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Intro. to Linguistics_8 Phonology

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This slide is the eighth session presentation of Introduction to Linguistics. The topic discussed is about phonology (phonemes and allophones). Alsi, it

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Intro. to Linguistics_8 Phonology

  1. 1. Introduction to Linguistics Session 8: Phonology Edi Brata http://edibrata.com
  2. 2. What is Phonology? The subfield of linguistics that studies the structure and systematic patterning of sounds in human language (Akmajian et.al, 2010:110)
  3. 3. What is Phonology? Essentially the description of the systems and patterns of speech sounds in a language (Yule, 2006:43)
  4. 4. What is Phonology?  Governs both sound patterns and systematic phonetic variation found in language (O’Grady et.al, 2005: 57) The study of how speech sounds form patterns (Fromkin et.al, 2011:267) It is a study about phonemes.
  5. 5. Phoneme The smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language.
  6. 6. Phone Vs. Phoneme  Phone PhonemeOne of many possible sounds in the A contrastive unit in the sound languages of the world. system of a particular language. A minimal unit that serves toThe smallest identifiable unit found distinguish between meanings of in a stream of speech. words. Pronounced in one or more ways, Pronounced in a defined way. depending on the number of allophones. Represented between brackets by Represented between slashes by convention. convention [b], [j], [o] /b/, /j/, /o/
  7. 7. Phoneme • Phoneme can be identified by contrastive analysis called as minimal pairs.• Two sounds are said to be contrastive if replacing one with the other results in a change of meaning.• Two sounds are said to be noncontrastive if replacing one with the other does not result in a change of meaning.
  8. 8. Minimal Pairs • A minimal pair consists of two forms with distinct meanings that differ by only one segment found in the same position in each form.• Which one(s) of these pairs are minimal pairs? a. [] and [] b. [] and [] c. [] and [] // and // are phonemes
  9. 9. Same Sound or Different Sound? • Within a given language, some sounds are considered to be the same sound, even though they are phonetically distinct.• Same or different? pool [phul] spool [spul] • phonetically different (aspirated vs. unaspirated) • native speakers perceive the same sound • It is called as allophones.
  10. 10. English Phoneme 
  11. 11. Allophone • One of a set of non-distinctive realizations of the same phoneme.• Corresponds to something physical produced by a speaker.• It is variants of a phoneme.
  12. 12. Articulatory Processes
  13. 13. Assimilation Dissimilation DeletionArticulatory Processes Epenthesis Metathesis Vowel reduction
  14. 14. Assimilation: Two sounds becoming more alikeo Regressive Assimilation • Assimilation in which a sound influences the preceding segment. • E.g. indefinite, impossible, incompleteo Progressive Assimilation • Assimilation in which a sound influences the following segment. • E.g. books, bags
  15. 15. [-z] or [-s]1. Bananas 1. [-z]2. Grapes 2. [-s]3. Lemons 3. [-z]4. Cookies 4. [-z]5. Cakes 5. [-s]6. Tarts 6. [-s]7. Potatoes 7. [-z]8. Carrots 8. [-s]
  16. 16. [-d], [-t], or [-id]1. Studied 1. [-d]2. Kicked 2. [-t]3. Eliminated 3. [-id]4. Erased 4. [-d]5. Looked 5. [-t]6. Typed 6. [-t]7. Measured 7. [-d]8. Surrounded 8. [-id]
  17. 17. Dissimilation: Two Sounds Becoming Less Alikeo Fifths: [f  f  s]  [f  f t s]o Three fricatives  fricative+stop+fricative
  18. 18. Deletiono A process that removes a segment from certain phonetic context.o In English, a schwa [] is often deleted when the next vowel in the word is stressed. suppose: [spz]  [spz]
  19. 19. Epenthesiso A process that inserts a segment into a particular environment.o For example: (in careful speech) something is pronounced [smp] instead of [sm]
  20. 20. Metathesiso A process that reorders a sequence of segmentso Commonly, in speech of childreno For example: o spaghetti is pronounced pesgheti o first become frist
  21. 21. Vowel Reductiono The articulation of a vowel moves to a more central position when the vowel is unstressed.o For example: considerate vs. consideration Canada vs. Canadian
  22. 22.

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