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Sensory processing disorder 2

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Presentation expands on the specific problems persons with SPD have. Also gives a checklist of characteristic behaviors and issues in persons w/Sensory Processing.

Published in: Health & Medicine

Sensory processing disorder 2

  1. 1. Sensory Processing DisorderSensory Processing Disorder (SPD)(SPD) By Kimmer Collison-RisBy Kimmer Collison-Ris MSN, FNP-C, WOCN, MS CAMMSN, FNP-C, WOCN, MS CAM
  2. 2. What is SPD?What is SPD?  Sensory Processing is the way theSensory Processing is the way the nervous system receives messagesnervous system receives messages from the senses; converting them intofrom the senses; converting them into motor and behavioral responses.motor and behavioral responses.  SPD is also known as "sensorySPD is also known as "sensory integration dysfunction"integration dysfunction"  SPD sensory signals don't getSPD sensory signals don't get organized into appropriate responsesorganized into appropriate responses  A. Jean Ayres, PhD, compared SPDA. Jean Ayres, PhD, compared SPD to a neurological "traffic jam" thatto a neurological "traffic jam" that prevents certain parts of the brainprevents certain parts of the brain from receiving the information neededfrom receiving the information needed to interpret sensory informationto interpret sensory information correctlycorrectly www.rollingrains.com
  3. 3. SPD & Brain FunctionSPD & Brain Function One study (Ahn, Miller, Milberger, McIntosh, 2004) shows that at least 1 in 20 children’s daily lives is affected by SPD. Another research study (Ben-Sasson, Carter, Briggs-Gowen, 2009) suggests that 1 in every 6 children experiences sensory symptoms that may be significant enough to affect aspects of everyday life functions.
  4. 4. Sensory ProcessingSensory Processing  "Countless bits of sensory"Countless bits of sensory information enter our brain atinformation enter our brain at every moment, not only fromevery moment, not only from our eyes and ears, but alsoour eyes and ears, but also from every place in ourfrom every place in our bodies”.bodies”.  ““The brain must organize andThe brain must organize and integrate all of theseintegrate all of these sensations if a person is tosensations if a person is to move and learn normally.”move and learn normally.” • Williams & Shellenberger's,Williams & Shellenberger's, HowHow Does Your Engine Run? ADoes Your Engine Run? A Leader's Guide to The AlertLeader's Guide to The Alert Program for Self-RegulationProgram for Self-Regulation
  5. 5. SPD…SPD…  most commonly diagnosed inmost commonly diagnosed in childrenchildren  occurs within a broad spectrumoccurs within a broad spectrum of severityof severity  difficulties are chronic, anddifficulties are chronic, and disrupt everyday life for childrendisrupt everyday life for children & adults& adults  Untreated SPD that persistsUntreated SPD that persists into adulthood can affect aninto adulthood can affect an individual's ability to succeed inindividual's ability to succeed in marriage, work, and socialmarriage, work, and social environmentsenvironments
  6. 6. speech-language-pathology-audiology.advanceweb.com
  7. 7. HeredityHeredity  Researchers believe sensory integrationResearchers believe sensory integration issues can be inheritedissues can be inherited  Implies there is a genetic coding for theImplies there is a genetic coding for the causes of SPD.causes of SPD.  Prenatal and birth complications, such asPrenatal and birth complications, such as preemies or fetal alcohol syndrome, havepreemies or fetal alcohol syndrome, have also been blamed for some cases ofalso been blamed for some cases of sensory challengessensory challenges
  8. 8. Environmental FactorsEnvironmental Factors  What appears to contribute to a rise in sensory processing difficulties?What appears to contribute to a rise in sensory processing difficulties?  Exposure to environmental toxinsExposure to environmental toxins  or inability of a child to fight off these toxinsor inability of a child to fight off these toxins  http://www.livestrong.com/article/19379-causes-sensory-processing-disorder/#ixzz1QPUixOhttp://www.livestrong.com/article/19379-causes-sensory-processing-disorder/#ixzz1QPUixO
  9. 9. SPD Common w/Other DisordersSPD Common w/Other Disorders  Sensory processing disorder (SPD) very common in childrenSensory processing disorder (SPD) very common in children  AutismAutism  ADHDADHD  fragile X syndromefragile X syndrome  http://www.livestrong.com/article/19379-causes-sensory-processing-disorder/#ixzz1QPUihttp://www.livestrong.com/article/19379-causes-sensory-processing-disorder/#ixzz1QPUi
  10. 10. Nutritional Deficiences ImpactNutritional Deficiences Impact  Children who commonly haveChildren who commonly have sensory problemssensory problems  picky eaterspicky eaters  or have food allergiesor have food allergies  Many parents believe a lackMany parents believe a lack of certain nutrients plays aof certain nutrients plays a role in sensory integrationrole in sensory integration issuesissues • http://www.livestrong.com/article/1937http://www.livestrong.com/article/1937
  11. 11. DefinitionDefinition  Sensory Processing DisorderSensory Processing Disorder (SPD) is(SPD) is  the inability to properlythe inability to properly perceive and interpretperceive and interpret sensory information throughsensory information through the senses that affects dailythe senses that affects daily functioning.functioning.  Previously referred to asPreviously referred to as Sensory IntegrationSensory Integration Dysfunction, SPD is not oneDysfunction, SPD is not one specific disorder.specific disorder.  http://www.child-behavior-guide.cohttp://www.child-behavior-guide.co
  12. 12. "Five Caveats""Five Caveats"  1. "The child with sensory dysfunction does not1. "The child with sensory dysfunction does not necessarily exhibit every characteristic.necessarily exhibit every characteristic.  ie: child with vestibular dysfunction may have poor balance butie: child with vestibular dysfunction may have poor balance but good muscle tone."good muscle tone."  2. "Sometimes the child will show characteristics of a2. "Sometimes the child will show characteristics of a dysfunction one day but not the next.dysfunction one day but not the next.  ie: child with proprioceptive problems may trip over every bump inie: child with proprioceptive problems may trip over every bump in the pavement on Friday yet score every soccer goal on Saturday.the pavement on Friday yet score every soccer goal on Saturday.  Inconsistency is a hallmark of every neurologicalInconsistency is a hallmark of every neurological dysfunction.dysfunction. "" 3. "The child may exhibit characteristics of a particular3. "The child may exhibit characteristics of a particular dysfunction yet not have that dysfunction.dysfunction yet not have that dysfunction.  Ie: the child who typically withdraws from being touched may seemIe: the child who typically withdraws from being touched may seem to be hypersensitive to tactile stimulation but may, instead, haveto be hypersensitive to tactile stimulation but may, instead, have an emotional problem."an emotional problem."
  13. 13. ““5 Caveats”....5 Caveats”....  4. "The child may be both hypersensitive and4. "The child may be both hypersensitive and hyposensitive.hyposensitive.  ie: the child may be extremely sensitive to light touch, jerkingie: the child may be extremely sensitive to light touch, jerking away from a soft pat on the shoulder, while being ratheraway from a soft pat on the shoulder, while being rather indifferent to the deep pain of an inocculation."indifferent to the deep pain of an inocculation."  5. "Everyone has some sensory integration problems5. "Everyone has some sensory integration problems now and then, because no one is well regulated all thenow and then, because no one is well regulated all the time.time.  All kinds of stimuli can temporarily disrupt normalAll kinds of stimuli can temporarily disrupt normal functioning of the brain,functioning of the brain,  either by overloading it of sensory stimulationeither by overloading it of sensory stimulation  Or by depriving it of sensory stimulation."Or by depriving it of sensory stimulation." • Carol Stock KranowitzCarol Stock Kranowitz ""The Out-Of-Sync ChildThe Out-Of-Sync Child"" (1995)(1995)
  14. 14. Signs Of Tactile DysfunctionSigns Of Tactile Dysfunction  __ becomes fearful, anxious or aggressive with__ becomes fearful, anxious or aggressive with light or unexpected touchlight or unexpected touch __ as an infant, did/does not like to be held or__ as an infant, did/does not like to be held or cuddled; may arch back, cry, and pull awaycuddled; may arch back, cry, and pull away __ distressed when diaper is being, or needs to__ distressed when diaper is being, or needs to be, changedbe, changed __ appears fearful of, or avoids standing in__ appears fearful of, or avoids standing in close proximity to other people or peersclose proximity to other people or peers (especially in lines)(especially in lines) __ becomes frightened when touched from__ becomes frightened when touched from behind or by someone/something they can notbehind or by someone/something they can not see (such as under a blanket)see (such as under a blanket) __ complains about having hair brushed; may__ complains about having hair brushed; may be very picky about using a particular brushbe very picky about using a particular brush __ bothered by rough bed sheets (i.e., if old__ bothered by rough bed sheets (i.e., if old and "bumpy")and "bumpy") __ avoids group situations for fear of the__ avoids group situations for fear of the unexpected touchunexpected touch __ resists friendly or affectionate touch from__ resists friendly or affectionate touch from anyone besides parents or siblings (andanyone besides parents or siblings (and sometimes them too!)sometimes them too!)
  15. 15. Signs Of Tactile Dfxn cont.Signs Of Tactile Dfxn cont.  __ prefers hugs__ prefers hugs __ a raindrop, water from the shower, or wind blowing on the skin may feel__ a raindrop, water from the shower, or wind blowing on the skin may feel like torture and produce adverse and avoidance reactionslike torture and produce adverse and avoidance reactions __ may overreact to minor cuts, scrapes, and or bug bites__ may overreact to minor cuts, scrapes, and or bug bites __ avoids touching certain textures of material (blankets, rugs, stuffed__ avoids touching certain textures of material (blankets, rugs, stuffed animals)animals) __ refuses to wear new or stiff clothes, clothes with rough textures,__ refuses to wear new or stiff clothes, clothes with rough textures, turtlenecks, jeans, hats, or belts, etc.turtlenecks, jeans, hats, or belts, etc. __ avoids using hands for play__ avoids using hands for play __ avoids/dislikes/aversive to "messy play", i.e., sand, mud, water, glue,__ avoids/dislikes/aversive to "messy play", i.e., sand, mud, water, glue, glitter, playdoh, slime, shaving cream/funny foam etc.glitter, playdoh, slime, shaving cream/funny foam etc. __ will be distressed by dirty hands and want to wipe or wash them__ will be distressed by dirty hands and want to wipe or wash them frequentlyfrequently __ excessively ticklish__ excessively ticklish __ distressed by seams in socks and may refuse to wear them__ distressed by seams in socks and may refuse to wear them
  16. 16. Signs Of Tactile Dfxn cont.Signs Of Tactile Dfxn cont.  __dislikes kisses, will "wipe off" place where kissed__dislikes kisses, will "wipe off" place where kissed __ distressed by clothes rubbing on skin; may want to wear shorts and short__ distressed by clothes rubbing on skin; may want to wear shorts and short sleeves year round, toddlers may prefer to be naked and pull diapers andsleeves year round, toddlers may prefer to be naked and pull diapers and clothes off constantlyclothes off constantly __ or, may want to wear long sleeve shirts and long pants year round to__ or, may want to wear long sleeve shirts and long pants year round to avoid having skin exposedavoid having skin exposed __ distressed about having face washed__ distressed about having face washed __ distressed about having hair, toenails, or fingernails cut__ distressed about having hair, toenails, or fingernails cut __ resists brushing teeth and is extremely fearful of the dentist__ resists brushing teeth and is extremely fearful of the dentist __ is a picky eater, only eating certain tastes and textures; mixed textures__ is a picky eater, only eating certain tastes and textures; mixed textures tend to be avoided as well as hot or cold foods; resists trying new foodstend to be avoided as well as hot or cold foods; resists trying new foods __ may refuse to walk barefoot on grass or sand__ may refuse to walk barefoot on grass or sand __ may walk on toes only__ may walk on toes only
  17. 17. Hyposensitivity To Touch (Under-Responsive)Hyposensitivity To Touch (Under-Responsive)  __ may crave touch, needs to touch everything and__ may crave touch, needs to touch everything and everyoneeveryone __ is not aware of being touched/bumped unless done with__ is not aware of being touched/bumped unless done with extreme force or intensityextreme force or intensity __ is not bothered by injuries, like cuts and bruises, and__ is not bothered by injuries, like cuts and bruises, and shows no distress with shots (may even say they loveshows no distress with shots (may even say they love getting shots!)getting shots!) __ may not be aware that hands or face are dirty or feel__ may not be aware that hands or face are dirty or feel his/her nose runninghis/her nose running __ may be self-abusive; pinching, biting, or banging his own__ may be self-abusive; pinching, biting, or banging his own headhead __ mouths objects excessively__ mouths objects excessively
  18. 18. Hyposensitivity To Touch (Under-Responsive)Hyposensitivity To Touch (Under-Responsive)  ____ frequently hurts other children or pets whilefrequently hurts other children or pets while playingplaying __ repeatedly touches surfaces or objects that__ repeatedly touches surfaces or objects that are soothing (i.e., blanket)are soothing (i.e., blanket) __ seeks out surfaces and textures that provide__ seeks out surfaces and textures that provide strong tactile feedbackstrong tactile feedback __ thoroughly enjoys and seeks out messy play__ thoroughly enjoys and seeks out messy play __ craves vibrating or strong sensory input__ craves vibrating or strong sensory input __ has a preference and craving for excessively__ has a preference and craving for excessively spicy, sweet, sour, or salty foodsspicy, sweet, sour, or salty foods
  19. 19. Poor Tactile Perception And DiscriminationPoor Tactile Perception And Discrimination  __ has difficulty with fine motor tasks such as buttoning, zipping,__ has difficulty with fine motor tasks such as buttoning, zipping, and fastening clothesand fastening clothes __ may not be able to identify which part of their body was touched__ may not be able to identify which part of their body was touched if they were not lookingif they were not looking __ may be afraid of the dark__ may be afraid of the dark __ may be a messy dresser; looks disheveled, does not notice__ may be a messy dresser; looks disheveled, does not notice pants are twisted, shirt is half un tucked, shoes are untied, one pantpants are twisted, shirt is half un tucked, shoes are untied, one pant leg is up and one is down, etc.leg is up and one is down, etc. __ has difficulty using scissors, crayons, or silverware__ has difficulty using scissors, crayons, or silverware __ continues to mouth objects to explore them even after age two__ continues to mouth objects to explore them even after age two __ has difficulty figuring out physical characteristics of objects;__ has difficulty figuring out physical characteristics of objects; shape, size, texture, temperature, weight, etc.shape, size, texture, temperature, weight, etc. __ may not be able to identify objects by feel, uses vision to help;__ may not be able to identify objects by feel, uses vision to help; such as, reaching into backpack or desk to retrieve an itemsuch as, reaching into backpack or desk to retrieve an item
  20. 20. Vestibular Sense:Vestibular Sense:  Input from the inner ear about equilibrium,Input from the inner ear about equilibrium, gravitational changes, movementgravitational changes, movement experiences, and position in space.experiences, and position in space. Signs Of Vestibular Dysfunction 1. Hypersensitivity To Movement (Over-Responsive) 2. Hyposensitivity To Movement (Under-Responsive 3. Poor Muscle Tone And/Or Coordination
  21. 21. Hypersensitivity To MovementHypersensitivity To Movement (Over-Responsive)(Over-Responsive)  __ avoids/dislikes playground equipment; i.e., swings, ladders,__ avoids/dislikes playground equipment; i.e., swings, ladders, slides, or merry-go-roundsslides, or merry-go-rounds __ prefers sedentary tasks, moves slowly and cautiously, avoids__ prefers sedentary tasks, moves slowly and cautiously, avoids taking risks, and may appear "wimpy"taking risks, and may appear "wimpy" __ avoids/dislikes elevators and escalators; may prefer sitting while__ avoids/dislikes elevators and escalators; may prefer sitting while they are on them or, actually get motion sickness from themthey are on them or, actually get motion sickness from them __ may physically cling to an adult they trust__ may physically cling to an adult they trust __ may appear terrified of falling even when there is no real risk of it__ may appear terrified of falling even when there is no real risk of it __ afraid of heights, even the height of a curb or step__ afraid of heights, even the height of a curb or step __ fearful of feet leaving the ground__ fearful of feet leaving the ground __ fearful of going up or down stairs or walking on uneven surfaces__ fearful of going up or down stairs or walking on uneven surfaces
  22. 22. Hypersensitivity To MovementHypersensitivity To Movement (Over-Responsive)(Over-Responsive)  __ afraid of being tipped upside down, sideways or backwards; will__ afraid of being tipped upside down, sideways or backwards; will strongly resist getting hair washed over the sinkstrongly resist getting hair washed over the sink __ startles if someone else moves them; i.e., pushing his/her chair__ startles if someone else moves them; i.e., pushing his/her chair closer to the tablecloser to the table __ as an infant, may never have liked baby swings or jumpers__ as an infant, may never have liked baby swings or jumpers __ may be fearful of, and have difficulty riding a bike, jumping,__ may be fearful of, and have difficulty riding a bike, jumping, hopping, or balancing on one foot (especially if eyes are closed)hopping, or balancing on one foot (especially if eyes are closed) __ may have disliked being placed on stomach as an infant__ may have disliked being placed on stomach as an infant __ loses balance easily and may appear clumsy__ loses balance easily and may appear clumsy __ fearful of activities which require good balance__ fearful of activities which require good balance __ avoids rapid or rotating movements__ avoids rapid or rotating movements
  23. 23. Hyposensitivity To MovementHyposensitivity To Movement (Under-Responsive)(Under-Responsive)  __ in constant motion, can't seem to sit still__ in constant motion, can't seem to sit still __ craves fast, spinning, and/or intense movement experiences__ craves fast, spinning, and/or intense movement experiences __ loves being tossed in the air__ loves being tossed in the air __ could spin for hours and never appear to be dizzy__ could spin for hours and never appear to be dizzy __ loves the fast, intense, and/or scary rides at amusement parks__ loves the fast, intense, and/or scary rides at amusement parks __ always jumping on furniture, trampolines, spinning in a swivel chair, or__ always jumping on furniture, trampolines, spinning in a swivel chair, or getting into upside down positionsgetting into upside down positions __ loves to swing as high as possible and for long periods of time__ loves to swing as high as possible and for long periods of time __ is a "thrill-seeker"; dangerous at times__ is a "thrill-seeker"; dangerous at times __ always running, jumping, hopping etc. instead of walking__ always running, jumping, hopping etc. instead of walking __ rocks body, shakes leg, or head while sitting__ rocks body, shakes leg, or head while sitting __ likes sudden or quick movements, such as, going over a big bump in the__ likes sudden or quick movements, such as, going over a big bump in the car or on a bikecar or on a bike
  24. 24. Poor Muscle Tone And/Or Coordination  __ has a limp, "floppy" body__ has a limp, "floppy" body __ frequently slumps, lies down, and/or leans head on hand or arm while__ frequently slumps, lies down, and/or leans head on hand or arm while working at his/her deskworking at his/her desk __ difficulty simultaneously lifting head, arms, and legs off the floor while__ difficulty simultaneously lifting head, arms, and legs off the floor while lying on stomach ("superman" position)lying on stomach ("superman" position) __ often sits in a "W sit" position on the floor to stabilize body__ often sits in a "W sit" position on the floor to stabilize body __ fatigues easily!__ fatigues easily! __ compensates for "looseness" by grasping objects tightly__ compensates for "looseness" by grasping objects tightly __ difficulty turning doorknobs, handles, opening and closing items__ difficulty turning doorknobs, handles, opening and closing items __ difficulty catching him/her self if falling__ difficulty catching him/her self if falling __ difficulty getting dressed and doing fasteners, zippers, and buttons__ difficulty getting dressed and doing fasteners, zippers, and buttons
  25. 25. Poor Muscle Tone And/Or Coordination  __ may have never crawled as an baby__ may have never crawled as an baby __ has poor body awareness; bumps into things, knocks things__ has poor body awareness; bumps into things, knocks things over, trips, and/or appears clumsyover, trips, and/or appears clumsy __ poor gross motor skills; jumping, catching a ball, jumping jacks,__ poor gross motor skills; jumping, catching a ball, jumping jacks, climbing a ladder etc.climbing a ladder etc. __ poor fine motor skills; difficulty using "tools", such as pencils,__ poor fine motor skills; difficulty using "tools", such as pencils, silverware, combs, scissors etc.silverware, combs, scissors etc. __ may appear ambidextrous, frequently switching hands for__ may appear ambidextrous, frequently switching hands for coloring, cutting, writing etc.; does not have an established handcoloring, cutting, writing etc.; does not have an established hand preference/dominance by 4 or 5 years oldpreference/dominance by 4 or 5 years old __ has difficulty licking an ice cream cone__ has difficulty licking an ice cream cone __ seems to be unsure about how to move body during movement,__ seems to be unsure about how to move body during movement, for example, stepping over somethingfor example, stepping over something __ difficulty learning exercise or dance steps__ difficulty learning exercise or dance steps
  26. 26. Proprioceptive SenseProprioceptive Sense  Input from theInput from the muscles and jointsmuscles and joints about body position,about body position, weight, pressure,weight, pressure, stretch, movement,stretch, movement, and changes inand changes in position in spaceposition in space.. Signs Of Proprioceptive Dysfunction 1. Sensory Seeking Behaviors 2. Difficulty With "Grading Of Movement“
  27. 27. Sensory Seeking BehaviorsSensory Seeking Behaviors  __ seeks out jumping, bumping, and crashing activities__ seeks out jumping, bumping, and crashing activities __ stomps feet when walking__ stomps feet when walking __ kicks his/her feet on floor or chair while sitting at desk/table__ kicks his/her feet on floor or chair while sitting at desk/table __ bites or sucks on fingers and/or frequently cracks his/her__ bites or sucks on fingers and/or frequently cracks his/her knucklesknuckles __ loves to be tightly wrapped in many or weighted blankets,__ loves to be tightly wrapped in many or weighted blankets, especially at bedtimeespecially at bedtime __ prefers clothes (and belts, hoods, shoelaces) to be as tight as__ prefers clothes (and belts, hoods, shoelaces) to be as tight as possiblepossible __ loves/seeks out "squishing" activities__ loves/seeks out "squishing" activities __ enjoys bear hugs__ enjoys bear hugs __ excessive banging on/with toys and objects__ excessive banging on/with toys and objects
  28. 28. Sensory Seeking BehaviorsSensory Seeking Behaviors  __ loves "roughhousing" and tackling/wrestling games__ loves "roughhousing" and tackling/wrestling games __ frequently falls on floor intentionally__ frequently falls on floor intentionally __ would jump on a trampoline for hours on end__ would jump on a trampoline for hours on end __ grinds his/her teeth throughout the day__ grinds his/her teeth throughout the day __ loves pushing/pulling/dragging objects__ loves pushing/pulling/dragging objects __ loves jumping off furniture or from high places__ loves jumping off furniture or from high places __ frequently hits, bumps or pushes other children__ frequently hits, bumps or pushes other children __ chews on pens, straws, shirt sleeves etc.__ chews on pens, straws, shirt sleeves etc.
  29. 29. Difficulty w/"Grading Of Movement“Difficulty w/"Grading Of Movement“  ____ misjudges how muchmisjudges how much to flex and extend musclesto flex and extend muscles during tasks/activities (i.e.,during tasks/activities (i.e., putting arms into sleevesputting arms into sleeves or climbing)or climbing) __ difficulty regulating__ difficulty regulating pressure whenpressure when writing/drawing; may bewriting/drawing; may be too light to see or so hardtoo light to see or so hard the tip of writing utensilthe tip of writing utensil breaksbreaks __ written work is messy__ written work is messy and he/she often rips theand he/she often rips the paper when erasingpaper when erasing __ always seems to be__ always seems to be breaking objects and toysbreaking objects and toys
  30. 30. Difficulty w/"Grading Of Movement“Difficulty w/"Grading Of Movement“  __ misjudges the weight of an__ misjudges the weight of an object, such as a glass of juice,object, such as a glass of juice, picking it up with too muchpicking it up with too much force sending it flying orforce sending it flying or spilling, or with too little forcespilling, or with too little force and complaining about objectsand complaining about objects being too heavybeing too heavy __ may not understand the__ may not understand the idea of "heavy" or "light"; wouldidea of "heavy" or "light"; would not be able to hold two objectsnot be able to hold two objects and tell you which weighs moreand tell you which weighs more __ seems to do everything with__ seems to do everything with too much force; i.e., walking,too much force; i.e., walking, slamming doors, pressingslamming doors, pressing things too hard, slammingthings too hard, slamming objects downobjects down __ plays with animals with too__ plays with animals with too much force, often hurting themmuch force, often hurting them
  31. 31. BibliographyBibliography  Autism Speaks (2014). What is Autism/Autism Spectrum Disorders?Autism Speaks (2014). What is Autism/Autism Spectrum Disorders? http://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism.http://www.autismspeaks.org/what-autism.  http://www.hbci.com/~wenonah/new/9steps.htmhttp://www.hbci.com/~wenonah/new/9steps.htm  Bradshaw AJL and Rinehart NJ (2005). Autism and Asperger's disorder: Are they movementBradshaw AJL and Rinehart NJ (2005). Autism and Asperger's disorder: Are they movement disorders involving the cerebellum and/or basal ganglia? Brain Research Bulletin Volume 67, Issuedisorders involving the cerebellum and/or basal ganglia? Brain Research Bulletin Volume 67, Issue 4, 30 October 2005, Pages 327–3344, 30 October 2005, Pages 327–334  Blaylock RL (2009).A POSSIBLE CENTRAL MECHANISM IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS,Blaylock RL (2009).A POSSIBLE CENTRAL MECHANISM IN AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS, PART 2: IMMUNOEXCITOTOXiCITY. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine . Jan/Feb2009,PART 2: IMMUNOEXCITOTOXiCITY. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine . Jan/Feb2009, Vol. 15 Issue 1, p60-67. 8p Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com/abstract?Vol. 15 Issue 1, p60-67. 8p Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com/abstract? direct=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=10786791&AN=37570226&h=JpN2ydirect=true&profile=ehost&scope=site&authtype=crawler&jrnl=10786791&AN=37570226&h=JpN2y %2b%2b6SmKzaEfH1cPa1eANggO0w08mWWjMYLQxcg%2b%2b6SmKzaEfH1cPa1eANggO0w08mWWjMYLQxcg %2bWBhvSuZfQYjDUcrc6X4kJcWZUXifdmHGXgGQrkCc9tQ%3d%3d&crl=c%2bWBhvSuZfQYjDUcrc6X4kJcWZUXifdmHGXgGQrkCc9tQ%3d%3d&crl=c  Doney R and Thome J (2010). Inflammation: good or bad for ADHD? ADHD Attention Deficit andDoney R and Thome J (2010). Inflammation: good or bad for ADHD? ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders December 2010, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp 257-266 Retrieved fromHyperactivity Disorders December 2010, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp 257-266 Retrieved from http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12402-010-0038-7.http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s12402-010-0038-7.  Dunn, Winnie; Bennett, Donna (). Patterns of sensory processing in children with attention deficitDunn, Winnie; Bennett, Donna (). Patterns of sensory processing in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, Vol 22(1), 2002, 4-15.Retrievedhyperactivity disorder. Occupational Therapy Journal of Research, Vol 22(1), 2002, 4-15.Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2002-00678-001from http://psycnet.apa.org/psycinfo/2002-00678-001
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