Introduction to Linguistics Session 8: Phonology Edi Brata http://edibrata.com
What is Phonology? The subﬁeld of linguistics that studies the structure and systematic patterning of sounds in human language (Akmajian et.al, 2010:110)
What is Phonology? Essentially the description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language (Yule, 2006:43)
What is Phonology? Governs both sound patterns and systematic phonetic variation found in language (O’Grady et.al, 2005: 57) The study of how speech sounds form patterns (Fromkin et.al, 2011:267) It is a study about phonemes.
Phoneme The smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language.
Phone Vs. Phoneme Phone PhonemeOne of many possible sounds in the A contrastive unit in the sound languages of the world. system of a particular language. A minimal unit that serves toThe smallest identifiable unit found distinguish between meanings of in a stream of speech. words. Pronounced in one or more ways, Pronounced in a defined way. depending on the number of allophones. Represented between brackets by Represented between slashes by convention. convention [b], [j], [o] /b/, /j/, /o/
Phoneme • Phoneme can be identified by contrastive analysis called as minimal pairs.• Two sounds are said to be contrastive if replacing one with the other results in a change of meaning.• Two sounds are said to be noncontrastive if replacing one with the other does not result in a change of meaning.
Minimal Pairs • A minimal pair consists of two forms with distinct meanings that differ by only one segment found in the same position in each form.• Which one(s) of these pairs are minimal pairs? a.  and  b.  and  c.  and  // and // are phonemes
Same Sound or Different Sound? • Within a given language, some sounds are considered to be the same sound, even though they are phonetically distinct.• Same or different? pool [phul] spool [spul] • phonetically different (aspirated vs. unaspirated) • native speakers perceive the same sound • It is called as allophones.
Assimilation: Two sounds becoming more alikeo Regressive Assimilation • Assimilation in which a sound influences the preceding segment. • E.g. indefinite, impossible, incompleteo Progressive Assimilation • Assimilation in which a sound influences the following segment. • E.g. books, bags