Sensory Integration Dysfunction


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Brief presentation on sensory integration dysfunction for Psyc 330 class

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Sensory Integration Dysfunction

  1. 1. Sensory Integration Dysfunction An overview of the dysfunction and its presentation in children ages two to five By Joy Snider
  2. 2. Overview of Sensory Integration <ul><li>A variety of processes involving the use of cognition and the sensory systems to interact with the world (Dietz, Watling, & White, 2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Basic types of functioning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bilateral integration and sequencing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor planning (praxis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatosensory processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensory input sensitivity </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Bilateral integration and sequencing <ul><li>Using the two sides of the body in separate, simultaneous movements </li></ul><ul><li>Performing actions in the appropriate order </li></ul><ul><li>Can you… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climb a ladder? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ride a bicycle? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run without tripping? </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Praxis <ul><li>Thinking about, planning, and carrying out motor activities </li></ul><ul><li>Can you… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decide to go for a walk? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan the route you will take? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carry out your plans based only on your mental picture of your activity? </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Somatosensory processing <ul><li>Gaining information about the positioning of one’s body in relation to the physical environment </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory information gained through the internal organs rather than the sensing organs </li></ul><ul><li>Developed through large movement, muscle resistance (such as swimming), and deep pressure, especially at the joints </li></ul><ul><li>Can you… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Run or walk quickly without feeling disoriented? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Jump from one stone to another without missing? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Throw a ball with moderate accuracy? </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Sensory input sensitivity <ul><li>Comfortably experiencing and understanding input from the five senses </li></ul><ul><li>Can you… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand what people say to you? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differentiate between different textures? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel comfortable looking around a brightly-decorated room? </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Observations
  8. 8. <ul><li>Abnormal sensory sensitivities is the least-researched area of sensory integration dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>The purpose of these observations was to examine the behaviors associated with abnormal sensory sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Focus children were chosen based on knowledge of their sensory hypo- or hypersensitivity </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity <ul><li>Hypersensitivity —experiencing sensory input too intensely, with a resulting inability to process the information effectively </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bothered by sensory input that seems normal to others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May exhibit hyperactivity or irritability, or may withdraw from the stimulus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hyposensitivity —experiencing sensory input at a lower intensity than is needed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Craves more intense sensory input </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May appear to have visual or hearing deficits because of inability to process this information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both may occur at different times with the same child </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Observations were done at: </li></ul><ul><li>Subsidized child development center, Menifee, California </li></ul><ul><li>Summerhill Park, Lake Elsinore, California </li></ul><ul><li>Homes of two focus children in Murrieta, California and Temecula, California </li></ul>
  11. 11. CDC focus children <ul><li>M, two years old, male, suspected autism, shows signs of tactile and auditory hypo- and hypersensitivities </li></ul><ul><li>D, three-and-a-half years old, male, suspected ADHD, shows signs of visual and tactile hypersensitivity and auditory hyposensitivity </li></ul>
  12. 12. Summerhill Park focus child <ul><li>B, three-and-a-half years old, male, shows signs of tactile and gustatory hypersensitivity </li></ul>
  13. 13. Home study focus children <ul><li>JA, five years old, female, shows signs of tactile hypersensitivity and auditory hypo- and hypersensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>J, two years old, female, shows signs of tactile and visual hypersensitivity </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Each observation location also included normally-functioning children of the same ages as the focus children. Behaviors reported in this study can be assumed to have not been observed in these normally-functioning children. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Tactile sensitivity <ul><li>All five focus children displayed tactile hypersensitivity. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>JA was tickled on the cheek with a soft blanket, and spent the next two minutes rubbing the area firmly with her hand </li></ul><ul><li>B put his hand on a warm slide that other children were using comfortably, and jerked it away quickly, crying, “Hot!” </li></ul><ul><li>M went to teachers and sought out back rubs and light scratches </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>D caught a knobby rubber ball a few times, then dropped it and asked for a Band-Aid for his hands </li></ul><ul><li>J dipped one hand into a bowl of “ooblick” (cornstarch and water) and immediately tried to shake it off; when this didn’t work she yelled until her mother helped her wash it off </li></ul>
  18. 18. Auditory sensitivity <ul><li>Three of the five children displayed auditory hyposensitivity, and two of those three also displayed auditory hypersensitivity </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>JA and D were both unresponsive when asked a question or given a direction; they responded when the caregiver made eye contact and spoke more slowly </li></ul><ul><li>M was unresponsive 3 out of 5 times when his name was called, and 4 out of 5 times when he was given instructions even with eye contact </li></ul><ul><li>All three children have had their hearing tested and have no problems in that regard </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>JA found herself near the CD player while dancing with some friends; her body stiffened and she covered her ears; she relaxed only after moving as far from the CD player as the room allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Children in M’s classroom were yelling and laughing loudly; he covered his ears, cried, and shook his head back and forth until a teacher put ear muffs on him </li></ul>
  21. 21. Visual sensitivity <ul><li>Manifests itself both in discomfort to the child, and in misbehavior </li></ul><ul><li>A small disco ball was brought into D’s classroom and his hyperactivity was substantially increased until the ball was turned off </li></ul><ul><li>J’s mother reported that the lights in the house are kept dim because J misbehaves more when they are on full power </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>D was shown a very colorful painting by one of his classmates; he winced and ran away from her </li></ul><ul><li>J’s brother handed her a multi-colored pinwheel; she held it at arm’s length and looked at it only out of the corner of her eye </li></ul>
  23. 23. Gustatory sensitivity <ul><li>Displayed only by B </li></ul><ul><li>Given pudding for a snack; spit out his first spoonful and asked for a cracker instead; dipped his cracker in water before eating it </li></ul><ul><li>Parents report that he is difficult to feed at home as well because his tastes vary; he is not being picky, but truly cannot stand the taste of certain foods; the one constant is that he cannot stand any type of spice in his food </li></ul>
  24. 24. Unexpected findings <ul><li>The purpose of the study was merely to observe the behaviors of children with abnormal sensory sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>However, each of the children also displayed signs of somatosensory dysfunction </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Somatosensory dysfunction </li></ul>Deep massage can help to develop somatosensory functioning Water provides resistance that stimulates deep muscle tissue
  26. 26. <ul><li>Sleeping times: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>JA lay down on her right side, with her left arm straight up in the air; her mother reported that this is her usual behavior when going to sleep, relaxing, or bored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B’s parents reported that he cannot get to sleep without having his bottom patted firmly; without this treatment he will toss and turn for hours, but with it he falls asleep within minutes </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>JA and B are displaying somatosensory dysfunction in their need for grounding . Resting and times of boredom are two times in which a child with this area of SI dysfunction might feel the most physically detached from the world, and pressure through firm patting or holding a limb in the air helps to reaffirm one’s position in space </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>Dealing with disappointment and pain: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>M was headed towards a toy car when another child took it; M fell to the floor screaming; a teacher picked him up and squeezed him tightly, and he soon stopped screaming; the teacher explained that M is prone to “meltdowns” and that squeezing is the best way of calming him </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>JA’s sister hit her with a toy, and JA ran to her mother for comfort; her mother took her hands, and LA locked her elbows and leaned in, putting a great amount of pressure on the joints; her mother explained that this is often how JA seeks comfort </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>M and JA are displaying somatosensory dysfunction in their need for help in regulating their emotional and physical reactions . When a child with somatosensory dysfunction gets upset he or she may feel more detached from the environment, and this disorientation results in a more pronounced emotional response . Deep pressure helps the child to regain control. </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Discipline: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>J and D display nearly identical behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Both children are told to do something they do not want to do, and begin to cry and attempt to hit their respective caregivers; both caregivers wrapped their child tightly—D’s teacher wrapped him in her arms and legs, and J’s mother wrapped her in several blankets—and then methodically squeezed their joints ; both children screamed at the caregiver to let them go, but within one minute both children had stopped screaming and their bodies were relaxing </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><ul><li>J’s mother and D’s teacher both reported that such incidents happen daily and that the wrap-and-squeeze technique always works </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>J and D are displaying somatosensory integration in the same way that JA and M displayed it when upset or in pain. Their anger at being disciplined leads them to lash out , and this reaction makes them feel even more detached . The tight pressure and squeezing of the joints helps to ground them and enables them to regulate their behavior and their emotions . </li></ul>
  34. 34. Conclusions <ul><li>No previous studies are available linking abnormal sensory sensitivity with any other area of SI dysfunction </li></ul><ul><li>This study cannot claim to have established a definite connection, but further research is in order, to investigate such a possibility </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>All pictures are borrowed from the internet; no photos were taken of the actual children in the study. </li></ul><ul><li>No child was included in the study, either as a focus child or as a normally-functioning child to use as contrast, without parental consent. </li></ul>