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For Erectors/ Inspectors
SCAFFOLD
TRAINING
By M A Khan – HSE DEPARTMENT
May 19, 2009
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
OBJECTIVES
To familiarise with UAE Legal
requirements with respect to Scaffolds
To enhance the skill of scaffold
erection and inspection.
Safe Procedure for erection & dismantling
Procedure for Scaffold inspection
Type of scaffolding system
Practical on Scaffold Erection & dismantling
WHAT IS SCAFFOLDING?
An elevated, temporary
work platform.
Elevated
Temporary
work platform
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Supported (Independent) Scaffold
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Suspended Scaffold
• Fixed or travelling
• Permanent or temporary
• Manual or powered
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Tower or Mobile Scaffold
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Arial / Mobile Access Scaffold
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Scaffold Erection
Scaffolds can only be
erected, moved,
dismantled or altered
under the supervision
of a competent person
Competent person
selects & directs these
workers and
determines the
feasibility of fall
protection
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Legal Requirements
DM Chapter No -08
Components of
scaffolding
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Components of
Scaffoldings
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
1.Base Plates
Legal Requirement: Scaffold must have base plates even when setting on a concrete floor
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
2.Standards
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
3.Ledgers(transom)
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
4.Wooden Planks
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
5.Toe Board
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
6.Couplers(shovels)
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
7.Universal Jack(pin)
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
8.Bracing(GI Pipe)
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
9.Sole Board
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Scaffold
Foundations
Scaffold Foundations
 There is no base plate & the
scrap plywood is not adequate.
 The scaffold frame could
penetrate the plywood.
 Scaffold legs must be set on
base plates & adequate
mudsills.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
 Mud sills must be sized to
distribute scaffolding loads to
the ground or support
structure.
Scaffold Foundations
 The lack of a base plate could
damage the scaffold leg.
 Scaffolds must have base
plates, even when set on a
concrete floor.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
 Timber sole plates of at least 25cm
wide and 5 cm thick should be laid for
the support of base plates.
Scaffold Foundations
 The foot or base of any scaffold shall
be placed on an adequate base plate to
prevent displacement or sinking.
Base Plate
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
 Base plates with screw jacks should
always be used so that you will be able
to make levelling adjustments later.
 Plumb, level and square the scaffold
at the base
 Scaffolds should never
be set on bricks,
masonry blocks, etc.
 These are not structural
elements and could
crush under the scaffold
load.
Never on Masonry!Scaffold Foundations
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Access ladders and its placing
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Access ladders and its placing
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
• Portable ladders used for access to upper landing; side
rails must extend 3 ft (.9 m) above landing
• Use 3-point contact while climbing
and always face the ladder
• Ladders must be secured to
scaffolds to prevent movement
• Damaged ladders should be
removed from service and
tagged “Do Not Use”
• Exercise extreme caution while
getting on/off ladders and
scaffolds
Ladder Safety
Prevents Serious Injury
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Access ladders and its placing
MOST COMMON DEFECTS
Access ladders and its placing
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
DAMAGED STILE DAMAGED RUNGS
MOST COMMON UNSAFE PRACTICE
Access ladders and its placing
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
MOST COMMON UNSAFE PRACTICE
Access ladders and its placing
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
MOST COMMON UNSAFE PRACTICE
Access ladders and its placing
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Access ladders and its placing
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Scaffold with interior
ladders for access
Access ladders and its placing
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Scaffold with Exterior
ladders for access
How to measure ladder angle (75 degree)
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
• Step1: Stand straight
facing the ladder
• Step2: Place your shoes
touching the ladder
shoes.
• Step3: Extend your arm
and hold the both posts.
• If arm is fully extended
and post are gripped then
the angle is around 75
degree.
Access ladders and its placing
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Safe usage of LADDER
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Scaffold
Platform
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Quality of Planks
Check for defects like –
Bow, Twist, Crook and
Cup.
 Bow
 Twist
 Crook
 Cup.
No paint on wood platforms
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Placing of Planks
 Place the plank end trough
ledgers but not over the ledger
as per the picture.
 Take help wherever required.
 An overlapping 12’’ shall be
maintained.
 Max gap between planks –
25mm
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
 Work platforms must be
tightly planked for the full
width of the scaffold
 Minimum width of work
platform should not be less
than 600 mm (3 planks).
Placing of Planks
 All planks and/or platforms
should always be fastened to
the scaffold as necessary to
prevent uplift or displacement
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
 Planks shall extend at least
6“ – 12” beyond their
support.
General Requirements
 All Planking on runs of scaffold
must overlap a minimum of 12
inches.
 Any damaged or weakened
planks must be immediately
removed and replaced.
 No lose materials shall be left
and platforms shall not be
overloaded.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Transom or
Put log
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Is anything Wrong here?
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Legal Requirement for Transom (or Putlog)
 Maximum spacing for putlogs or transoms when
using boards conforming to BS 2482
Nominal
thickness of
Board
Maximum span of
putlog or transom
32 mm 1.0 Metres
38 mm 1.5 Metres
50 mm 2.6 Metres
63 mm 3.5 Metres
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Guard Rails
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
The open edge of platforms higher than 2 m shall be provided
with standard guard rails as
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Standard Protection guards on scaffold platforms
Not less than 95 cm and
more than 115 cm.
Gaps between top rail and
mid rail shall not be more
than 47 cm
Toe board shall be 150mm
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
General Requirements
Install guard rails
along open sides &
ends
Don’t allow work on
platforms with missing
edge protections
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
General Requirements
Edge protection of
scaffold platform
must tied with
required clamps –
Never use rope,
binding wires etc.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
General Requirements
Front edge of all
platforms shall not be
more than 35cm from
the face of the work or
Use PFAS
No gaps shall be
left unguarded.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
What is missing here?
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Scaffold ties
When the height of scaffold exceeds 4
times its width, the scaffold shall be
tied to the fixed building structure,
vertically and horizontally.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
The first bottom tie must be
placed no higher than four time
the minimum base width.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
The vertical ties shall be repeated
at intervals not greater than 8m (
26 feet).
The Horizontal ties shall be
placed at each end and at
intervals not greater than 9m (30
feet).
8 m(8 m)
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Types of Scaffold ties
This type of tie relies on a tube,
usually placed vertically inside
an opening or window in a
building.
A tube may be wedged or jacked tight
into opposing faces of the window
opening. Timber packing should be thin
(10 mm) to reduce shrinkage and
approximately 75 mm2, and should be
checked frequently for tightness
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Types of Scaffold ties
This forms an assembly of tubes
and couplers around columns or
other parts of a building.
A ring of 50-55 mm internal
diameter through which a
scaffold tube could be passed
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Scaffold Bracing
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Scaffold Bracing
Longitudinal Diagonal
bracing must be
installed at an
approximate 45 degree
angle.
Begin at one end and
clamp it to the outside
of the posts using
swivel clamps. As the
scaffold rises, continue
to interlock bracing end
to end.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Scaffold Bracing
Longitudinal
Diagonal bracing
should be installed on
all four sides.
Plumb the posts
before the diagonals
are secured.
Scaffold Height
The height of the scaffold
should not be more than
four times its minimum
base dimension unless
guys, ties, or braces are
used
20’
5’
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
The max height of scaffolds shall
not 38m and in case the need for
higher scaffold the contractor shall
submit a design prepared by
specialized 3rd party company and
shall obtain an approval from
consultant engineer on that design.
Methods of
scaffold erection
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Supported
(Independent) Scaffold
ASSEMBLY OF ONE STAGE
FABRICATED FRAME TYPE SCAFFOLDING
ONE SECTION HIGH FRAME SCAFFOLD
A. ERECTION OF FRAME
TYPE SCAFFOLD
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
B. ERECTION OF CUP-
LOCK SCAFFOLD
ASSEMBLY OF 1-LEVEL
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
ERECTION OF CUP-LOCK SCAFFOLD
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Mobile Scaffolds
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
The height of the mobile tower
shall not exceed 4 times the
smallest base width of the
scaffold.
It shall be used only on firm,
level, clean surfaces.
It shall be moved on leveled
surfaces only by pushing or
pulling or both.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Scaffold casters and wheels shall be locked with positive wheel
locks before any one is allowed to work on the platform.
These casters shall be
capable of supporting the safe
working load of the scaffold.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
The casters shall be capable
of supporting the safe
working load of the scaffold.
No joint
Pin –
threading
rod is
used.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Only approved joint pins shall be used to join the castor
wheel with standard.
Ensure no obstructions from Power Lines, I beams
& Cranes
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
1. Make sure that the path is clear, no
material/person on the platform. Then unlock
the wheels to push the scaffold.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
2. Apply the force no more than five feet above the ground.
3. Re-Lock the wheels when move ends / scaffold is stationary
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
It is unsafe to move mobile
tower when Worker is on the
top. He must be made aware of
the move
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Do not stay on top, while
rolling tower is being
moved
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
No persons, equipment or materials are allowed to be on
the platform during moving it.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Use a ladder (internal staircase) to access to and from the
Mobile scaffold platform.
The opening of ladder access shall
be closed using TRAP door.
Ladder is outside… No Ladder…Unsafe Platform
Castor
Wheel is
not locked
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFTAGS
SCAFFTAG
DO NOT
USE
SCAFFOLD
AScafftag Holder must be fitted to all access
points on a scaffold while it is under
construction.
When the message on the Scafftag Holder is
displayed it means:
• the scaffold is under construction; and
• it has not been inspected and is not approved
for use.
Nounauthorised personnel are allowed on a
scaffold while this symbol is shown..
The scaffold must be checked by an
Authorised Inspector to ensure it is safe
and meets the requirements of:
• ABB Safety Standards; and
• Occupational Safety and Health Regulations.
Scafftag Holder
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFTAG
SCAFFOLD
Erection and Inspection Record
LOCATION
REF NO.
DATE ERECTED
REQUESTED BY
BUILT BY
NAME OF COMPETENT PERSON
SIGNATURE
SCAFFOLD TO BE USED FOR
Light Duty
225 kg
Medium Duty
450 kg
Heavy Duty
675 kg
If the scaffold is safe and meets
Safety Standards the Authorised
Inspector will fill in an “Inspection” tag.
All details on the tag must be completed
to make it valid.
The “Inspection” tag is fitted inside the
Scafftag Holder with the completed green
side facing outwards. This means the scaffold is
safe for use.
A duplicate “Inspection”tag for each
scaffold is kept in the Authorised
Inspector’s office.
The "Inspection Tag"
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
On-going inspections
INSPECTION FREQUENCY
BY
COMPETENT PERSON
DATE TIME SIGNED
Comments
Ladder No of Rungs
No of Standards
No of lifts
Sq.m Boarding
Structure Decommissioned
Date
The scaffold must be inspected by an
Authorised Inspector every 7 days.
Inspections are recorded on the reverse
side of the “Inspection” tag which is
yellow.
If the scaffold is in a safe condition the
Authorised Inspector must:
• record the inspection details on the yellow
side of the “Inspection” tag; and
• return the tag into the Scafftag Holder with
the green side facing outwards.
This means the scaffold is safe and can
continue to be used.
If the scaffold is unsafe the “Inspection” tag
must not be returned to the Scafftag Holder
until the faults have been corrected.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Your responsibilities
SCAFFTAG
Erection and Inspection Record
LOCATION
Ref. No
Date Erected
Requested by
Built by
Name of competent person
Signature
Scaffold to be used for
Light Duty
Medium Duty
Heavy Duty
Never work unless you are authorised to do so.
You must work under the supervision of a licensed
scaffolder.
Always check the last inspection date on the “Inspection” tag.
“If the date is longer than 7 days ago, notify your
Authorised Inspector immediately.
Ensure that the Safe Working Load (SWL) of the scaffold
is not exceeded.
If you detect any faults with a scaffold, even if it has a
valid "Inspection Tag", report the problem to the
Authorized Inspector immediately.
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Hazard of
Scaffoldings
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
• Falls from elevation – caused
by slipping, unsafe access, and
the lack of fall protection
• Struck by falling tools / debris
• Electrocution – from overhead
power lines
• Scaffold collapse - caused by
instability or overloading
• Bad planking giving way
Employees working on scaffolds are
exposed to these hazards:
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
• While climbing on or off
the scaffold
• Working on unguarded
scaffold platforms
• When scaffold
platforms or planks fail
Falls may occur:
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Fall from Fixed Scaffolding
Protecting Workers from Falls
• Guardrails, and/or
• Personal Fall Arrest
Systems (PFAS)
If a worker on a scaffold
is exposed to fall hazard
– protect him by
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
• Incomplete Guards
• Overloading of scaffolds
Falling of material can occur due to:
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
• Improper ties
• Overloading of
scaffolds
• Unsafe foundation
Scaffold can also collapse due to:
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Scaffold collapse
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
A common Bad Practice
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Examples
Scaffolding Faults
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
 No Safety Harness
 No Adequate Wooden
Plank
 No Adequate Transom
 No Wooden Plank
Tighten With
Rope&Wire
 No Toe Board
 Without PPE
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Wooden Plank Not
Adequate
Helmet Missing
Wooden Plank Not
Rightly Placed
Toe Board Missing
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
 Two Wooden Plank
Missing
 Midrail Missing
 Safety Belt Not
Hooked
 2nd Man Without
Harness
 Wooden Plank Not
Tighten With Rope
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD
INSPECTION
CHECKLIST
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Check for proper installation of:
 Mudsills, Base Plates, Foundation.
 Posts Plumb
 Posts braced by cross braces,
horizontal, and diagonal as
required
 Platforms fully planked
 Planks secured
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
 Planks are scaffold grade lumber or
equivalent manufactured
 Guardrails & Midrails
 Toeboards
 Mesh if material higher than toeboards
 Ladder Access
 Inspected every work shift by competent
person
 Frames secured with pins
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
 Height less than 4 times minimum base
 Scaffold tied to structure if higher than
above
 Caster brakes locked before use
 Casters pinned into frame leg
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
General Requirements
a) Capacity
b) Scaffold Platform Construction
c) Criteria For Supported Scaffolds
d) Criteria For Suspension Scaffolds
e) Access
f) Use
g) Fall Protection
h) Falling Object Protection
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Cradles
Suspended Access Cradle
• Fixed or travelling
• Permanent or temporary
• Manual or powered
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Suspended Access Cradle
• Safe access, ideally from ground level
• Adequate guard rails, toe boards and
base
• Equipment fits closely to the building
• Building capable of bearing the loads
• Track end stops provided
• SWL marked
• Secondary safety rope and fall arrest
device provided
• Operating instructions available
• Uniformly loaded and not overloaded
• Rescue plan
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
Suspended Access Cradle
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
MOST COMMON UNSAFE PRACTICE
JUMPING PRACTICE
Suspended Access Cradle
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
MOST COMMON UNSAFE PRACTICE
NOT WEARING REQUIRED PPE
Suspended Access Cradle
SCAFFOLD TRAINING
MOST COMMON UNSAFE PRACTICE
OVERREACHING FROM CRADLE
UAE LEGISLATION IN OHS

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Eta Scaffold Training

  • 1. For Erectors/ Inspectors SCAFFOLD TRAINING By M A Khan – HSE DEPARTMENT May 19, 2009
  • 2. SCAFFOLD TRAINING OBJECTIVES To familiarise with UAE Legal requirements with respect to Scaffolds To enhance the skill of scaffold erection and inspection. Safe Procedure for erection & dismantling Procedure for Scaffold inspection Type of scaffolding system Practical on Scaffold Erection & dismantling
  • 3. WHAT IS SCAFFOLDING? An elevated, temporary work platform. Elevated Temporary work platform SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 5. Suspended Scaffold • Fixed or travelling • Permanent or temporary • Manual or powered SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 6. Tower or Mobile Scaffold SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 7. Arial / Mobile Access Scaffold SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 8. Scaffold Erection Scaffolds can only be erected, moved, dismantled or altered under the supervision of a competent person Competent person selects & directs these workers and determines the feasibility of fall protection SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 12. 1.Base Plates Legal Requirement: Scaffold must have base plates even when setting on a concrete floor SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 22. Scaffold Foundations  There is no base plate & the scrap plywood is not adequate.  The scaffold frame could penetrate the plywood.  Scaffold legs must be set on base plates & adequate mudsills. SCAFFOLD TRAINING  Mud sills must be sized to distribute scaffolding loads to the ground or support structure.
  • 23. Scaffold Foundations  The lack of a base plate could damage the scaffold leg.  Scaffolds must have base plates, even when set on a concrete floor. SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 24.  Timber sole plates of at least 25cm wide and 5 cm thick should be laid for the support of base plates. Scaffold Foundations  The foot or base of any scaffold shall be placed on an adequate base plate to prevent displacement or sinking. Base Plate SCAFFOLD TRAINING  Base plates with screw jacks should always be used so that you will be able to make levelling adjustments later.  Plumb, level and square the scaffold at the base
  • 25.  Scaffolds should never be set on bricks, masonry blocks, etc.  These are not structural elements and could crush under the scaffold load. Never on Masonry!Scaffold Foundations SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 26. Access ladders and its placing SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 27. Access ladders and its placing SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 28. • Portable ladders used for access to upper landing; side rails must extend 3 ft (.9 m) above landing • Use 3-point contact while climbing and always face the ladder • Ladders must be secured to scaffolds to prevent movement • Damaged ladders should be removed from service and tagged “Do Not Use” • Exercise extreme caution while getting on/off ladders and scaffolds Ladder Safety Prevents Serious Injury SCAFFOLD TRAINING Access ladders and its placing
  • 29. MOST COMMON DEFECTS Access ladders and its placing SCAFFOLD TRAINING DAMAGED STILE DAMAGED RUNGS
  • 30. MOST COMMON UNSAFE PRACTICE Access ladders and its placing SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 31. MOST COMMON UNSAFE PRACTICE Access ladders and its placing SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 32. MOST COMMON UNSAFE PRACTICE Access ladders and its placing SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 33. Access ladders and its placing SCAFFOLD TRAINING Scaffold with interior ladders for access
  • 34. Access ladders and its placing SCAFFOLD TRAINING Scaffold with Exterior ladders for access
  • 35. How to measure ladder angle (75 degree) SCAFFOLD TRAINING • Step1: Stand straight facing the ladder • Step2: Place your shoes touching the ladder shoes. • Step3: Extend your arm and hold the both posts. • If arm is fully extended and post are gripped then the angle is around 75 degree. Access ladders and its placing
  • 38. SCAFFOLD TRAINING Quality of Planks Check for defects like – Bow, Twist, Crook and Cup.  Bow  Twist  Crook  Cup. No paint on wood platforms
  • 39. SCAFFOLD TRAINING Placing of Planks  Place the plank end trough ledgers but not over the ledger as per the picture.  Take help wherever required.  An overlapping 12’’ shall be maintained.  Max gap between planks – 25mm
  • 40. SCAFFOLD TRAINING  Work platforms must be tightly planked for the full width of the scaffold  Minimum width of work platform should not be less than 600 mm (3 planks). Placing of Planks  All planks and/or platforms should always be fastened to the scaffold as necessary to prevent uplift or displacement
  • 41. SCAFFOLD TRAINING  Planks shall extend at least 6“ – 12” beyond their support. General Requirements  All Planking on runs of scaffold must overlap a minimum of 12 inches.  Any damaged or weakened planks must be immediately removed and replaced.  No lose materials shall be left and platforms shall not be overloaded.
  • 44. SCAFFOLD TRAINING Legal Requirement for Transom (or Putlog)  Maximum spacing for putlogs or transoms when using boards conforming to BS 2482 Nominal thickness of Board Maximum span of putlog or transom 32 mm 1.0 Metres 38 mm 1.5 Metres 50 mm 2.6 Metres 63 mm 3.5 Metres
  • 46. SCAFFOLD TRAINING The open edge of platforms higher than 2 m shall be provided with standard guard rails as
  • 47. SCAFFOLD TRAINING Standard Protection guards on scaffold platforms Not less than 95 cm and more than 115 cm. Gaps between top rail and mid rail shall not be more than 47 cm Toe board shall be 150mm
  • 48. SCAFFOLD TRAINING General Requirements Install guard rails along open sides & ends Don’t allow work on platforms with missing edge protections
  • 49. SCAFFOLD TRAINING General Requirements Edge protection of scaffold platform must tied with required clamps – Never use rope, binding wires etc.
  • 50. SCAFFOLD TRAINING General Requirements Front edge of all platforms shall not be more than 35cm from the face of the work or Use PFAS No gaps shall be left unguarded.
  • 51. SCAFFOLD TRAINING What is missing here?
  • 53. When the height of scaffold exceeds 4 times its width, the scaffold shall be tied to the fixed building structure, vertically and horizontally. SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 54. The first bottom tie must be placed no higher than four time the minimum base width. SCAFFOLD TRAINING The vertical ties shall be repeated at intervals not greater than 8m ( 26 feet). The Horizontal ties shall be placed at each end and at intervals not greater than 9m (30 feet).
  • 56.
  • 57. SCAFFOLD TRAINING Types of Scaffold ties This type of tie relies on a tube, usually placed vertically inside an opening or window in a building. A tube may be wedged or jacked tight into opposing faces of the window opening. Timber packing should be thin (10 mm) to reduce shrinkage and approximately 75 mm2, and should be checked frequently for tightness
  • 58. SCAFFOLD TRAINING Types of Scaffold ties This forms an assembly of tubes and couplers around columns or other parts of a building. A ring of 50-55 mm internal diameter through which a scaffold tube could be passed
  • 60. SCAFFOLD TRAINING Scaffold Bracing Longitudinal Diagonal bracing must be installed at an approximate 45 degree angle. Begin at one end and clamp it to the outside of the posts using swivel clamps. As the scaffold rises, continue to interlock bracing end to end.
  • 61. SCAFFOLD TRAINING Scaffold Bracing Longitudinal Diagonal bracing should be installed on all four sides. Plumb the posts before the diagonals are secured.
  • 62. Scaffold Height The height of the scaffold should not be more than four times its minimum base dimension unless guys, ties, or braces are used 20’ 5’ SCAFFOLD TRAINING The max height of scaffolds shall not 38m and in case the need for higher scaffold the contractor shall submit a design prepared by specialized 3rd party company and shall obtain an approval from consultant engineer on that design.
  • 66. ASSEMBLY OF ONE STAGE FABRICATED FRAME TYPE SCAFFOLDING ONE SECTION HIGH FRAME SCAFFOLD A. ERECTION OF FRAME TYPE SCAFFOLD SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 67. SCAFFOLD TRAINING B. ERECTION OF CUP- LOCK SCAFFOLD ASSEMBLY OF 1-LEVEL SCAFFOLD TRAINING ERECTION OF CUP-LOCK SCAFFOLD
  • 71. SCAFFOLD TRAINING The height of the mobile tower shall not exceed 4 times the smallest base width of the scaffold. It shall be used only on firm, level, clean surfaces. It shall be moved on leveled surfaces only by pushing or pulling or both.
  • 72. SCAFFOLD TRAINING Scaffold casters and wheels shall be locked with positive wheel locks before any one is allowed to work on the platform. These casters shall be capable of supporting the safe working load of the scaffold.
  • 73. SCAFFOLD TRAINING The casters shall be capable of supporting the safe working load of the scaffold.
  • 74. No joint Pin – threading rod is used. SCAFFOLD TRAINING Only approved joint pins shall be used to join the castor wheel with standard.
  • 75. Ensure no obstructions from Power Lines, I beams & Cranes SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 76. 1. Make sure that the path is clear, no material/person on the platform. Then unlock the wheels to push the scaffold. SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 77. 2. Apply the force no more than five feet above the ground. 3. Re-Lock the wheels when move ends / scaffold is stationary SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 78. It is unsafe to move mobile tower when Worker is on the top. He must be made aware of the move SCAFFOLD TRAINING Do not stay on top, while rolling tower is being moved
  • 79. SCAFFOLD TRAINING No persons, equipment or materials are allowed to be on the platform during moving it.
  • 80. SCAFFOLD TRAINING Use a ladder (internal staircase) to access to and from the Mobile scaffold platform. The opening of ladder access shall be closed using TRAP door.
  • 81. Ladder is outside… No Ladder…Unsafe Platform Castor Wheel is not locked SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 84. SCAFFTAG DO NOT USE SCAFFOLD AScafftag Holder must be fitted to all access points on a scaffold while it is under construction. When the message on the Scafftag Holder is displayed it means: • the scaffold is under construction; and • it has not been inspected and is not approved for use. Nounauthorised personnel are allowed on a scaffold while this symbol is shown.. The scaffold must be checked by an Authorised Inspector to ensure it is safe and meets the requirements of: • ABB Safety Standards; and • Occupational Safety and Health Regulations. Scafftag Holder SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 85. SCAFFTAG SCAFFOLD Erection and Inspection Record LOCATION REF NO. DATE ERECTED REQUESTED BY BUILT BY NAME OF COMPETENT PERSON SIGNATURE SCAFFOLD TO BE USED FOR Light Duty 225 kg Medium Duty 450 kg Heavy Duty 675 kg If the scaffold is safe and meets Safety Standards the Authorised Inspector will fill in an “Inspection” tag. All details on the tag must be completed to make it valid. The “Inspection” tag is fitted inside the Scafftag Holder with the completed green side facing outwards. This means the scaffold is safe for use. A duplicate “Inspection”tag for each scaffold is kept in the Authorised Inspector’s office. The "Inspection Tag" SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 86. On-going inspections INSPECTION FREQUENCY BY COMPETENT PERSON DATE TIME SIGNED Comments Ladder No of Rungs No of Standards No of lifts Sq.m Boarding Structure Decommissioned Date The scaffold must be inspected by an Authorised Inspector every 7 days. Inspections are recorded on the reverse side of the “Inspection” tag which is yellow. If the scaffold is in a safe condition the Authorised Inspector must: • record the inspection details on the yellow side of the “Inspection” tag; and • return the tag into the Scafftag Holder with the green side facing outwards. This means the scaffold is safe and can continue to be used. If the scaffold is unsafe the “Inspection” tag must not be returned to the Scafftag Holder until the faults have been corrected. SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 87. Your responsibilities SCAFFTAG Erection and Inspection Record LOCATION Ref. No Date Erected Requested by Built by Name of competent person Signature Scaffold to be used for Light Duty Medium Duty Heavy Duty Never work unless you are authorised to do so. You must work under the supervision of a licensed scaffolder. Always check the last inspection date on the “Inspection” tag. “If the date is longer than 7 days ago, notify your Authorised Inspector immediately. Ensure that the Safe Working Load (SWL) of the scaffold is not exceeded. If you detect any faults with a scaffold, even if it has a valid "Inspection Tag", report the problem to the Authorized Inspector immediately. SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 89. • Falls from elevation – caused by slipping, unsafe access, and the lack of fall protection • Struck by falling tools / debris • Electrocution – from overhead power lines • Scaffold collapse - caused by instability or overloading • Bad planking giving way Employees working on scaffolds are exposed to these hazards: SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 90. • While climbing on or off the scaffold • Working on unguarded scaffold platforms • When scaffold platforms or planks fail Falls may occur: SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 91. SCAFFOLD TRAINING Fall from Fixed Scaffolding
  • 92. Protecting Workers from Falls • Guardrails, and/or • Personal Fall Arrest Systems (PFAS) If a worker on a scaffold is exposed to fall hazard – protect him by SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 93. • Incomplete Guards • Overloading of scaffolds Falling of material can occur due to: SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 94. • Improper ties • Overloading of scaffolds • Unsafe foundation Scaffold can also collapse due to: SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 106.  No Safety Harness  No Adequate Wooden Plank  No Adequate Transom  No Wooden Plank Tighten With Rope&Wire  No Toe Board  Without PPE SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 107. Wooden Plank Not Adequate Helmet Missing Wooden Plank Not Rightly Placed Toe Board Missing SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 108.  Two Wooden Plank Missing  Midrail Missing  Safety Belt Not Hooked  2nd Man Without Harness  Wooden Plank Not Tighten With Rope SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 110. Check for proper installation of:  Mudsills, Base Plates, Foundation.  Posts Plumb  Posts braced by cross braces, horizontal, and diagonal as required  Platforms fully planked  Planks secured SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 111.  Planks are scaffold grade lumber or equivalent manufactured  Guardrails & Midrails  Toeboards  Mesh if material higher than toeboards  Ladder Access  Inspected every work shift by competent person  Frames secured with pins SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 112.  Height less than 4 times minimum base  Scaffold tied to structure if higher than above  Caster brakes locked before use  Casters pinned into frame leg SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 113. General Requirements a) Capacity b) Scaffold Platform Construction c) Criteria For Supported Scaffolds d) Criteria For Suspension Scaffolds e) Access f) Use g) Fall Protection h) Falling Object Protection SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 115. Suspended Access Cradle • Fixed or travelling • Permanent or temporary • Manual or powered SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 116. Suspended Access Cradle • Safe access, ideally from ground level • Adequate guard rails, toe boards and base • Equipment fits closely to the building • Building capable of bearing the loads • Track end stops provided • SWL marked • Secondary safety rope and fall arrest device provided • Operating instructions available • Uniformly loaded and not overloaded • Rescue plan SCAFFOLD TRAINING
  • 117. Suspended Access Cradle SCAFFOLD TRAINING MOST COMMON UNSAFE PRACTICE JUMPING PRACTICE
  • 118. Suspended Access Cradle SCAFFOLD TRAINING MOST COMMON UNSAFE PRACTICE NOT WEARING REQUIRED PPE
  • 119. Suspended Access Cradle SCAFFOLD TRAINING MOST COMMON UNSAFE PRACTICE OVERREACHING FROM CRADLE