O. Ivar Lovaas Model of ABA: What is it?

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A brief description of Lovaas MoABA & DTT: Lovaas the man & the method.

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  • Lovaas is alive and well @ 81 years this May 8. Last available for interviews w/Lou Diamond Phillips on 4/25/08 at a Press conference w/Dr. Greeshop???? To reveal four individuals who completed intensive interventions for years (maybe over a decade) and no longer exhibit characteristics of autism (per DSM-IV).
  • O. Ivar Lovaas Model of ABA: What is it?

    1. 1. Lovaas Model of Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) Paula R. Ulloa ED657 Advanced Techniques: Multiple & Severe Disabilities July 11, 2008 Ole Ivar Lovaas, Ph.D.
    2. 2. Why are we here? <ul><li>Gain an understanding of how Lovaas and ABA are related. </li></ul><ul><li>Define Applied Behavioral Analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how Discrete Trial Teaching (DTT) and ABA are related. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the components of DTT. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Ole Ivar Lovaas <ul><li>“ His”-story </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical exploration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1965 aversive treatment methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral focus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied Behavioral Analysis </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Lovaas Model aka Home-Based Behavior Intervention or UCLA Model of ABA <ul><li>Intended specifically for autism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spectrum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 ½ - 5 years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home-based program: STAGE 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Home-based program: STAGE 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Lovaas Method: STAGE 3 & BEYOND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School-aged (5++) </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. A pplied B ehavioral A nalysis <ul><li>ABA is a scientific discipline based on the theory of behaviorism (Behavior Analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of ABA </li></ul><ul><li>Observe what is worthy of scientific investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal events are private & cannot be known by others. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement and punishment adequately model the way the world works. </li></ul><ul><li>Principles of Lovaas Method </li></ul><ul><li>A behavioral emphasis </li></ul><ul><li>Family participation </li></ul><ul><li>One-to-one instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity </li></ul>
    6. 6. D iscrete T rial T eaching <ul><li>Teaching Strategy Based on ABA </li></ul><ul><li>DTT breaks down the task into specific skills and teaches them in a consistent manner. </li></ul><ul><li>DTT Involves: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break Skill into Smaller Parts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching sub-skill @ a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Repeated Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consistency in Teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompting & Prompt Fading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of reinforcement procedures </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Relationship between… Behavior Analysis (BA) A scientific discipline based on the theory of behaviorism The Lovaas Model (Applied BA) Rigorous, peer reviewed research, with long-term & follow-up studies, proving its effectiveness as an intervention in treating children with autism DTT (Approach) Teaching unit consisting of an antecedent, behavior, and a consequence to the behavior
    8. 8. ABA Umbrella PRT PECS FCT DTT NET
    9. 9. It’s discrete because there is a clear beginning & a clear end Parts of a Trial: <ul><li>= I nstruction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple and concise instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1x Rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide reinforcement for good performance & attending </li></ul></ul><ul><li>= R esponse </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3 - 5 seconds (variable) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>= F eedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correct Response = Positive FB + Reinforcer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorrect/No Response = Corrective FB </li></ul></ul>http://www.youtube.com/v/NbVG8lYEsNs&hl=en&fs=1 DTT
    10. 11. Prompts <ul><li>An additional stimulus that facilitates correct responding </li></ul><ul><li>Errorless Learning vs. No No Prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Prompts must accompany instruction or occur before response </li></ul><ul><li>Use the least intrusive prompt & fade </li></ul><ul><li>Prompted trials = mild reinforcement </li></ul><ul><li>Prompted trials should be followed by non-prompted or reduced prompted trial </li></ul>
    11. 12. Types of Prompts <ul><li>Within Stimulus Prompt ( Prompt within the drill itself) </li></ul><ul><li>Positional Prompt (Proximity) </li></ul><ul><li>Gestural Prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Partial Physical Prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Full Physical Prompt </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal Cues </li></ul><ul><li>Inadvertent Prompts </li></ul>(Video)
    12. 13. Improving the Response Quality Differential Reinforcement (reinforcer assessment) <ul><li>A+ (strong-to die for): Correct answer/good attention and engaged. </li></ul><ul><li>B (moderate): Correct answer, attention is off. </li></ul><ul><li>C (mild): Incorrect answer but good attention and really tried. </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthens response), Motivator, Tangibles (age appropriate) + social praise </li></ul><ul><li>Intermittent Schedule of Reinforcement – most powerful </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforcement vs. Bribery </li></ul><ul><li>Inadvertent/inappropriate reinforcement </li></ul>Reinforcers Anything that increases the likelihood a behavior will occur again
    13. 14. What do we know now? <ul><li>Behavioral Analysis is the theory </li></ul><ul><li>Lovaas developed a specific ABA methodology </li></ul><ul><li>DTT is the ABA intervention strategy used within the Lovaas model </li></ul><ul><li>The Lovaas Model is scientifically proven to work with individuals with autism </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Leaf, R. & McEachin, J. A Work In Progress . </li></ul><ul><li>New York, NY: DRL Books, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>The Texas Observer Journal http://www.texasobserver.org/article.php?aid=2780 </li></ul><ul><li>Families for Early Autism Treatment (BC): http:// featbc.org/www/featbc/INFOSOURCES.html </li></ul><ul><li>Autism Treatment Info: http://www.autismtreatment.info/what+is+a+discrete+trial.aspx </li></ul><ul><li>Guam Public School System Division of Special Education Autism Program </li></ul>References
    15. 16. References <ul><li>Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivar_Lovaas </li></ul><ul><li>About.com: http:// autism.about.com/od/treatmentoptions/f/WhatisABA.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Youtube.com: http:// youtube.com/watch?v =593_9tGB3hs&feature=related </li></ul><ul><li>National Autistic Society, UK: http://www.nas.org.uk/nas/jsp/polopoly.jsp?d=297&a=3345 </li></ul><ul><li>Applied Behavioral Associates, LLC: www.aba4kids.org </li></ul>
    16. 17. References <ul><li>Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis (JABA): http:// seab.envmed.rochester.edu/jaba / </li></ul><ul><li>Autismconnect: http://www.autismconnect.org/interviews.asp?section=000100040001&id=4096 </li></ul><ul><li>AOL video: http://video.aol.com/video-detail/lovaas-institute-partners-in-possibilities/3923340976 </li></ul><ul><li>National Autism Association: http://www.nationalautismassociation.org/advisoryei.php </li></ul><ul><li>Association for Behavior Analysis International: www.abainternational.org </li></ul>
    17. 18. (Ancillary) Lovaas Related contacts… <ul><li>Goliath Business Knowledge on Demand: http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-198358/The phantom-chaser-for- Ivar.html </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB): www.bacb.com </li></ul><ul><li>The Lovaas Institute: www.lovaas.com </li></ul><ul><li>All About ABA (Applied Behavioral Analysis): autism.about.com </li></ul><ul><li>Autism-PDD Resource Network: www.autism-pdd.net </li></ul><ul><li>Autism Resources (John Wobus' Site): www.vaporia.com/autism </li></ul><ul><li>Wrightslaw: www.wrightslaw.com </li></ul>
    18. 19. (Ancillary) Lovaas Related contacts… <ul><li>United Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Parents for the Early intervention of Autism in Children (PEACH) The Brackens, London Road, Ascot, Berkshire SL5 8BE Tel: +44 (0)1344 882248 Fax: +44 (0)1344 882391 Email: [email_address] Website: www.peach.org.uk </li></ul><ul><li>UK Young Autism Project Room 107, 20 Mortlake High Street, London SW14 8JN Tel: +44 (0)20 8392 3931 Fax: +44 (0)20 8392 3931 Email: [email_address] Website: www.ukyap.org </li></ul><ul><li>United States </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. O. Ivar Lovaas, Lovaas Institute, 11500 West Olympic Boulevard, Suite 318, Los Angeles, CA 90064, USA Tel: +1 310 914 5433 (West coast) Tel: +1 856 616 9442 (East coast) Fax: +1 310 914 5433 Email: [email_address] Website: www.lovaas.com </li></ul><ul><li>Norway </li></ul><ul><li>Professor Svein Eikeseth, Akershus University College, PO Box 423, N-2001 Lillestrom, Norway. Tel: +47 64 84 9000; Mobile: +47 922 10 988; Fax: + 47 64 84 9001 Email: [email_address] </li></ul>
    19. 20. Lovaas Method aka Home-Based Behavior Intervention or UCLA Model of ABA <ul><li>Early treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Home-based program: STAGE 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40 hrs/wk of intensive therapy (3 personnel) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One-to-one for six-eight hrs/day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two-three hour teaching sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Five-seven days a week </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family participation (generalization of skills) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills broken down into small achieveable tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taught in a very structured manner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accompanied by praise and reinforcement.  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce/replace aggressive/self-stimulatory behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Progresssion from basic self help & language skills to.. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… non-verbal & verbal imitation skills & beginnings of toy play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expressive and early abstract language </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactive play with peers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home-based program: STAGE 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Lovaas Method: STAGE 3 & BEYOND </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In more advanced stages of the intervention the child can be taught at home and school </li></ul></ul>(Ancillary)
    20. 21. DTT Process A Instruction B Behavior C Feedback Reinforcement? Prompt 3-5 secs 2-3 secs. (Ancillary)

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