><ul><li>Protective </li></ul>
  10. 10. The Sensory Systems Tactile System Problems <ul><li>More input Needed Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(passive under responsive or active seekers) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(over responsive) </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Sensory Systems 2. Vestibular System <ul><li>It is located within the inner ear and has strong ties to the auditory and visual systems </li></ul><ul><li>It is the primary organizer and modulator of sensory input for self regulation </li></ul><ul><li>System is needed for balance, postural stability, muscle tone, use vision, plan actions, move, calm and regulate behavior </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Sensory Systems 2. Vestibular System cont. <ul><li>This input can either quiet, stimulate or organize one’s activity and alertness level </li></ul><ul><li>It is the strongest sensation </li></ul><ul><li>It puts the ME in my space </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Sensory Systems 2. Vestibular System cont. <ul><li>Functions of the vestibular system: </li></ul><ul><li>Protective </li></ul><ul><li>Discriminate </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Sensory Systems Vestibular System Problems <ul><li>More input Needed Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(passive under responsive or active seekers) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(over responsive) </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Sensory Systems 3. Proprioception System <ul><li>Is the unconscious awareness of body position and important for postural stability, motor planning and grading of movements </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors located in muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, and connective tissue </li></ul><ul><li>Function of vestibular system and proprioception system overlap as the prop. receptors respond to movement and gravity </li></ul><ul><li>Can not “overdose” on proprioceptive input </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Sensory Systems 3. Proprioception System cont. <ul><li>Certain prop. senses help with brain regulated arousal states and many of us use different strategies for self-regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Proprioception and self-stimulation/ self-injurious behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Prop. input can filter out other unpleasant sensations </li></ul><ul><li>Puts ME in the picture- usable body map </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Sensory Systems Proprioceptive System problems <ul><li>More input Needed Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(passive under responsive or active seekers) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(over responsive) </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Sensory Systems 4. Auditory System <ul><li>Receptors are located in the ear and give us info about sound </li></ul><ul><li>Has close connections with the vestibular system </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory processing : how the brain and central nervous system recognize and make sense of sounds </li></ul>
  19. 19. The Sensory Systems Auditory System Problems <ul><li>More input Needed Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(passive under responsive or active seekers) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(over responsive) </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Sensory Systems 5. Visual System <ul><li>Sensory receptors located in the eye with info sent to the brain to be perceived, sorted and processed </li></ul><ul><li>Visual and vestibular connection </li></ul><ul><li>Visual system is important to the learning of new motor skills until it becomes familiar </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Sensory Systems 5. Visual System Problems <ul><li>More input Needed Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(passive under responsive or active seekers) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(over responsive) </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Sensory Systems 6. Olfactory System <ul><li>Primitive system with receptors located in the nose and give us our sense of smell </li></ul><ul><li>Smells travel directly to the limbic system, the center of our emotions, memory, pleasure, and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Smell and taste are intimately connected </li></ul>
  23. 23. The Sensory Systems 6. Olfactory System Problems <ul><li>More input Needed Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(passive under responsive or active seekers) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(over responsive) </li></ul>
  24. 24. The Sensory Systems 7. Gustatory System <ul><li>Receptors located in the mouth and tongue are plentiful </li></ul><ul><li>Tastes: sweet , salty , bitter, sour </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Sensory Systems 7. Gustatory Problems <ul><li>More input Needed Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(passive under responsive or active seekers) </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding Behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>(over responsive) </li></ul>
  26. 26. A little about Neurotransmitters/ Neurochemicals <ul><li>Dopamine : Activation chemical: makes us want to move, helps us feel focused, enables us to concentrate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>is the pleasure chemical, is the chemical of the emotional brain center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pressure touch with TLC enhances dopamine the fastest </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. A little about Neurotransmitters/ Neurochemicals <ul><li>Serotonin : this is the master modulator, makes us feel that all is okay and we are safe/ content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>responsible for working memory and for ME in the picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gets depleted under stress, can go into shutdown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proprioception/ joint input/ heavy work enhances Serotonin which can enhance Dopamine </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. A little about Neurotransmitters/ Neurochemicals cont. <ul><li>Norepinephrine: chemical for selective attention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>novelty triggers Norepinephrine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>contributes to the activation of fight/ flight/ fright response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use proprioception/ joint compression/ heavy work to enhance activation of Norepinephrine </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Arousal levels and sensory <ul><li>Modulation: brain regulation and activity level via the balance between external and internal sensory stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>the way we modulate input affects our arousal state </li></ul><ul><li>our arousal levels change throughout the day, we try to keep an optimal arousal level using various strategies </li></ul>
  30. 30. Arousal Levels and Sensory cont. <ul><li>Types of arousal levels: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>low </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>optimal/ just right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high: often respond to sensory stimuli with a strong response, frequently in fright/ flight/ fight response, may remove self to get away/ may scream in fright with too much input </li></ul></ul><ul><li>those that spend more time in high and low arousal maybe constantly seeking or avoiding input to regulate </li></ul>
  31. 31. Sensory Behaviors and Sensory Strategies <ul><li>Behaviors we note with students often are proprioceptive: to get ME in the picture? To get the chemistry needed? </li></ul><ul><li>sensory strategies will help with the chemistry (neurochemicals) </li></ul><ul><li>Hand flapping (proprioception): provide hand fidgets, wall/ chair push - ups, weighted vest/ blanket </li></ul>
  32. 32. Sensory Behaviors and Sensory Strategies cont. <ul><li>Head banging/ ear flicking (vestibular /proprioception/deep tactile/ rhythm): provide strong movement/ proprioception as swinging, swimming, biking, use ball/ mini-tramp, chair/ wall pushups </li></ul><ul><li>Humming/ other vocalizations (proprioception/ vibration/ auditory): provide mini-massager to mouth/ face/ ear, blow toys, calming music </li></ul>
  33. 33. Sensory Behaviors and Sensory Strategies cont. <ul><li>Excessive mouthing/ chewing on non-food items (proprioception/ tactile): chewy, crunchy-chewy foods, strong flavors of food, battery toothbrush/ massager </li></ul><ul><li>Masturbation (proprioception/ tactile deep pressure): ball, seat inserts, jumping and crashing, weighted vest/ belt </li></ul><ul><li>Spinning self (vestibular/ visual): provide strong rotary movement on sit n spin, hold hands while person spins </li></ul><ul><li>Smelling (gustatory/ olfactory): provide strong flavors as cinnamon/ lemon/ peppermint </li></ul>
  34. 34. Sensory Behaviors and Sensory Strategies cont. <ul><li>Complains about performing hygiene, clothing and food textures (tactile defensiveness): provide deep touch input the whole body as wrapped in blanket/ sheet, heavy work input, analyze clothing and food textures, social stories </li></ul><ul><li>Rocking –standing (proprioception, vestibular, rhythm): appropriate rhythmical activities, seat inserts/ ball, movement breaks </li></ul><ul><li>Fecal smearing (vestibular, proprioception, tactile) very primitive reaction to identify who/ where they are: heavy work, movement, deep pressure activities </li></ul><ul><li>Lunging (vestibular, proprioception): joint compression, heavy work, movement activities </li></ul>
  35. 35. Sensory Behaviors and Sensory Strategies cont. <ul><li>Rocking in chair/ seat (vestibular/proprioception, rhythm): provide movement breaks, sit on cushion/ ball, play/ sing rhythmical music </li></ul><ul><li>Teeth grinding (proprioception, auditory, vibration): mini massagers, battery toothbrush, blow toys, chewies, crunchy and chewy foods </li></ul><ul><li>Physical strategies for those that are more active/ difficulty sitting: cushion/ ball, varied positions as on stomach/ standing (with marked off space), rocking chair, sit in small tent/ quiet area </li></ul>
  36. 36. Sensory Behaviors and Sensory Strategies cont. <ul><li>For those distracted by noises/ difficulty with auditory processing: ear plugs/ headphones, simplify directions, use gestures to reinforce verbal messages, visual assists </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease distractions for those who are sensitive/ easily distracted: minimize all objects around, store unnecessary items, turn lights on low, put work in hallway </li></ul><ul><li>Attention getters for those who have difficulty attending: plan language activities after gross motor time, preferential seating, use proximity and touch to help focus, soft voice with expression, open windows/ turn on fan </li></ul>
  37. 37. Calming Activities <ul><li>For those that are over active: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual: dim lights, unchanging visual stimuli, quiet corner/space, preferential seating looking away from doors/ windows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory: use soft voice/ slower speech, familiar, rhythm sounds, 60 beats per minute, rain stick </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Calming Activities cont. <ul><ul><li>Tactile: items that are simple shapes, smooth, warm, familiar, soothing, wrap snugly within blanket, neutral warmth is relaxing, being squished in a mat, steamroller </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Calming Activities cont. <ul><ul><li>Proprioception: provide activities that have slow push-pull, slow stretch, wall/ chair/ hand push-ups </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Calming Activities cont. <ul><ul><li>Vestibular: slow, rhythmical/ predictable movement as swinging/ rocking/ swaying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory: relaxing scents as lavender and vanilla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gustatory/ Tactile: sweet tastes and sucking are also relaxing </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Alerting Activities <ul><li>To wake up the system or provide one with what they seek </li></ul><ul><li>Always provide some type of organizing activity afterward (proprioception usually) so does not become over aroused </li></ul><ul><li>Remember: Proprioception and heavy work are the good modulators of sensory input </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual: bright lights, unexpected lights, bright colors, red-yellow shades </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory: music with erratic, fast beat, unexpected noises </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Alerting Activities cont. <ul><ul><li>Tactile: light touch, unexpected touch, rough textures, intricate shapes, cold temperatures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprioception: sudden stopping, jerky/ quick/ fast / unexpected/ variable change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vestibular: head inverted, rapid/ jerky/ angular changing directions movement: twirl, roll… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Olfactory: arousing scents as peppermint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gustatory: use spicy / sour flavors and spices, crunchy / chewy foods </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Organizing Activities <ul><li>For a “just-right” arousal level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual: natural lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory: music with heavy drum rhythm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Proprioception/ Tactile/ Gustatory: provide chewy foods (licorice, raisins, carrots, roll-ups, gum) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vestibular: Trampoline, jumping jacks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiration: blow whistles, blow art, kazoos </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Classroom heavy work activities: <ul><ul><ul><li>Carrying heavy objects </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulling self using rope when on scooterboard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pulling heavy crate, bolster </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pushing weighted ball, teacher in wheeled chair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Erasing boards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using play dough/ clay </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Constructive toys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Squeezy fidget toys </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hammer toys </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Classroom heavy work activities: <ul><li>Working on vertical surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Adding weights to chairs, boxes, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Rolling, crawling up inclines </li></ul><ul><li>Caterpillar tunnel made of lycra </li></ul><ul><li>Body sox made of lycra </li></ul><ul><li>Stretching </li></ul><ul><li>Tug of war, rough housing and wrestling with structure </li></ul><ul><li>Lying on blanket, being swung, then crash into pillows </li></ul><ul><li>Movements as wheelbarrow walk, row, row your boat, animal walks, crawling </li></ul>
  46. 46. Summary <ul><li>Development of foundational skills needed for learning is partially dependent upon the nervous system’s ability to process and integrate sensory information accurately </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory processing is related to arousal </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory behaviors need to be looked at first in terms of regulation and modulation </li></ul><ul><li>We all have our own sensory preferences and not </li></ul><ul><li>Proprioception and heavy work are the big sensory modulators with activities that can be done throughout the day </li></ul><ul><li>Decrease stress </li></ul>
  47. 47. Equipment: <ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>