TEERTHANKER MAHAVEER COLLEGE OF
TEERTHANKER MAHAVEER UNIVERSITY
PROJECTED A.V AIDS
BY PSYCHIATRIC GROUP
MR AMIT DAS
MS HINA SINGH
NIRMAL SINGH NEGI
• To preface topic
• To define demonstration
• To understand the purposes
• To outline process of demonstration
• To comprehend process of demonstration
• To discuss ethical guidelines
• To predict advantages
• To justify disadvantages
Demonstration is a process /activity to show and providing
evidence of process Or happening. In short it is a performance to
show a process or activity to others.
For example –
• How to throw shot pot.
• How to play music and instruments
• To show how to pronounce words
• How to perform CPR
“The act of exhibiting certain set of skills operations or use of a
device & process.
PURPOSES OF DEMONSTRATION:
• Demonstration method shows some fundamental purposes in
• Teaching a skill concept or principle
• Delicate and dangerous experiments involving careful
• Experiments involving difficult and complex operations
• To teach the patient a procedure or treatment
• Use of costly apparatus.
Learning by watching a thing or process actually happening makes
students actively involved in the activity as demonstration is an
interesting performance .A demonstration will be effective if it
proceeds in the following stages:
• Pre planning
• Follow up
• Preplanning: for a demonstration all requisites and piece of
equipment should be gathered.it is advisable to prepare a checklist of
all things required for the demonstration.
• Rehearsal: After having gathered all the material and pieces of
equipment for demonstration, the teachers must try out the
demonstration alone for his own sake and confidence.
CONTINUTION OF PROCESS
• Performance: during the class room instruction teachers
shows the demonstration at the appropriate point of the
lesson the demonstration should be slick to the point with
• Follow up: after the demonstration over the teacher must ask
question and discuss was has been observed by students.
ETHICAL GUIDELINES FOR
Demonstrator must be follow some fundamental instructions while
• The demonstrators must be well selected.
• The materials are easily available
• Present the information sequentially stressing the main ideas
• Let the demonstrator proceed smoothly without interruptions. Do
not drag a demonstration unnecessarily as students are likely to
loose interest then
CONTINUTION OF GUIDELINES
Ask question from the students regarding what they have
If students have not understood certain ideas during the
demonstration then do it again.
Use other teaching aids to supplement your demonstration.
Check continually that your demonstration is going on the right
track and students are getting the intended ideas .
Summarize the main points after the demonstration.
• Have a friendly and warm behaviour during yours
• Allow students to perform after the demonstration is over
• Give a handout or written material on the demonstration along
with key concepts emerging out of it
• Perform the demonstration from a place where from everyone
in the class can see it.
• It helps in involving various sense to make learning permanent
• It develops interest in the learners and motivates them for their
• It helps in achieving psychomotor objectives
• Any simple or complex sill becomes easy to understand.
• Though, teacher behavior is autocratic, he invites the
cooperation of pupils in teaching learning process.
• Good Demonstrators are not easy to find. Considerable skills
are required to give good demonstration.
• The demonstration method is restricted to only certain kinds of
teaching situations. Some teachers try to use it where other
methods would be better.
• The “Result” type of demonstration may take considerable time
and be rather expensive.
• Demonstration may require a large amount of
• There is a danger of students being dishonest when
teacher has to play the main role in the
demonstration of topic.
• To introduce experiment
• To state Definition
• To discuss guidelines
• To list out advantages and disadvantages
An experiment is a procedure or a learning activity in which
students collect interpret observations and carried out to support,
refute, validate a hypothesis experiments provide insight into
cause and effect by demonstrating what outcome occurs when a
particular factor is manipulated.
An operation or tentative procedure carried out under controlled
conditions in order to discover an unknown effect or law to test
or establish a hypothesis or to illustrate a known law.
While giving a lesson on an experiment ,the teachers should
organize the instruction so as to make students aware of the
following steps of the experiments:
• Object of the experiment
• Apparatus required
• Procedure or methodology
• Observations of data
• Treatment of observations or data i.e computation to be used
• Results or conclusion
• Ideas for further work
• after having given the instructions regarding an experiment ,the
teacher must make all students to have hands on it.
• Teacher must ask the students to write report on it
• Result of the experiment should be based upon cause and effect
relationship and conclusions from the observation .
• In case of group experiments the teacher should go about the
room or laboratory to stimulate and guide students individually.
• The teacher can individually attend students while they are
performing an experiment.
• In group experiment, student learn to work with one another
and this results in the co-operation and co-ordination value.
• With experiments the student learn by doing and hence
• Experiment makes student patient, regular and punctual.
• Experiments builds scientific attitudes, observational power
and ability to draw conclusions.
• can produce artificial results
• In peer experiment there is chances of human error.
• Some experiment required apparatus and equipment.
• Consume time hence it needs patience to draw conclusion.
• Person (human) error may leads to artificial or manipulated
• Experiment required some sound ethical grounds.
• Experimenter effects - bias when experimenter's expectations
• Artificial environment - low realism
FOLLOWING TOPICS ARE DISCUSSED:
• Introduction Of Demonstration And Experiment.
• Define Demonstration And Experiment
• Understand The Purposes
• Outline Process Of Demonstration
• Comprehend Process Of Demonstration
• Discuss Ethical Guidelines Of Demonstration And Experiment
• Predict Advantages Of Demonstration And Experiment
• To Justify Disadvantages Of Demonstration And Experiment.