Introduction To Structured Teaching For Translation


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Introduction To Structured Teaching For Translation

  1. 1. AN INTRODUCTION TO STRUCTURED TEACHING Presented by: Valerie Gruenwald, School Psychologist Palatine, Illinois, USA
  2. 2. STRUCTURED TEACHING <ul><li>Based on the Heartland Model for Teaching Students with Autism, developed by the Heartland Area Education Agency in Iowa, USA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Merges best practices from a variety of methods, primarily TEACCH ( T reatment and E ducation of A utistic and related C ommunication-handicapped Ch ildren) Developed at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. STRUCTURED TEACHING <ul><li>Goal: The primary goal of this educational approach is to develop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>independence and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>communication skills for both academic skills and life skills. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. STRUCTURED TEACHING <ul><li>Emphasis: Create conditions needed for success Use the student’s strengths to – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>plan accommodations that will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increase the likelihood of success and </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>minimize the likelihood that problems will occur </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Cognitive/behavioral difficulties observed in autism <ul><li>Autism restricts the individual’s ability to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>scan the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determine what is relevant and what is irrelevant to the situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>selectively attend to and interpret the important cues, while ignoring the unimportant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>organize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>plan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>act in accordance with external demands </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Cognitive/behavioral difficulties observed in autism <ul><li>When these difficulties are combined with communication and socialization deficits (ability to ask questions, learn from modeling), the result is: Dependence upon others for prompts about what to do. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Individuals with autism tend to: <ul><li>Do best with </li></ul><ul><li>Concrete information </li></ul><ul><li>Specific information, memorization </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Visual information/cues </li></ul><ul><li>Clear expectations & rules </li></ul><ul><li>Have difficulty with </li></ul><ul><li>Abstract ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Generalization, application of knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing behavior, time, steps to accomplish a goal </li></ul><ul><li>Auditory processing and language comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Judgment – interpreting general rules for specific situations </li></ul>
  8. 8. Individuals with autism tend to: <ul><li>Do best with </li></ul><ul><li>Routines and predictability </li></ul><ul><li>Learning specific ways to deal with situations </li></ul><ul><li>Information about what to do </li></ul><ul><li>One thing at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Have difficulty with </li></ul><ul><li>Surprises and unexpected changes </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving </li></ul><ul><li>Figuring out what to do when told only what not to do </li></ul><ul><li>Managing multiple demands </li></ul>
  9. 9. GLOBAL STRATEGY <ul><li>The global strategy is to use visual structure and visual supports to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>make the environment more predictable and understandable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enable the student to perform activities more independently </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enable the student to better understand communication and to express himself </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Using visual structure in the environment makes the most of strengths in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>visual organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>comprehension of information presented visually </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>concrete thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>following a routine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual supports also minimize auditory processing/language difficulties, and reduce the likelihood of anxiety, over-stimulation, and confusion. </li></ul>GLOBAL STRATEGY
  11. 11. <ul><li>Main Components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical structure – Arrange the classroom and materials to provide visual cues to help the student know what to do, and to reduce distractions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create a quiet environment, free of unnecessary “clutter” (things and noise) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create physical and visual boundaries to define specific areas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organize the environment so that the student knows where to go and what to do once he gets there </li></ul></ul></ul>GLOBAL STRATEGY
  12. 12. <ul><li>Typical classroom areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1:1 Teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent Work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play/Leisure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory Activities </li></ul></ul>GLOBAL STRATEGY
  13. 13. <ul><li>Tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Furniture arranged to create barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dividers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tiled flooring and area rugs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tape (electrical tape in different colors) to define areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Labels/pictures to clearly mark containers, files, etc. for student materials </li></ul></ul>GLOBAL STRATEGY
  14. 14. <ul><li>Use of color, photos, names – Use unique personal colors, as well as photos and printed names, to help the students locate their places in the setting. Visually answer the questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What is my place?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What are my things?” </li></ul></ul>GLOBAL STRATEGY
  15. 15. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>place at table/ chair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>independent work area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>place when lining up </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>locker/cubby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mail folder or drawer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bins with tasks and materials </li></ul></ul>GLOBAL STRATEGY
  16. 16. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>SCHEDULES </li></ul><ul><li>A schedule answers the questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where do I go? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It may also help to answer: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will be there? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will happen? </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>A schedule teaches a student to anticipate events and to organize them in time. </li></ul><ul><li>There is less anxiety and frustration when the student understands what will happen next, and when he will get to engage in pleasurable activities. </li></ul><ul><li>The student can wait for preferred activities much better if he knows that he can count on those activities at a certain time. </li></ul>
  18. 18. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Schedules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach the concept that activities are separate and distinct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach “First-Then” concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish routines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the day predictable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give advance warning of transitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let the student know when breaks and pleasurable activities will occur, as well as work-related activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draw on strengths in sequential memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide flexibility </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Visual Schedules: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Range in complexity depending upon the student. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ First – Then” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Partial day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole day </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Represent information using (in order of complexity): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Icons/ line drawings (e.g., Boardmaker software program) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures + words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Print only </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Visual Schedules – typical example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each student has an individual picture schedule, most often located at his independent work area. The tagboard strip holding the schedule pictures is the student’s personal color and/or has his photo or printed name at the top. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The pictures are attached to the schedule strip with Velcro, and can be removed and carried to the next location/activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A larger, identical picture is taped at each location within the room, and has several Velcro dots underneath, where the student attaches his schedule picture. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><ul><li>At the conclusion of each activity, the adult gives the student a “check schedule” card (depending upon the student’s level, this may be a small tagboard strip of the student’s individual color, possibly with his name, or simply a checkmark or other visual cue). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The student goes to his schedule, puts the “check” card in an attached envelope or cup, removes the top picture from the schedule, takes it to the illustrated location, and places it on one of the Velcro dots. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Variations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stationary (stays in one location, as described above) or portable (carried by the student to each location) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual or group: A group schedule is typically used only for the highest level students who can manage a larger environment and general, rather than personalized, cues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Top to bottom or left to right: Left to right corresponds to the sequence for reading; top to bottom is the format typically used for lists </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>There are many ways to represent the schedule. It should be in whatever format is most meaningful for the particular student. As it becomes possible, take steps toward a format that is convenient and similar to what is used by same-age peers. </li></ul>
  25. 25. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Routine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check the schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to the location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Follow the system in place for completing the activity </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>REMINDER: Schedule – Answers questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where do I go? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Work System: Answers questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do I do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do I accomplish my work? </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>WORK SYSTEM : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A highly structured method for presenting work which allows the student to work independently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporates a consistent routine for accomplishing a series of tasks – academic or practical life skills. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Most commonly used in independent work stations . In this application, it includes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where to find the tasks that need to be completed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where to do the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where to put each task once it is done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In what order to do the tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What to do when all the work is finished </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>The work system “talks” to the child. When the student arrives at his independent work station, the set-up should “tell” him what it is he needs to do without any extra explanations or directions from the teacher. </li></ul>
  30. 30. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>4 Questions to be answered by the work system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. What do I have to do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. How much do I have to do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. How do I know when I’m finished? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. What do I do – or what do I get - when I’m finished? </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Example – physical setup: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student desk labeled with a “work” icon and a strip holding removable cards (Velcro) with numbers 1, 2, 3, and “check schedule” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelf to left of desk with three boxes/bins containing tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each bin is numbered 1, 2, or 3 and has a Velcro dot next to the number </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large box to right of desk is labeled “Finished” </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Example – process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student removes card with number 1 from the strip on the desk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attaches to Velcro next to matching number 1 on the first bin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes the task from the bin and puts it on his desk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Completes the task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puts the task in the “Finished” box </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeats process for number 2, then number 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes remaining “check schedule” card and goes to his schedule to see what he needs to do next </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>4 Questions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. What do I have to do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The tasks in the bins </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. How much do I have to do? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. How do I know when I’m finished? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All the tasks are in the “Finished” box </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. What do I do when I’m finished? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check my schedule </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Other examples for connecting the work system to the tasks to be completed: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Match colors, shapes, or symbols (letters, numbers) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take tasks from “Work” bin/folder, place in “Finished” bin/folder when done </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take tasks in order from a divided file-holder </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>The goal of the independent work station is have a set place where the student accomplishes work independently, with enough structure and visual cues to eliminate the need for adult assistance and prompting. Though initial teaching will be necessary for the student to learn the process for his work system, the adult should reduce her involvement as quickly as possible. </li></ul>SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS
  36. 36. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Tasks and skills are taught in the 1:1 teaching setting. Once they are mastered, they can be transferred to independent work to both reinforce the skill and to reinforce working independently. </li></ul>
  37. 37. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Other applications of a work system: </li></ul><ul><li>The steps of a bathroom routine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull down clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use toilet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wipe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pull up clothing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wash hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dry hands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put paper towel in trash </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check schedule </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>The steps of an entrance/locker routine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take off backpack and coat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open backpack </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notebook and lunch in baskets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coat in locker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Backpack in locker </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check schedule </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Performing a classroom job (attendance) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look around group table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place each student’s picture (or name) under “At School” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place other pictures (or names) under “At Home” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take attendance to office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Check schedule </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Common formats </li></ul><ul><li>Each picture or word/phrase for steps of the routine is attached to a laminated card with Velcro </li></ul><ul><li>As each step is completed, it is removed and placed in envelope or plastic bag attached to the back or bottom of the card </li></ul><ul><li>The pictures or words/phrases are glued to the right side of a card, then laminated; a flap opens and closes over each step </li></ul>
  41. 41. SCHEDULES AND WORK SYSTEMS <ul><li>Common formats </li></ul><ul><li>As each step is completed, the flap is closed (Velcro dot) </li></ul><ul><li>The pictures or words/phrases are glued to the card, then laminated. As each step is completed, it is crossed off using an erasable marker </li></ul>
  43. 43. INSTRUCTIONAL ACCOMMODATIONS <ul><li>Incorporate visual organization , visual clarity , and visual instructions into teaching activities to help students learn skills and to perform them as independently as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual Organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organize the space and materials, make it easy to follow the sequence of steps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit the area and materials to what is needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make the purpose of each section and component clear </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. <ul><ul><li>Use containers, divided sections, etc. to separate tasks and their component parts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual Clarity – Highlight important information to clarify concepts and help focus attention on the most relevant information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: color coding; labeling important categories </li></ul></ul>INSTRUCTIONAL ACCOMMODATIONS
  45. 45. <ul><li>Visual Instructions – Provide the student with information about what to do and the sequence of steps to complete the task. Visual instructions will help the student to be flexible and to generalize a skill. </li></ul><ul><li>Can include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures/ photos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample product </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written instructions </li></ul></ul>INSTRUCTIONAL ACCOMMODATIONS
  46. 46. CREATING TASKS FOR ACADEMICS <ul><li>Begin with emerging skills </li></ul><ul><li>Present tasks in a way that uses the student’s strengths; build in support for weaknesses </li></ul>
  47. 47. CREATING TASKS FOR ACADEMICS <ul><li>Typical developmental sequence of concepts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Matching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Copying a simple model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Go together” (sorting objects/ pictures/ symbols into categories) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeating pattern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More advanced sorting (alphabetizing, numerical order) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Following directions to carry out complex tasks </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. CREATING TASKS FOR ACADEMICS <ul><li>Reading vocabulary </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically, because of strengths in visual skills, and weaknesses in auditory processing and language skills, students with autism become much stronger readers using a sight word approach rather than phonics . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To help strengthen the association between a word and its meaning, pair words with pictures </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. CREATING TASKS FOR ACADEMICS <ul><li>Reading comprehension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receptive and expressive language weaknesses make reading comprehension difficult for students with autism. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inferential comprehension typically remains very difficult for even the highest functioning individuals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty with putting ideas into words to communicate knowledge and thoughts is a core obstacle for students trying to express what they understand. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. CREATING TASKS FOR ACADEMICS <ul><li>Developmental sequence for reading comprehension activities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose the correct picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fill in the blank (choose word from word bank) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose the correct sentence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence the ideas presented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Locate the needed information in a passage and write the word/phrase/sentence to answer a basic question </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate own knowledge and ideas in response to questions or a graphic organizer </li></ul></ul>
  51. 51. CREATING TASKS FOR ACADEMICS <ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Writing is often the most difficult academic skill for students with autism because of the combined factors of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global language weaknesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficulty putting ideas into words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fine motor and motor planning weaknesses that affect handwriting </li></ul></ul>
  52. 52. CREATING TASKS FOR ACADEMICS <ul><li>Many of the strategies listed for reading comprehension activities can also be used for other writing activities. Additionally, alternatives to handwriting can allow the student to communicate his ideas and knowledge more effectively. </li></ul>
  53. 53. CREATING TASKS FOR ACADEMICS <ul><li>Alternatives to handwriting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-printed words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Letter tiles or stamps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alpha Smart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>With these accommodations, some individuals with autism learn to communicate much more effectively through written language than through spoken language. </li></ul>
  54. 54. CREATING TASKS FOR ACADEMICS <ul><li>Math </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some individuals with autism have difficulty grasping the concept of quantity , and therefore with the related concepts of basic mathematical operations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Touch Math method makes adding and subtracting a very concrete and systematic process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students who can learn to count can carry out basic addition and subtraction operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch Math can also be applied to money skills </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. FOSTERING INDEPENDENCE <ul><li>The goal of all we have covered so far is to enable the student to be as independent as possible, and to reduce the dependence on prompts from others in order to carry out activities. When prompts are needed, use only what is necessary to allow the student to carry out the activity, and move as quickly as possible toward increasing independence. </li></ul>
  56. 56. FOSTERING INDEPENDENCE <ul><li>Prompting: “Least to most hierarchy” of prompts = highest to lowest level of independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual cues in the environment allow the highest level of independence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All the below require another person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gesture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal (spoken) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical (hand-over-hand; shadowing) </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. LANGUAGE DIFFICULTIES <ul><li>Communication – An exchange of information between a person communicating and a listener. </li></ul>
  58. 58. LANGUAGE DIFFICULTIES <ul><li>The individual with autism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has difficulties with both receptive and expressive language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>processes language at a slower pace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lacks understanding of body language, gestures, facial expressions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>has difficulty with the communication process (talk, listen, think, respond) </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. LANGUAGE DIFFICULTIES <ul><ul><li>has difficulty with conversational turn-taking, which includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Joint attention – “We are both paying attention to the same thing at the same time.” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reciprocity – “We are both partners in this conversation. We take turns talking and listening.” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  60. 60. COMMUNICATION SKILLS <ul><li>Request </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory aids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To end an activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reject or Refuse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Events/ activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Person </li></ul></ul>
  61. 61. COMMUNICATION SKILLS <ul><li>Comment </li></ul><ul><li>Give information </li></ul><ul><li>Seek information </li></ul><ul><li>Greet </li></ul><ul><li>Respond to social overtures </li></ul><ul><li>Initiate social interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Take turns </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate </li></ul>
  62. 62. COMMUNICATION SKILLS <ul><li>Steps for communicating a message </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain a listener’s attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct a request, message, or response (requesting is an earlier skill) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wait for response – Was communication successful? </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. COMMUNICATION SKILLS <ul><li>Snack time – generally best place to begin working on basic communication skills. Child is motivated, and subject of communication is concrete. </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>Common early communication formats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_________ I want __________ (name) (item) Photo choices Photo choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I feel _____________ (emotions, ill, tired, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I need _________ (break, walk, sensory bin, etc.) </li></ul></ul>COMMUNICATION SKILLS
  65. 65. <ul><li>Accommodations: Use pictures/ objects/ photos/ print for receptive and expressive language. </li></ul>COMMUNICATION SKILLS
  66. 66. <ul><li>Sequence of communication behaviors : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional behaviors - e.g., crying, tantrums </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gestures – e.g., reaching, pointing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Object exchange – e.g., hand adult a bowl or cup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Picture exchange - picture “tells” the listener what is desired </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence (or phrase) strips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal request (or alternative form of communication, e.g., sign language) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanded verbal communication </li></ul></ul>COMMUNICATION SKILLS
  67. 67. <ul><li>Methods and tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PECS - Picture Exchange Communication System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ALS (Aided Language Stimulation) communication boards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictured or printed choices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sentence starters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scripts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social stories </li></ul></ul>COMMUNICATION SKILLS
  68. 68. <ul><li>Accommodating for difficulties: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce spoken language </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Especially when confused or distressed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use simple, concrete, consistent phrases/ sentences </li></ul>COMMUNICATION SKILLS
  69. 69. SENSORY ISSUES <ul><li>Sensory Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May be underactive: tired, uninterested, unengaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be overactive: restless, distracted by excessive energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repetitive movements persist despite efforts to stop them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student may be clumsy or have poor fine and/or gross motor coordination </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. SENSORY ISSUES <ul><li>Needs : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Space/ distance from others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quiet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure on the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engrossing activities that help to calm the student or to increase alertness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory breaks built into the schedule </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. SENSORY ISSUES <ul><li>Accommodations, strategies, and items to help with sensory regulation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quiet area away from others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>headphones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weighted vest, hug vest, spandex clothing items </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weighted blanket, lap weights, weighted “collar” across shoulders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body sock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bean bag chairs </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. SENSORY ISSUES <ul><ul><li>sensory objects (tactile, visual) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seat cushions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>therapy ball </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>swing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>music (including favorite songs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>books (especially repetitive; include favorites) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heavy work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relaxation sequences </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. SENSORY ISSUES <ul><li>Sensory strategies to increase arousal/alertness: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on changing sensations (unpredictable, varying input) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Movement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fast, irregular movements on swing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>change rhythm while doing power walks, dancing, trampoline, bouncing on ball, reaching and stretching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stand and turn around </li></ul></ul>
  74. 74. SENSORY ISSUES <ul><ul><li>Movement: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>animal walks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tug of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>imitate head movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gross motor activities: jumping, hopping, skipping; run to target and back </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stand or sit on ball while working </li></ul></ul>
  75. 75. SENSORY ISSUES <ul><li>Tactile: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sandpaper, thera-putty, gel in baggie, cold water play, fidgets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vibration: squiggle pen, vibrating pillow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Visual: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>flashlight to highlight paper, brightly colored paper, varying font </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auditory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fast music, changing pace </li></ul></ul>
  76. 76. SENSORY ISSUES <ul><li>Olfactory: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>peppermint </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oral: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>battery-operated toothbrush </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spicy, sour, crunchy foods to chew on </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ice water </li></ul></ul>
  77. 77. BEHAVIOR ISSUES <ul><li>Emotional and Behavioral Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional responses can be intense and uninhibited </li></ul><ul><li>Moods can change quickly, often without any identifiable cause </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions may not be appropriate to the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety is often a problem; student may have unusual fears </li></ul>
  78. 78. BEHAVIOR ISSUES <ul><li>Rigidity is often tied to strong emotion </li></ul><ul><li>Explosive outbursts are common and may last a long time </li></ul><ul><li>The individual has difficulty calming down once upset </li></ul><ul><li>Distraction is often the best tool </li></ul><ul><li>Short attention span for other than intense interests; easily distracted by internal thoughts and feelings, as well as environmental sights, sounds, smells, etc. </li></ul>
  79. 79. BEHAVIOR ISSUES <ul><li>Needs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very clear rules and expectations posted at relevant locations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent opportunities to practice positive behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear, immediate feedback and reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  80. 80. BEHAVIOR ISSUES <ul><li>Tools: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures illustrating positive behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavior charts showing progress to positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social stories </li></ul></ul>
  81. 81. BEHAVIOR ISSUES <ul><li>Reinforcement/ consequences must: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be quick </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sense </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Matter to the child </li></ul></ul>
  82. 82. BEHAVIOR ISSUES <ul><li>Specific practice of positive behaviors and frequent reinforcement are important tools in helping students with autism learn social skills, self-control, and responsiveness to external demands. These skills are essential for gaining the social acceptance that will provide the best opportunities for inclusion in community and vocational roles. </li></ul>
  83. 83. BEHAVIOR ISSUES <ul><li>Because of difficulties with reading social cues, regulating feelings and behavior, and generalizing skills from one context to another, individuals with autism need to systematically learn how to behave in specific situations. </li></ul>
  84. 84. BEHAVIOR ISSUES <ul><li>Social feedback typically does not have the same “power” that it does for individuals without autism, and therefore careful management of positive and negative consequences becomes necessary for optimal learning to occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences should emphasize the reinforcement of positive behaviors rather than the punishment of negative behaviors. </li></ul>
  85. 85. BEHAVIOR ISSUES <ul><li>Reinforcement is used to increase or strengthen desired behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive reinforcement occurs when the student increases behavior to get something he wants . </li></ul>
  86. 86. BEHAVIOR ISSUES <ul><li>Examples of positive reinforcers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consumables – desirable things to eat, drink, or use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tangibles – desirable things to touch, hold, or keep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tokens – neutral objects to be exchanged for desirable things </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social – interactions such as smiles, touch, praise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural – classroom privileges, free time, activity choices </li></ul></ul>
  87. 87. BEHAVIOR ISSUES <ul><li>Punishment is used to decrease or weaken undesired behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of punishment appropriate in school settings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcorrection – requiring student to complete a task beyond the natural parameters of the consequences of his behavior (e.g., tears and drops pieces of paper -> required to pick up own paper bits and place in trash, plus all other scraps from the floor). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response cost – Loss of an expected reinforcer, token, or privilege </li></ul></ul>
  88. 88. OUR PROGRAM <ul><li>Classroom staffing </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal ratio: 5-6 students, with close to 1:1 ratio of staff to students for most of the day </li></ul>
  89. 89. OUR PROGRAM <ul><li>Specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Speech/Language Pathologist – addresses broad range of functional and social communication, need for alternative forms of communication (e.g., high-tech augmentative communication devices (computerized talkers), and low-tech (Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) or Aided Language Stimulation (ALS) boards) </li></ul>
  90. 90. OUR PROGRAM <ul><li>Specialists </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational Therapist - addresses both sensory and fine motor needs </li></ul><ul><li>Social Worker – teaches social skills, creates social stories and other tools for developing social skills </li></ul>
  91. 91. OUR PROGRAM <ul><li>Specialists </li></ul><ul><li>School Psychologist – evaluates learning strengths and weakness and helps with adapting instruction accordingly; addresses behavior issues </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted Physical Education Teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Music Therapist </li></ul><ul><li>Art Therapist </li></ul>
  92. 92. OUR PROGRAM <ul><li>Sample Day </li></ul><ul><li>Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Locker routine </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory time – regulation/ calming/ alerting </li></ul><ul><li>Schedule review </li></ul><ul><li>Group activity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greeting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Answering questions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asking questions, making comments, giving compliments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calendar/ weather </li></ul></ul>
  93. 93. OUR PROGRAM <ul><li>Sample Day </li></ul><ul><li>Rotations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent work station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1:1 instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Independent reading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Play/leisure </li></ul></ul>
  94. 94. OUR PROGRAM <ul><li>Sample Day </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music/ books on tape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills addressed by related services (specialists) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fine motor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social skills </li></ul></ul></ul>
  95. 95. OUR PROGRAM <ul><li>Sample Day </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom and office jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Specials (each is typically once or twice a week for 60 minutes total) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapted Physical Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music Therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Art </li></ul></ul>
  96. 96. OUR PROGRAM <ul><li>Sample Day </li></ul><ul><li>Related services (typically once or twice a week for 60 to 120 minutes total) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech/language group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social skills group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooking group </li></ul></ul>
  97. 97. OUR PROGRAM <ul><li>Sample Day </li></ul><ul><li>“ Peer buddies” – students from regular education classes join students with autism for games, reading, or other organized activities </li></ul><ul><li>“ My Day” closing – review of the day’s activities, with a sheet to go home to parents </li></ul>
  98. 98. <ul><li>QUESTIONS </li></ul>