Learning Strategies


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Learning Strategies

  1. 1. Learning Strategies Done by/ Ahmed Al-Ajmi
  2. 2. Points to highlight <ul><li>Defining learning strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Types of learning strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Successful learner strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>The link between learning strategies and learning styles. </li></ul><ul><li>Usefulness of learning strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Are learning strategies changeable? </li></ul><ul><li>Studies. </li></ul>
  3. 4. A sad story <ul><li>A student was excellent at school. He got 93.9% at the end of grade 12 and the least mark was 93 !!! </li></ul><ul><li>He joined Sultan Qaboos University and was interested in learning English and becoming a teacher. After he finished the 4 th year, he graduated with grade C !!! </li></ul><ul><li>From your point of view, why couldn’t he get high marks ?!!! </li></ul>
  4. 5. Defining learning strategies <ul><li>“ Learning strategies are specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, more transferable to new situations”. </li></ul><ul><li>Source (Oxford, 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Operations …to aid the: </li></ul><ul><li>acquisition, </li></ul><ul><li>storage, </li></ul><ul><li>retrieval, and </li></ul><ul><li>use of information…” </li></ul><ul><li>source (Oxford, 1990) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Definitions (cont.) <ul><li>Language learning strategies are the purposeful steps used by language learners to: </li></ul><ul><li>comprehend and process new information more deeply, </li></ul><ul><li>to help to recall old information, and </li></ul><ul><li>apply knowledge and skills to facilitate problem-solving. </li></ul><ul><li>Source (Nyikos, 1991) </li></ul>
  6. 7. Types of language learning strategies <ul><li>Rubin (1987) categorized language learning strategies into three types: </li></ul><ul><li>Learning strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Social strategies. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Types of learning strategies <ul><li>Cohen’s classification (2006): </li></ul>C. Specific languages C. Socio-affective B. Specific cultures B. Vocabulary or translation strategies B. Cognitive B. Language use strategies A. Proficiency level A. 4 basic skills A. Metacognitive A. Language learning strategies others By skill By function By goal
  8. 9. Ehrman & Oxford Classification (1990) D. Creating structure D. Employing action C. - Analyzing - reasoning C. Reviewing thoroughly C. Empathizing C. Evaluation B. Overcoming limitations in speaking & writing B. Receiving & sending messages B. Applying images & sounds B. Cooperation B. Arranging & planning A. Guessing intelligently A. Practicing A. Creating mental links A. Asking questions A. Centering learning Comprehension Cognitive Memory Social Metacognitive
  9. 10. Successful learner strategies <ul><li>Actively involve themselves in the language learning process by identifying and seeking preferred learning environments and exploring them, </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an awareness of language as a system. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an awareness of language as a means of communication and interaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Accept and cope with the affective demands of L2. </li></ul><ul><li>Extend and revise L2 system by inferencing and monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Naiman, Frohlich, Stern & Todesco (1978) </li></ul>
  10. 11. The learning strategies and learning style link <ul><li>A learning style is a predisposition on the part of some students to adopt a particular learning strategy regardless of the specific demands of the learning task. </li></ul><ul><li>(Schmeck in Schulz-Wender, 2001) </li></ul>
  11. 12. Are learning strategies useful? <ul><li>“ With some exceptions, strategies themselves are not inherently good or bad, but have the potential to be used effectively”. (Cohen, 1998). </li></ul><ul><li>The total number or variety of strategies employed and the frequency with which any given strategy is used are not necessarily indicators of how successful they will be on a language task”. (Cohen, 1998) </li></ul>
  12. 13. Are learning strategies useful? (cont.) <ul><li>Strategies can be more or less person-related, task-related, or learning context related. A strategy suitable for one particular person, task, or learning context may not be suitable for another. (Gu, 2003). </li></ul>
  13. 14. Strategies promote: <ul><li>Language competence. </li></ul><ul><li>Risk-taking & confidence. </li></ul><ul><li>Memory & retention. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-monitoring. </li></ul><ul><li>Good study habits. </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of strengths and individual differences. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Are learning strategies changeable? <ul><li>Some strategies are relatively stable and others are relatively changeable. </li></ul><ul><li>Person-related strategies tend to be more stable while task-dependent strategies tend to be more changeable. </li></ul><ul><li>(Gu, 2003) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Studies of language learner strategy use <ul><li>One important goal is to understand the cognitive, social and affective processes involved in language learning in order to help the less successful language learners overcome learning difficulties. </li></ul><ul><li>(Chamot, 2001) </li></ul>
  16. 17. Studies (cont.) <ul><li>Oxford and Nyikos (1989) studied 1200 university students and found that females used language learning strategies more than their male counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Peacock (2001) found that students majoring in physics used far less cognitive strategies than the math and engineering students, while math students used fewer metacognitive strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>(Eslami & Al-Buainain, 2008) </li></ul>
  17. 18. Studies (cont.) <ul><li>Eslami & Al-Buainain (2008), </li></ul><ul><li>Title: Language learning strategy use by Arabic speaking pre-service teachers learning Eglish through content area. </li></ul><ul><li>Participants: 27 female Arab students, from two universities in Qatar. Finished BA and were going through intensive one year teacher education program. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Studies (cont.) <ul><li>Some results were: </li></ul><ul><li>Students reported using metacognitive strategies more frequently. </li></ul><ul><li>Students with higher levels of English proficiency reported that they would use gestures when they cannot thik of a word and would use a word or phrase that has equivalent meaning as an English word that they cannot think of. </li></ul><ul><li>Those students were also found to be more likely to notice their English mistakes and use that information to help them do better. </li></ul>
  19. 20. Thanks for listening & time for asking questions