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Published in: Education, Technology


  1. 1. Integrating Technology into Teaching and Lesson Planning Prepared by Carla Piper, Ed. D.
  2. 2. Educational Values Based on Vision of Society <ul><li>What do you believe is worth knowing? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about the learners and their development? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about subject matter? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the best way to promote student learning? </li></ul>Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
  3. 3. What is Curriculum? <ul><li>Experienced Curriculum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Curriculum is what happens.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What the student experiences and perceives during the day </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned or unplanned </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planned Curriculum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Planned learning experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know what to teach – CONTENT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know how to teach it - PEDAGOGY </li></ul></ul>Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
  4. 4. Three Elements of Curriculum <ul><li>“ WHO?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Learner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ WHAT?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subject Matter </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ HOW?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Process of Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kinds of Planned Learning Opportunities </li></ul></ul>WHO? WHAT? HOW? From “Who Am I in the Lives of Children?” Feeny, Christensen, Moravick
  5. 5. What is Teaching? Curriculum What do you teach? Instruction How should you teach it? Assessment How do you determine if you’ve taught it successfully? If learning is not the result, adjust instruction Results in Student Learning!
  6. 6. History of Educational Reform
  7. 7. Old School <ul><li>Teacher directed </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher dispenses knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Students work individually </li></ul><ul><li>Students grouped by ability </li></ul><ul><li>Students assessed on knowledge of facts </li></ul><ul><li>Students memorize and test recall </li></ul><ul><li>Students read and answer questions at the end of the chapter </li></ul>
  8. 8. Traditional Classrooms <ul><li>Every student learns the same materials </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers use the identical instructional delivery mode </li></ul><ul><li>Students learn by listening and reading – and very little by doing authentic tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Lecture based method does not accommodate all learners. Aimed at: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal-linguistic learners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical-mathematical learners </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. History of Instructional Media <ul><li>Primary physical means of instruction prior to the 20 th Century </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The chalkboard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The textbook </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influence of technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the use of media for instructional purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the use of systematic instructional design procedures or instructional design </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Objectivism and Behaviorism <ul><li>Knowledge exists as absolute truth </li></ul><ul><li>Transfer knowledge from outside to inside the learner </li></ul><ul><li>Arrange conditions to promote specific goals </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher directed, learner receiving </li></ul><ul><li>Goals predetermined </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives defined </li></ul><ul><li>Activities, materials, assessment is teacher driven </li></ul><ul><li>Hand in products for teacher assessment </li></ul>
  11. 11. World War II <ul><li>Psychologists and Educators </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted experimental research </li></ul><ul><li>Developed training materials for the military </li></ul><ul><li>Influenced the types of training materials that were developed </li></ul><ul><li>Based on their work on instructional principles </li></ul><ul><li>Examined research and theory on instruction, learning, and human behavior </li></ul>
  12. 12. Programmed Instruction Behaviorism: 1960s <ul><li>Data regarding the effectiveness of the materials were collected </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional weaknesses were identified </li></ul><ul><li>Materials were revised accordingly </li></ul><ul><li>Trial and revision procedure provided formative evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Still found in current instructional design models. </li></ul>B.F. Skinner’s Teaching Machine for Programmed Instruction
  13. 13. Computer-Based Instruction – 1980s <ul><li>Applied principles of cognitive psychology </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing interest in the use of microcomputers for instructional purposes </li></ul><ul><li>New sequential models of instructional design </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodate the interactive capabilities </li></ul>
  14. 14. Why Teach with Technology? <ul><li>Do we really need to know how to use technology? </li></ul><ul><li>What was good enough for me ought to be good enough for my students! </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Stage 1: Use technology to do things we can already do but more convenient: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typing vs. word processing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calculator vs. spreadsheets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Use technology to improve on tasks we already do: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Track student progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create more professional looking products </li></ul></ul>How do Teachers Decide to Use New Technologies?
  16. 16. Stage 3: Use technology to do things that were not previously possible <ul><li>Real-time manipulation of data - graphs/charts </li></ul><ul><li>Professional publishing and graphics </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-media presentations </li></ul><ul><li>Instant global communication </li></ul><ul><li>Help with students who have special needs </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Used as a tutor - Student answers questions or solves problems in sequenced learning </li></ul><ul><li>Used to explore - Student discovers through interactive information, demonstration, or simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Applied as a tool for accomplishing tasks and expressing creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Used to communicate - Student retrieves and sends information electronically </li></ul>Classifications of Educational Technologies Barbara Means
  18. 18. New School <ul><li>Students explore </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher facilitates </li></ul><ul><li>Students work collaboratively </li></ul><ul><li>Students grouped heterogeneously </li></ul><ul><li>Students assessed on performance according to standards - criterion based </li></ul><ul><li>Students complete authentic tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Students solve problems and create products </li></ul>
  19. 19. Constructivism – Building on Prior Knowledge and Experiences <ul><li>Students create knowledge through bringing meaning to their own experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals have different meanings attached to the same experience </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is tentative and incomplete because humans are constantly undergoing new experiences </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding becomes greater when new experience tests itself with previous knowledge </li></ul>Brahler & Johnson
  20. 20. Instructional Planning <ul><li>Learners must have ability to transfer knowledge and skills beyond the initial learning situation </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible learning environments help to develop cognitively flexible processing skills </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge must be presented in a variety of different ways and for a variety of different purposes </li></ul>Brahler & Johnson
  21. 21. Instruction How do you plan your lessons? <ul><li>Planning Curriculum Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to Lesson Planning </li></ul><ul><li>What content standard will be met? </li></ul><ul><li>What are your learning objectives? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the activity? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the sequence or timing. </li></ul><ul><li>Who will participate? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the overall purpose of the lesson? </li></ul><ul><li>How will you measure student learning? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Planning Instruction <ul><li>What do you need to teach this lesson? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do you do? How? When? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduction – How do you get them interested? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedure – What will you do and say (step-by-step guide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closure – How will you help students make a transition to the next activity? </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Using Instructional Software <ul><li>How will you structure your class so students can use this software effectively? (Classroom Management, Schedule, Time Frame) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whole class? One computer displayed on LCD or TV? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer lab or library? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cooperative groups? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Small computer learning center? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Work on computer at home? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is using this software a good use of instructional time? </li></ul><ul><li>Will using this software result in student learning? </li></ul><ul><li>Is there a better way to teach these concepts than through technology? </li></ul>
  24. 24. Using Technology in Lesson Planning <ul><li>How is this technology going to help students meet subject matter content standards? </li></ul><ul><li>When will you use an electronic learning resources of website in your lesson plan? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipatory Set </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The Hook” to get students interested, curious, motivated. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Setting the stage - providing frame of reference </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Scaffolding – tapping in to previous knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Instruction – Step by Step Learning of Concept </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guided Practice – Individualized? Drill? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of Assessment Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closure – Transition to New Topic </li></ul></ul>Simulation
  25. 25. Writing Measurable Instructional Objectives <ul><li>Learning objectives connect instructional planning with curriculum content as measured by assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>By participating in this activity students will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn about…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gain greater understanding of…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop an awareness of…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Express understanding of…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop skill in…? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Begin to be able to… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How will you measure learning outcomes? </li></ul>
  26. 26. Learning Objectives Must Include: <ul><li>A measurable verb </li></ul><ul><li>The important condition (if any) under which the performance is to occur and </li></ul><ul><li>The criterion of acceptable performance. </li></ul>The Magic Triangle Learning Activities Objectives Evaluation
  27. 27. ABCD's of Learning Objectives <ul><li>A udience - Who will be doing the behavior? </li></ul><ul><li>B ehavior - What should the learner be able to do? </li></ul><ul><li>C ondition - Under what conditions do you want the learner to be able to do it? </li></ul><ul><li>D egree - How well must it be done? </li></ul>
  28. 28. Writing Learning Objectives for your Lesson Plan <ul><li>Audience: The learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who is doing the performance? (not the instructor). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behavior (Performance): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What the learner will be able to do? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can this performance be seen or heard? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Condition: The conditions under which the learners must demonstrate their mastery of the objective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What will the learners be allowed to use? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What won't the learners be allowed to use? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Degree (or criterion): Common degrees include: Speed, Accuracy, Quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW WELL the behavior must be done? </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Benjamin Bloom <ul><li>Taxonomy of Educational Objectives (1956) </li></ul><ul><li>Learning outcomes within the cognitive domain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Objectives reflect learner behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical relationship </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower to Higher Level Thinking Domains </li></ul></ul>Evaluation Synthesis Analysis Application Comprehension Knowledge
  30. 30. Kinds of Lesson Objectives Cognitive Thought or knowledge Objectives describe: &quot;what the student is able to do&quot; (an observable) Affective Feelings or choices Objectives describe: &quot;how the student chooses to act&quot; Psychomotor Physical skills Objectives describe: &quot;what the student can perform&quot;
  31. 31. Bloom’s Learning Taxonomy <ul><li>Higher order thinking – critical thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Three overlapping domains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive – Knowledge, recall, comprehension, analyzing/synthesizing data, problem solving, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychomotor – physical skills, fine or gross motor skills, coordination, dexterity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Affective – attitudes of awareness, interest, attention, concern, responsibility, respect, enjoyment, appreciation, motivation </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Bloom’s Taxonomy Higher Level Thinking <ul><li>KNOWLEDGE: define, list, name, memorize </li></ul><ul><li>COMPREHENSION: identify, describe, explain </li></ul><ul><li>APPLICATION: demonstrate, use, show, teach </li></ul><ul><li>ANALYSIS: categorize, compare, calculate </li></ul><ul><li>SYNTHESIS: design, create, prepare, predict </li></ul><ul><li>EVALUATION: judge, assess, rate, revise </li></ul>
  33. 33. Ask Students to: <ul><li>Know - recall information in original form </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehend - show understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Apply - use learning in a new situation </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze - show s/he can see relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesize - combine and integrate parts of prior knowledge into a product, plan, or proposal that is new </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate - assess and criticize on basis of standards and criteria </li></ul>
  34. 34. Action Verbs from Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy Understanding Applying Analyzing Evaluating Creating <ul><li>Creating – designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating – checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judging, testing, detecting, monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing – comparing, organizing, deconstructing, attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating </li></ul><ul><li>Applying – implementing, carrying out, using, executing </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding – interpreting, summarizing, inferring, paraphrasing, classifying, comparing, explaining, exemplifying </li></ul><ul><li>Remembering – recognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding </li></ul>Remembering
  35. 35. Assessment and Reflection <ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What will students say or do to show you objectives were met? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will you collect to show student’s learning (portfolios, observations, work samples, photographs, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reflection on your teaching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How will your assessment guide your teaching practice? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What needs to be “re-taught” and how can you teach it differently when assessment demonstrates that some students did not learn the material? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a better way to teach this material? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What will you do differently next time? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How could you extend this activity for another lesson? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Was your instruction effective in promoting student learning? </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. References <ul><li>“ Pedagogy: A Primer on Education Theory for Technical Professionals” – Brahler & Johnson. Washington State University – Download from Microsoft Higher Education Website </li></ul><ul><li>“ Multiple Intelligences and Technology” – Edwards (no longer available) </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom’s Digital Technology - </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism - </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom’s Taxonomy - </li></ul>