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COURSE CONTENT1. WHAT IS A SCAFFOLD?2. TYPES OF SCAFFOLD3. SCAFFOLDING MATERIALS4. SCAFFOLDER TOOLS5. SAFETY HARNESS6. SCAFFTAG7. SAFE ERETION AND DISMANTLING SEQUENCEPRACTICAL- SAFE ERECTION AND DISMANTLE OF A SCAFFOLD- SCAFFOLDING INSPECTION- SCAFF TAG AND SIGNAGES INSTALLATION
WHAT IS A SCAFFOLD?- Scaffold means an temporary provided structure on or from which buildingworkers perform work in connection with building or other construction work. SCAFFOLDING- a temporary structure used to support people and material in theconstruction or repair of buildings and other large structures.
TYPES OF SCAFFOLD1. INDEPENDENT TIED SCAFFOLD- An independent scaffold consists of a double row of standards, with each row parallel to the building. The inner row is set as close to the building as is practicable. The distance between the lines of standards should be the minimum necessary to accommodate the required number of boards and toe boards.
2. PUTLOG SCAFFOLD- A putlog scaffold consists of a single row of standards, parallel to the face of the building and set as far away from it as is necessary to accommodate a platform of four or five boards wide, with the inner edge of the platform as close to the wall as is practicable.
3. BIRD CAGE TOWER SCAFFOLD- A birdcage scaffold consists of a mass of standards arranged at regular intervals in parallel lines, usually evenly spaced apart. These standards are laced together with a grid of ledgers and transoms at every lift height. The top lift is boarded to form the access platform for work on ceilings and soffits, e.g. fix lighting, ventilation or sprinklers over an inside area.
4. ROOF SADDLE AND STACK SCAFFOLDROOF SADDLE- Generally agreed to mean the foundation for a scaffold erected on a pitched roof, when chimneys are to be repairs. Roof saddles are generally erected when minor repairs are made, e.g. replacing chimney pots, or re - pointing etc.- A safe means of access or egress must always be provided, and this will usually comprise an access tower with walkway onto scaffold.STACK SCAFFOLD• This type of scaffold, because of the position of the chimney, requires an access scaffold.• Roof stacks are erected where more substantial repairs are required i.e. demonstration and/or rebuilding of chimney in situation where the stack is in such a position as to make the erection of a saddle scaffold impracticable.5. SUSPENDED SCAFFOLD• Suspended scaffolds are often used to provide access and working platforms in the construction, alteration, inspection, repair, refurbishment and maintenance of high rise buildings, industrial plant, bridges and other large structures.
SCAFFOLDING MATERIALS LEDGER / GUARDRAIL / BOARDS / PLANKS MIDRAILSCAFFOLDING BASE / TOEBOARDS / SOLE PLATE PLATES DIFFERENT SIZES OF STANDARDS SHANKS
1. BASE PLATE / JACKS - to safely carry and spread the load. A metal plate with a spigot for distributing the load from a standard or raker or other load-bearing tube. An adjustable base plate is a metal base plate embodying a screw jack.2. TRANSOM - to produce a rigid unit that speeds scaffold erection significantly resulting in large savings on labour costs. A lube or beam spanning across ledgers to form the support for boards forming the working platform or to connect the outer standards to the inner standards (see Putlog).3. (a) BOARDS / PLANKS - to carry and / or use as a working platform. (b) SOLE PLATES - A timber, concrete or metal bearer used to distribute the load from a standard or base plate to the ground.4. (a) LEDGER - The assembly of ledgers and putlogs forming each horizontal level of a scaffold. The lift height is the vertical distance between two lifts, measured centre to centre. (b)GUARDRAILS - A rail or barrier secured to standards or upright members, and erected along the exposed sides and ends of working platforms to prevent persons from falling. A lower rail which is fixed to standards midway between the guardrail and platform is termed a mid rail.
5. BRACES - A member placed diagonally with respect to the vertical or horizontal members of a scaffold and fixed to them to afford stability.6. STANDARD - An upright member used for transmitting the weight of the load from the working platforms to the base of the scaffolding.7. COUPLERS - A fitting used to fix scaffold tubes together. Right-angle coupler: A coupler used to join tubes at right angles. Swivel coupler: A coupler for joining tubes at an angle other than a right angle.8. LADDER - a portable appliance consisting of two stiles joined by steps or rungs and designed for the purpose of climbing and descending.9. SIGNAGES - use when erection, alteration and dismantling of scaffolding structure to avoid unathorised personnel climb and / or use the scaffold.10. SCAFFTAGS SYSTEM - The scafftag system has been developed to ensure the health and safety of all personnel using the scaffolding erected and dismantled by Central Scaffolding and Rigging Services.
SCAFFOLDER TOOLS SPANNER SPANNER - The handle SIGNAGES – To avoid of scaffold spanners unauthorised personnel should be not less than climb and / or use the 200mm nor more than scaffold. 250mm long. PODGER HAMMER – Podger FULL BODY hammers with a loose head or PROTECTION a hairline crack at the (SAFETY juncture between the head HARNESS) – and the shaft should be do not stop replaced. people SCAFFOLDERS BELT – To falling, but to avoid tools feel from heights mitigate the and from being lost / missing while working. potential injuries if they LEVELS – are SPIRIT do. used to check that ADJUSTABLE scaffolding members WRENCH – (shifter are horizontal or or shifting plumb. equipment) is normally used where an obstruction makes the use of a scaffold spanner impossible.
SAFETY HARNESSA safety harness is a form of protective equipment designed to protect a person,animal, or object from injury or damage. The harness is an attachment between astationary and non-stationary object and is usually fabricated from rope, cable orwebbing and locking hardware.HOW TO PUT SAFETY HARNESS1. Release All Buckles: The first thing you want do is release all of the buckles. Nothing makes it harder to see how a fall protection harness should go on when half of the buckles are buckled and the rest are swaying in the wind. So, release of the buckle, it’ll save you a ton of confusion shortly.2. Hold By Dorsal D-Ring: Next grab the dorsal d-ring on your harness. This would be the giant ring that looks like… well the letter “D.” This is what will eventually go on your back and attach to your lanyard or SRL. Anyway, grab the dorsal d-ring and shake the harness. All of the straps and buckles should untangle and hang down. This makes it easier to see the structure of the harness, and that saves headaches, just like Bayer Aspirin.
3. Slide Into Shoulder Straps: After you’ve shaken the harness from the dorsal d-ring you should be able to see the shoulder straps branching off. All you need to do is slide into those, almost like putting on a jacket. Once the shoulder straps are over your shoulder make sure that there are no tangles in the webbing from the d-ring. These tangles could cause serious problems later, so make sure the straps are laying flat. Now would also be the time to make sure that your dorsal d-ring is centered on your upper back across your shoulder blades.4. Attach Leg Straps: Once the harness is resting on your shoulders like the weight of the world, reach between your legs…. (We are on a slippery slope here…) You want to grab your leg straps and buckle them. They should start in the back go through your legs and attach somewhere by your hips, roughly. This can depend on how girlish your figure is. Again, as with the shoulder straps you want to make sure there are no tangles in the webbing. This is not an area of the body you want getting pinched. Also, if you have a waste buckle or belt, now would be the time to connect it.5. Connect the Chest Buckle: Now you’ll work your way up your smokin’ hot body and connect the chest buckle. This buckle ironically should lay across your chest, no matter how big your moobs might be. And that’s about it for this step. Again make sure the strap lays flat and isn’t tangled. If you your chest buckle is tangled, you may be mentally challenged and probably shouldn’t be working in construction.
6. Tighten Straps and Secure Connections: The final step is fairly simple, make sure that all of the straps are sung and that all of your connections are secure. How tight? Well, the standard text book answer is as tight as you can without restricting movement, but remember it’s a harness and it’s supposed to be tight. This isn’t like a pair of pants that you can wear a little baggy because it’s more comfortable. It’s possible to slip out of your harness if it’s not tight enough. You’ll also want to make sure that all of the extra webbing from the buckle site are tucked into keepers or behind the strap. The last thing you need is a material appendage waiting to catch on something and cause you to trip.
SCAFFTAGS- a specific card holder and card, that, when fixed to a scaffold, identifies the status of the scaffold, details with respect to its use and inspection details. Note:: - Scafftags are to be signed / inspected either by the scaffold supervisor / inspector and / or a competent person(s). - Scaffold must be checked every 1 week (7 days), then update the scaff tag as possible.